Il Canto e il Pane (Gli emersi poesia) (Italian Edition)

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  1. BACKGROUND MAGAZINE: Italian Prog Special 2
  2. About the author(s)
  3. American Dante Bibliography for 1965
  4. Translating Echoes

Teams colluded with one another. In this case, side and team are the words for which there is only one equivalence in Persian, while in Italian, side is referred to as parte and team means squadra. It should be mentioned that the frequency of these kinds of words in Persian translation should be taken into consideration since the target language, Persian in this case, becomes repetitive as the same word has to be used on each occurrence.

Chesterman , P5 notes such a criticism which is lexical impoverishment or loss of lexical variation against transla- tion. However, the only reasonable way to transfer the meaning in Persian is using the target term tim. This can be seen in the Italian language, as well. The data yielded by the source materials of this research provide evidence that there are some expressions in English football terminol- ogy for which there are the same number of equivalent in Persian, but only one equivalent in Italian.

Are you going to the match this Saturday? Vai alla partita sabato prossimo? The examples above shed light that the terms match, game, and fixture have been translated with different words both in Italian and Persian, i. It should be noted that the use of Italian and Persian translation for game, match, and fixture can be interchangeable depending on the context and formality in Persian and register in Italian. As Igno , p. As a result, according to Vinay and Darbelnet , p. Many linguistics scholars have based their commentaries on the assumption that there is a considerable amount of war-related terminol- ogy in football language According to Newmark , p.

Some of the examples proving that the translated expressions have the same image in the target language are described as below: Table 5. Translation of Football Terminology with the Same Image in Italian and Persian The aforementioned words are clearly associated with war.

Positions in football such as striker conveys the same image in these languages. The translations presented in the target languages follow the strategy Newmark , PP. It seems that his strategy, reproducing the same image of the source language metaphorical expression in the target language, could be employed for many football terminol- ogy instances. However, what Newmark , P.

There are some metaphorical expressions in English termi- nology of football which require the literal translation method of Newmark , P. As a result, the examples below deploy literal language method Newmark, , P. Literal Translation of Football Terminology in Italian English Italian Empty net15 [a] porta vuota Centre referee arbitro principale [di campo] Counter attack contrattacco [ripartenza] Disciplinary body organo disciplinare [also plural] Table 7.

As a result, the occurrence of the loanwords might be very convenient for Persian translators. However, as Bergh and Ohlander , P. The next set of examples illustrate the frequency of borrowings and calques in both Italian and Persian. That goal was ruled out by the referee for offside. The pass was intercepted by the opponent. The cross from the side of the field went right to the other player. What we can infer from the examples examined is that the number of borrowed words in Persian is more than those in Ital- ian.

However, when it comes to idiomatic expressions with these words, the translator needs to consult with parallel texts to render an understandable translation. For instance, the word offside is sometimes used with the verb to be caught. The idiomatic expression to be caught in offside cannot be translated literally. Football corpora in English provide confirmatory evidence that there are some expressions which require a different method of translation: Table 8.

However, in terms of rendering the equivalence in Italian and Persian, the is- sue of appropriateness introduced by Newmark should be taken into consideration. The researcher came up with the word harif in the Persian language which seems to be more acceptable for follow- ers of football in Iran.

In Italian, this expression can be translated as avversaria. Thus, there is no war-related connotation in English football terminology compared to Italian and Persian. So the allusion to war has been added to the target languages. Conclusion Football is the most popular sport in Italy24 and Iran25 and carry- ing out research projects in this field is both interesting and essential. This study aimed to investigate and trace the strategies used in trans- lating football terminology from English into Italian and Persian. After investigating and tracing the translation theories in the target texts, this study came to posit that it is more appropriate to reduce the images to literal language for the Persian language as in the Italian language indirect loanwords can be found in Italian football terminology.

What has emerged from the set of examples compared and analysed in this essay validates the view that translating football texts can be particularly challenging as a manifestation of football language is code-mixing This study has also shed light on how the language of football works, particularly its use of semi-fixed expressions. Furthermore, parallel texts are considered to be an invaluable help for translators in every language so that they can come up with transferring the right meaning The opportunity to access parallel texts can be useful for checking the frequency of the synonyms and collocations28 in the target language.

Since football is a code-mixing language, translators, interpreters, and com- mentators need to be aware of the formation of their language production to prevent any mistranslation. References Afarinasadi, F. Sociolinguistic Implications of Sports-Register Equivalence. Saarbrucken: Lambert academic publishing. Bergh, G. Revista Veredas, 15 2. Free kicks, dribblers and WAGs. Moderna Sprak. Bray, K. How to Score: Science and the Beautiful Game.

London: Granta. Chapanga, E. An analysis of the war metaphors used in spo-ken commentaries of the edition of the Premier Soccer League PSL matches in Zimbabwe. Charteris-Black, J. Corpus approaches to critical metaphor analysis. Chesterman, A. Claims, Changes and Challenges in Translation Studies. Amsterdam: Benjamins. Fahim Afarinasadi 51 Chomsky, N. Some controversial questions in phonologi- cal theory. Journal of Linguistics, 1, 97— Crystal, D. The Cambridge encyclopedia of language Vol. Cambridge University Press Cambridge.

Translating medical ter- minologies through word alignment in parallel text corpora. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 42 4 , — A history of Italian football. Igno, R. Lakoff, G. Metaphor and war: The metaphor system used to justify war in the Gulf. Peace Research, 25— Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: The Uni- versity of Chicago Press. Lewandowski, M. The language of soccer — a sociolect or a register? The rhetoric of violence in Polish and English soccer. Language, Communication, Information, 87— Shahidi, Ed. Tehran: Amirkabir. Munday, J. Theories and ap-plication.

London: Routledge. Muysken, P. Bilingual speech: A typology of code-mixing Vol. Cambridge University Press. Newmark, P. About Translation: Multilingual Matters. A Textbook of Translation. Hertfordshire: Prentice Hall. Master thesis. Vierkant, S. Metaphor in German live radio football com-mentaries. Pdf November Vinay, J. Vinay, P. As an academic board member for Academic OASIS since , Fahim has authored mono- graphic studies and presented papers at international conferences in the fields of English and Translation, Etymology and Sociolinguistics of Sports.

His doctoral research investigates localisation of football websites as multi-modal, cross-cultural communication. The translations have been also carried out by the author in consultation with Italian and Persian translators. Also, the following online resources have been used: www. Su Hysaj He also states that collocation is the habitual co-occurrence of lexi- cal items. La traduzione era fatta bene ma quel brano mi parve proprio detestabile.

Poesie del Fogazzaro entravano in una antologia inglese del di cui tratteremo oltre. From Cavalcanti to Fogazzaro, apparsa nel e recante fin nel titolo, come si vede, menzione del nostro autore. Questa consolidata reputazione estera non ci deve sorprendere. Ma osserviamo la cronologia delle opere di Fogazzaro in prima edizione italiana e in prima traduzione inglese: Prime edizioni: Miranda Valsolda Malombra Daniele Cortis Il mistero del poeta Piccolo mondo antico Poesie scelte Piccolo mondo moderno Il santo Leila Prime traduzioni: Daniele Cortis trad.

Tilton, New York, Holt; e poco dopo, trad. Prichard-Agnetti, Lon- dra, Hodder and Stoughton; anche, stessa traduttrice, con pref. An Anthology of Forty Italian Poets. Translated into English Verse and with an Intr. Dei sette romanzi di Fogazzaro, cinque vengono tradotti e pubblicati per la prima volta dopo il , anno in cui esce Il santo. Ci imbattiamo in tratti ostici al lettore odierno, che si possono sintetizzare nelle caratteristiche seguenti.

Intanto, il linguaggio dal sapore antiquato, ottocentesco. Sperimenta tanti metri, e sembra usare talora una metrica accentuativa irregolare.

BACKGROUND MAGAZINE: Italian Prog Special 2

Quando il poeta si scorda della sua preparazione classica e mette da parte la retorica, abbiamo versi lisci, naturali nel linguaggio e scorrevoli nella prosodia cfr. Targioni-Tozzetti, Antonio Zardo. Tutti i testi sono tradotti di sua mano. A questo atteggiamento mentale necessariamente corrisponde uno JIT Con eccezioni, naturalmente. Tusiani include tre poesie di Fogazzaro nel suo From Marino to Marinetti. An Anthology of Forty Italian Poets , terzo volume di una vasta scelta di poesia italiana da San Francesco in poi, in traduzione inglese interamente sua.

Nel raffrontare i due traduttori, vanno stabilite delle differen- ze. Usa un inglese decoroso, formale, con qualche tratto desueto. I due traduttori hanno delle espressioni in comune. Dal che si penserebbe ancora che il traduttore moderno potrebbe aver tratto spunti dal precedente. Ci fa tornare alla mente il caso di Emily Dickinson, che reclusasi vo- lontariamente per anni fra quattro mura nella sua casa di Amherst, nel Massachu- setts, scrisse quasi frammenti poetici che contribuirono a fondare la poesia americana moderna.

Ma alcuni tratti sembrano proprio ravvicinarla a questa Miranda reclusa in stanza. E forse il confronto testuale fra autore e autrice andrebbe esteso. Non solo qui, ma anche in altri luoghi notiamo questo as- sottigliarsi delle percezioni. Dovunque il guardo io volgo Dalle finestre, nereggiar li vedo A selve, a gruppi, or densi ora dispersi. Come si aman gli abeti! Torno per un attimo alla Dickinson. In fatto di traduzione, le due recenti poesie rese da Joseph JIT Dagli spiriti mali, Signor, guarda i mortali! Dagli spiriti mali Guarda i mortali! Al bronzo ancora Sia pace.

Con rotta lena Mia lunga pena Le piango omai. Solo un accento, Solo un lamento, Solo un sospiro Ancora, un bacio! Silenzio, pace. Le stelle ridono Vaghe del nitido Speglio sereno; Mi trema e palpita Vespero in seno. Solo un accento, Solo un lamento, Solo un sospiro, Un bacio. The hour of darkness cometh. Come, let us pray. Save Thine eternity, Are vanity. Echoes from the Valleys Vanity!

For so much sin unknown, and so much pain. Have mercy, Lord! Echoes from the Valleys O Holy One! Thou, Mystery Divine! Alone canst tell. Echoes from the Valleys Alone canst tell! That lives its life intense, Loves, suffers Thine adverse Inscrutable decrees. Echoes from the Valleys Peace! One accent alone, One murmur, one moan. One sigh — only this — As thy pebbles I kiss. Be silent, O deep! The stars as they smile Fall in love for awhile With my mirror serene: In my bosom bright Vesper reflected is seen.

Silence and sleep! One sigh — only this One kiss. The silent waves hear; The dark mountains hear; They list, and hear only My murmurs austere. Keep, Lord, from evil the men of dying day! The Bells of Osteno We, too, upon the waves from lonely shores must, one by one with deep voice run. And keep from evil the men of dying day!

All that has birth, save Your eternity, O Lord, on earth is vain. Echoes from the Valleys Is vain. Mercy, O Lord! All grief and terror that still despise You, all human error that still denies You, all love by You not blest nor won, forgive, O Holy One! Echoes from the Valleys Can know the truth. Echoes from the Valleys Oh, peace! The Wave of the Lake And is the shore asleep, whose love I in me keep? Only one word, only one cry, only one sigh, and one more kiss. Be still, oh, peace! The stars are smiling in this clear mirror, calm and beguiling; and Vesper trembles, and beats fast upon my breast.

Only one cry, only one sigh, and one more kiss. The Waterfall of Rescia These waves have no more peace, these waves can no more cease: they ever flood and fall, and ever rush and roar upon the lonesome shore. Talora per la tua porta che geme Entran lume di cielo, odor di mare, Qualche figura taciturna e mesta; Ed anche in me, talora, entrano insieme Un folle ardor vitale che dispare, Un dolce viso tenero che resta.

To the Ideal and to the God I love one lamp still glows with its immortal light. At times through this your door, which seems to moan, fragrance of sea and glimpse of heaven pass, or some sad person, silent and forlorn. And so to me, at times, together come a frantic warmth of life that quickly wanes and a sweet face that tenderly remains.

Fuor da ogni finestra Nel chiaror delle nebbie il lago appare, Quale deserto, sconfinato mare. Io sederei a poppa ed essi a prora; Senza parlar ci guarderemmo allora. Beyond, the lake appears in misty night, Like a deserted, boundless sea at night. Could I sail out upon this desert sea, Sail out alone, sail out afar and free; And, when the vanishing shores are lost to view, Yield to my thoughts and to the waters blue! And they will see the bit of art I learned, and smile at such a little knowledge found; and when in vain they will have sought and sought, they will explore the cells of every thought.

And then, before they leave me, with disdain they will, my darling, open this my heart, and out of it will dazzle then and there the deep-stored sunshine of your golden hair. Looking at last at your fine hair of gold, and at your pensive eyes deep as the sea, JIT Si sentiano i canti ; E dopo, che silenzio! Mother forbade it. From my window, though, I saw so many people on the road Beyond the meadow. Feeble songs were heard. And then, what silence! One small falling leaf I even heard as on the ground it lay.

Strange, I can hear now every little sound. Cupi, austeri, JIT Gelido fu il viso, Gelide e rade furon le parole; Ma per mille reconditi pensieri Non detti mai, compresi, eran congiunte Le nostre vite. Voi felici, abeti! Confitti negli abissi dei burroni Dove sole non penetra, protesi Sulle cascate candide, sublimi Sulle torri scoscese ove non giunge Nemico piede, voi felici, abeti! Son commossa. Vorrei di qua levarmi, Non posso.

How fir-trees love each other! Bleak, austere, JIT But underneath, their slender roots are eager To search, embrace, and strengthen one another, In countless knots commingled avidly. It was like this one day. We used to live One near the other. Still our looks were cold, And still our words were also cold and few; But through a thousand deeply hidden thoughts, Unsaid yet understood, our lives were bound. O fir-trees, happy fir-trees! Nailed and stuck Down in the depth of every precipice Where sunshine does not enter, springing up Over white-foaming cascades, and sublime Above steep, rugged towers where no foe Sets ever foot, O happy, happy trees!

Living together in dark solitude Suits you, nor are you pricked by other dreams, Under the snow, save of the future sun. I am confused. How from this very pen Do such new ardent syllables come out? Am I perhaps this moment in his thoughts Or is my soul now touched by the warm breath Kindling his songs? Or is it only love, This love whereof I die, and which through forests And mountains keeps a part of him reserved For him alone?

Have mercy, God! I tremble. Ever the jokester, Mainardi composed the epitaph for his own tomb in Florence, which in Italian reads: I had this tomb built for myself and for anyone else who might like to join me inside it. The two anecdotes translated for the first time into English here are num- JIT The force behind the humor of such examples of early Italian popular literary prose often hinges on linguistic wordplay, including puns or sophisticated quips.

Sometimes, as in the first case here, they implicitly critique the beliefs or behaviors of characters representing the cultural elite. Facezie tend to be far shorter with less character and narrative development than the typical novella, and their messages are not aimed at moral edification, oftentimes deliberately satiriz- ing such writings, so they are not usually stated as explicitly as the lessons in exempla or favole, for instance.

Among other Italian writers of motti and facezie are Franco Sacchetti in his Trecentono- velle, as well as Poggio Bracciolini and Giovanni Pontano , who wrote their anecdotes in Latin. While I did not analyze the Motti e facezie di Piovano Arlotto in Speaking Spirits, I refer readers to it for examples of the myriad ways that other Renaissance Italians feigned ghostly voices for their own purposes.

The protagonist of the first translated anecdote is Lionardo, the soul of Leonardo Bruni Although originally from Arezzo, Bruni rose to become the Florentine Cancelliere della Repub- blica from until his death. He is esteemed among the great Renaissance Italian humanists for his scholarly contributions, which include the Historiae florentini populi in twelve volumes, his two Dialogi ad Petrum Paulum Histum, the De interpretatione recta, biographies of Dante and Petrarch, and translations from Greek JIT Here Mainardi effectively denounces Bruni for his perceived sin of greed by fictionally representing the charge as a self-accusation made by the roving spirit.

He implies that the imperious Muses are ultimately unreliable. Arlotto neither comes across as heartlessly cruel, nor at all religiously abstemious; his act of withholding wine from the equally etiquette-challenged ghost of the humanist may suggest that Arlotto finds Lionardo to be exaggerating the urgency of his thirst. Nevertheless, I opted for this translation, which captures the hyperbole with a similarly colloquial tone, but also tickles the awkwardness of a ghost complaining of a bodily necessity.

Just as Petrarch trembled, froze, and burned out of love of Laura, so Bruni responds to his own passion, which is notably not for the state of his soul. Another esteemed historical figure mentioned in this facezia is Jacopone da Todi c.

About the author(s)

He was the Franciscan friar who composed pious lauds, primarily in veneration of the Virgin Mary. The lines attributed here to Jacopone da Todi do not exist in any of his lauds known to us today, but are likely intended to resemble his devout verses because there is a deliberate play on words.

The second anecdote presents its own translation dilemmas, primarily in the form of idiomatic expressions, but also a similarly rhymed incantation to dispel the morning fog, that is the brain fogginess of the hangover that Nastagio and Zuta appear to be experiencing after over-imbibing the previous night. Given the narrative context Piovano is one who can talk his way out of any situation and the deeper etymology related to speech of fante one with the capacity of speech; an infant, in fact, is a being who does not yet speak , I emphasized this aspect in the translation: Piovano is a clever and consummate talker.

Another idiomatic expression is non tenne la pania something did not go as expected , which is similar to cadere nella pania to fall into a trap , in that case, something akin to: their trap did not work the way they had intended. In fact, Nastagio and Zuta originally aimed to get Piovano to pay for their wine, but they instead pay for Malvasia for all three of them in order to learn how the clever Piovano casts a spell to dispel their fog.

It is a choice that I fretted at far greater length than will appear on the page. I am grateful to Linda Lee, Tim Kirk, Michele Rossi, Gino Belloni, and my fellow translators of the Middlebury Bread Loaf workshop for their excellent questions and suggestions that kept me pondering deeply the process of rendering culture and language between contexts. Oh me misero! You must help me! What has become of that wisdom, learning, doctrine, and eloquence in Greek and Latin letters of yours? Where are those speeches worthy of Cicero that dazzled the entire world?

Can it be that Fame and all the Muses who once bowed before you have now abandoned you so that you find yourself in this fix? I leave my body and all my possessions. See what has become of me. Woe is me! Think of how I feel. I am very uncertain about my fate because I know the kind of life I led, especially in regard to my sin of greed, for which I made every type of wretched deal just to accumulate money and possessions. It cost me dearly but I never stopped wanting more. Piovano was absolutely transfixed, such that he remained there still as a statue for a full quarter hour. When he regained his composure, he mounted and rode to Florence.

For my part, I want to follow what that holy man, Brother Ja- copone da Todi said in one of his lauds, which is steeped in morals and good common sense: All is mine, I laud Since I rejoice and give, by God! And they gave charitably to wickedness together with the intention from that point on to do their utmost to always indulge themselves. Io mi ti raccomando. Vedi se tue farnetichi: cognoscesti tu mio padre? A vision came to me just before daybreak, and it feels like a thousand years passed before you arrived Piovano, I beg you, do this good act and quickly, and for our part your money is not better spent than in buying Nastagio and me a half carafe of Malvasia.

I come here only to realize that you want me to work? And if he had lived eight more days, he would have been hanged. I would not waste one coin on him. But if you two want to buy a jug of Malvasia for the three of us, I will teach you an enchantment, one that dispels the morning fog, so that it will never disturb you. His complete works were recently published: Tutte le poesie, Gangemi Editore, Author of six critical books and numerous educational text- books as well as newspaper and literary journal articles, Filippelli is a deeply religious poet with strong roots in Southern Italy.

His major themes are historical and cultural focusing on the plight of Southern Italy, on nature and on the minority of exploited or abused creatures and persons. These are the first English versions of his work. Ti strapperanno con oscura forza, ignara e dolce, dalla solitudine. Io sentii da lontano il suo schioppo. Nulla gli dissi, lo guardai negli occhi. They will tear you, with dark strength you, unknowing and tender, from solitude.

Slobber oozing hatred will drip on your innocence. To a Dog They killed you one morning, and you were old and so tired that not even a cry rose from your throat, few drops stained the dirt road. I heard the gunshot from afar. I ran. I saw. I said nothing, looked at him in the eyes. He approached you, the coward, pointed his arm at you, checking to see if you would fight back, then he touched you no longer afraid.

But you were still alive, you raised your eyes to his face, veiled by the agony, but without rancour, sad, slowly you licked his hand with your faithful mouth. O ansiosi morti There appeared our women, wrapped in shawls of mourning proud figures who surrendered to hunger and came down from the mountains. They were behind their lined up pails, gestures of fretful but determined creatures, earth rekindling their faces with each breath of shame.

And so too the British soldier showed compassion for those shadows hovering at dusk: they returned with the light step of thoughtful beggars, with their black shawls in their eyes silence arid immense. Oh My Beloved Dead The South burned you with staunch sun oh my own dead, my restless dead shy figures like the twisted roots of my life where a declining light deepens. The subdued event of shadows that descend from you to the sea I feel pass over me, as the earth feels the vast murmur of the grass in the rapid sweep of wind E tu fosti una statua di silenzio coi figli stretti intorno ai tuoi ginocchi, e mamma ti guardava dalla soglia.

Cadde tutta la vigna giovinetta. Tu rimanevi come un capitano fiero davanti alla sua schiera morta. They circled you with their snickers prostrating the delicate shoots, the roots planting their machine guns they searched your eyes to find your agony. As though you were a statue of silence with your children clinging to your knees and Mother watching from the doorway. All the young vineyard fell.

You remained like a proud captain in front of your dead ranks. From Ritratto da nascondere, , Tutte le poesie Grass Grass is born on the edge of the roads it lives on a drop of light. Over the centuries the human grass of the South felt the harsh steps of men, ignorant and on purpose, press down then leave, it bent over without dying, laid down curled up in the knots of its roots, in the slow agony of its land. Allora, in quel lontano chiarore si sbatteva, con lunghe ali di gioia, come un gabbiano, la mia infanzia.

Then, in that faraway brightness writhed my childhood like a seagull with long wings of joy, Now my blind soul digs furrows in the Earth like a mole. His collections of poetry include Otto febbraio Scheiwiller, ; Giorni di scuola Edimond, ; Piccole poesie per banconote Polistampa, ; Corpuscolo Einaudi, ; Vecchi filmati Manni, and Mancanze Einaudi, He is also the author of the critical work Il cieco e la luna. Parlava… Le carezzai piano piano i capelli. Era tornata la calma sembrava.

La mattina le carezzai i capelli. Poi, tutta la giornata. Spoke in her sleep. I slowly, slowly stroked her hair. Things turned calm it seemed. In the morning I stroked her hair. And again, at night, upon going to bed my hand reached for the silk of her tormented little head. Era anziano e malato. Era stato un buon pianista. E adesso, in poltrona, leggeva una partitura, eseguendola in mente. He was old and sick. He had been a fine pianist. And now, in his armchair, he read a score and played it in his head.

And thought is something no less incredible, if you think about it, this nothing that becomes word and movement, the stream of terms that exercises its right to be pronounced in silence and flow here transcribed, the immaterial within the material -or perhaps in its void -like Grace in its mortal body. Her PhD is in Paleoanthropology, and her studies took her to Middle Paleolithic excavations in France and Germany, where her long- dormant love of languages was rekindled.

After a second visit to Italy in , she began studying Italian at the University of Ari- zona, beginning with Italian and proceeding through all the undergraduate courses. She discovered her passion for translat- ing with the very first poem in a level Italian literature class, and began translating WWII-era short stories in with Beppe Cavatorta. Contains thirteen essays, an introduction by the editor, a chronology of important dates, notes on the editor and authors, and a selected bibliography.

In his introduction pp. Freccero, John. I dramatizes the insufficiency of a purely intellectual conversion and that the journey to virtue required first a descent Inferno to humility, involving a spiritual death of the old self and the birth of a new self. The subject of conversion is central to the very literary structure. Augustine in the Confessions. Aristotelian thought De Caelo furnished the added detail of right and wrong left direction, absolute up and down, in the cosmos. Also cited is St. Thus, in Inf. Contends that the Satan depicted in Inferno XXXIV is not the Satan we expect, made in our image; that the figure is intended, rather, as a sign for the Pilgrim, not for us.

Dante represents Satan as a parodic crux diaboli— a zero point between the leaving behind of sin and the movement to grace in a paradox of conversion. Frederiksen, Emil. Frigieri, Francesco, and Pierfrancesco Listri. Fucilla, Joseph G. Brown and Harrison T. Meserole , etc. Fulton, Robin. Gable, Sister Mariella, O. Gennaro, Luigi. Gifford, George H. Presents a statistical analysis of various kinds of deviations from the strict tercet rhythm in the Comedy, noting that the deviations, while employed more frequently, with dramatic effect, in the Inferno, grow progressively fewer in succeeding canticles, as the tone becomes more meditative.

Gilbert, Allan H. Submits that the mention and presence of Beatrice forward the action in the Comedy and that Dante may even have inserted appropriate tercets to this purpose. Thomas Aquinas on the fifth book of the Ethics of Aristotle, which is wholly concerned with justice. Reviews the various ways in which Dante handles his characters in the world beyond and concludes that while defining them as shades or souls, more often than not he treats them as real persons of flesh and blood, as they were on earth.

Gilson, Etienne. Points out that on his poetic journey to God Dante uses the term empireo but a single time, in Inf. II, 21, while he defines the concept very late in the poem, in Par. XXVII, Giraldi, Riccardo. Focuses on Dante the man of humanity who emerges from the drama of political action and eventual exile an even greater man. Goldstein, Harvey D. Contains Centenary tribute pieces by P. Governa, Sergio Carlo. Grant, W. Neo-Latin Literature and the Pastoral.

Illustrated by Patricia Walsh. Francestown, N. Hardie, Colin G. Harrington, David V. Submits that by his own example Croce impressed upon students and critics of Dante the importance of an aesthetic approach to the Commedia. Harrison, Frederick C. Relates how difficult it was, especially because of the religious gap, for Dante to be accepted in America in the first half of the 19th century.

Hatzfeld, Helmut. Healy, Elliot D. Hunt, Leigh. Leigh Hunt on Eight Sonnets of Dante. Notes printed from the autograph manuscript in the University of Iowa Library, with translations of the sonnets into English by Joseph Garrow, Shelley, and Charles Lyell , a pencil drawing of Hunt by Anne Gliddon , and an editorial introduction by Rhodes Dunlap.

Includes the Italian text of the sonnets with interlinear English translations. Jacob, E. Whitehead, A. Diverres, and F. Sutcliffe , eds. For example, the author traces the image of Nimrod from a hunter before the Lord to a hunter against the Lord, a tyrant, and sower of pagan worship. The other giants in the canto are also discussed in terms of the previous literature available to Dante. Jones, Leroi. New York: Grove Press, Kantorowicz, Ernst H.

Selected Studies. Locust Valley, New York: J. J Augustin, For the second study, see below, under Addenda. Kappler, Frank. Kaske, R. Klein, Jacob. While penitence provides effective expulsion of sin, the opposite virtue is but a formal substitute for the given vice. Finally, true philosophy is seen possible only when willing of the good unites with intellection of the true. Le Guin, Charles A.

Leo, Ulrich. Levy, Bernard S. Locke, F. Lograsso, Angeline H. With four plates. Contends that in Vita Nuova XII the motif of circularity of the ballata a round dance forms a subtle balance and harmony with the figure of the circle in the prose Ego tanquam circuli. Lucrezi, Bruno. Mackay, L. Maggioni, Sister M. Examines the frequency and significance of verbs used by Dante in the Paradiso which are compounded with the prefix in- and derived from unusual radicals; and discusses them in relation to the final book of Richard of St.

Mahoney, John. Contends that our puzzled response to Ulysses Inf. Dante in turn contrasts with these two figures: he took the same road as Ulysses and turned away from the same course as Guido-Prufrock, with the guidance of Christian Revelation making all the difference.

Mandelstam, Osip. Mangravite, Peppino G. Maradea, Francesco. Cosenza: [no pub. Marraro, Howard R. Outlines briefly the growth of Dante studies in America from the early 19th century to the present. Describes in the first part pp. Mathews, J. Traces the earliest awakenings of American interest in Dante and summarizes this interest in each major American writer of the l9th century in turn, as attested in his writings. See above. Mazzaro, Jerome. The Poetic Themes of Robert Lowell. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, Mazzeo, Joseph A. Renaissance and Seventeenth Century Studies.

New York: Columbia University Press, Meiss, Millard. Here Professor Meiss studies the superb Chantilly Ms. The Trainesque illuminations are particularly important for the development of 14th-century painting in Pisa. Includes 36 halftone figures, with several from the Chantilly codex. Montano, Rocco. Rejecting many commonly held views, Professor Montano contends that the Renaissance was not a turn toward secularism, but a revolt against the irrepressible intellectualism which characterized theological speculation of the 13th and 14th centuries and the Gothic aesthetic as well.

He construes a number of selected texts as showing that, far from being imbued with mysticism, the Gothic world had led to excesses of rational complexities, ingenuity, technicalities, and subtleties; that art, even as Dante himself understood it, was concerned with form, style, and invention, not with content or morality; that the Gothic cathedral itself was not symbolically or metaphysically inspired, but determined by artistic ingenuity and technical necessity. XXIV , , as a statement of the scientific treatment of love, not a romantic interpretation of love as inspiration.

Morawski, Kalikst. Defines classical tragedy and its components in Aristotelian terms and demonstrates how, even though Dante never read the Poetics, the elements of the tragic hero are contained in the Farinata episode Inf. X , which is easily convertible into a small drama. Mott, Lewis Freeman. New York: Haskell House, Reprint of this superannuated work, originally published in Boston and London: Ginn and Co.

Musa, Mark. Resolves apparent difficulties of logic and grammar in Inf. Musa, Mark and John Porter Houston. Musacchio, Enrico. Nardi, Bruno. Nicotra di Leopoldo, Giovanni. Niemeyer, Carl. Nist, John. Nizeteo, Antun. Dante i Hrvati. Buenos Aires. Surveys the considerable Croatian interest in Dante from the Renaissance to date, beginning with the magnificent Brescia Dante of , credited to the master printer Dobri Dobri evi Boninus de Boninis, Himself a poet, Mr. Nogami, Soichi. Outlines the penal system of Inferno and describes the Buddhist Naraka, according to the book of Gusharon.

As points of difference in the Buddhist hell, the author notes a lack of exact retribution and the slaying of animals as a grave sin. Novelli, Gino. Discusses Dante the writer, the unique instrument of the terza rima which he himself created for his masterpiece, and his inimitable art. Orsini, G.

III, 85 , beginning with its praise by Matthew Arnold, has been a favorite among Anglo-American critics, reflecting their greater concern with Dante as a moral thinker and believer than as a poet. Paolucci, Anne. Poetry likewise passes from the narrative and epic to the lyrical, and on to synthesis in the dramatic. The culmination of all art is the restored natural beauty of the garden at the top of Purgatory, and Dante struggles to match his poetry to the task at hand.

La Parola del popolo. An international miscellany of articles, tributes, testimonials, and statements, with many illustrations of various kinds. Selected pieces of some length are separately listed in this bibliography. He rejected the Papal claim to supreme authority, but recognized the need for some higher authority to prevent anarchy and assure the blessings of civic life. Pastorello, Domenico. Pellegrini, Anthony L. Pirandello, Luigi. Croce failed to see the poetic synthesis in which allegory forms an integral part of the poem. Poggioli, Renato.

See 76th Report, Cambridge, Mass. See preceding item. Poulet, Georges. Traces the changing concepts of circle and sphere as originally applied to God, but changed during the Renaissance to include man; finally, in the eighteenth century, man embraces within his gaze no longer the sphere of God, but the sphere of scientific knowledge.

Provenzal, Dino. Radcliff-Umstead, Douglas. Contends that the basis of the Comedy is in light; reviews some of the background tradition of light metaphysics from Plato to Plotinus and St. Denis Dionysius the Areopagite ; comments on the light imagery in Purg. Places Dante in a line of explorers of the underworld.

American Dante Bibliography for 1965

His great Christian poem accommodated the enlargement of human consciousness of his time; now, the author suggests, a new poet is needed to comprehend the greater freedoms of today. Rheinfelder, Hans. The author suggests sources of the epithets to Mary as her mediation is sought to permit Dante a direct vision of God.

Ricciardelli, Michele. Rizzo, Gino. IV , for he considered them, as exemplified by his chosen guide, Virgil, without sin, but only lacking in the three holy virtues. Cato Purg. Rossi, Joseph. Reports that his thirty-odd years of teaching Dante have revealed that what in the Commedia is most important to students is the sense of moral responsibility. Rossi, Louis R. Construes the central image of the canto in terms of disintegration and dissolution, with which are associated physical gluttony and political avarice as allied devouring passions.

The figure of Ciacco, with his prophecy, in Inf. VI, which initiates the theme of the City, is reflected in another glutton, Forese Donati, and his prophetic vision in Purg. XXIV, while the image of a corrupting downpour recurs with the political theme of instability in Purg. XX and in the last political canto, Par. Treats of Guido da Montefeltro, a fox as military strategist and opposed to the Pope. Even after having become a Franciscan late in life, he could not resist abetting a new pope with foxy counsel; thus he suffers the effects of his total character.

Saly, John. Saner, Reginald. While acknowledging previous interpretations of individual passages, the author contends that undue focus on the figure of Farinata results in a distorted reading of Inferno X. Sapegno, Natalino. Saragat, Giuseppe. Scott, J. The first is material: a reflex of a language, and therefore not language.

It is the antecedent of that immanent, eternal, spiritual creation that is a speech; but it is not speech. And here is the duality […]. The illusion thus consists in foreseeing that what is now being analyzed as language is actually yet to be spoken, like an event that is already occurring but has yet to take place. This critical art would lead us through a study of language that is in turn a gram- mar that is not what it pretends to be, but is rather that which is governed by a higher mind, often contrary and superior to the mind s of the grammarians Cf.

And once thought, far from achieving its form the expression of the spirit becomes a specter that cannot exist, that cannot be. The duality between the normative and the aesthetic or historical grammar, as well as the duality between form and content, must at least allow for this third element: this specter. There is no other form than the one that overflows, that supple- ments the form of life. Concrete thought is not, therefore, the thought that is already thought and ready to be repeated, but the thought that cannot be thought until it act ualizes itself in the present by acting out its own destruction.

Gentile is aware of the difficulty inherent in this view. And here is the right of the translator whose wrong in the end originates solely from the preconception that spiritual reality—a work of art, for example—has a finite existence: completed, closed, and thus materially sequestered in time and even in space, like poetry that is written and not read, lying—perhaps—in a scroll that has been buried for millennia …. That is, with respect to that object which, is presupposed, when one speaks of translation, as an antecedent of the labor to which we then submit it.

For Gentile this is an historical problem: that is, we have to read natural changes from the point of view of history. In actuality the means and the ends are not distinguish- able one from the other, and one is the other as they both change in order to become that which is ultimately achieved In its exteriority, this form is like a book never read. Art as form is in actuality this subjectivity, which doubles back on itself and expresses nothing if not itself that is, that same state of mind in which subjectivity consists.

For Gentile, just as for the rhetorical tradition leading back at least to Poliziano, translation is interpretation each and every time that the one who translates is aware of what he is doing. It stresses the singularly plural aspect of language. The concept of the impossibility of translation is tied to the concept of the spirituality of language, which is not to be understood as fact but rather as act; […] Language as fact is content of the knowledge of the glottologist, or of the grammarian.

The concrete is language in its own unity, as universality: that sole language that man speaks, as always a specific language. All languages in their singularity are no more than one language, and all languages are but one language. On the other hand, the language that sounds in the human spirit is never the same, since it is forever changing. The first case, Gentile says, is why we never translate, while in the sec- ond case it is as if we always translate, with no two moments occur- ring in which we have the same language This paradox stems from the fact that the apparent distinction noted above seem- ingly presents us with two sides of the same argument, strictly linked: indistinguishable rather than inseparable.

Thinking takes place in translation—and not simply in the translation that takes place between two languages, but first and foremost in what is always happening within our very own language. Here lies a fur- ther distinction between the instruments of language that we re- quire to learn language, and language as an instrument that we can use. Translation takes place in one language.

In particular, this oc- curs when we read: and not when we read what was thought by the author at the time of his writing, but when we read what is being thought now by we who read. Translation takes place in the very act of reading. The spirit spo- ken of has a historical reality, grown on and out of itself, forever changing. That then this original vibration resonates in a new man, and brings forth feelings and thoughts that are always new, is something that I have never doubted and in which I am in complete agreement with Gentile. Croce Croce chooses to distinguish here between two moments that are complementary to each other: the moment of reading and the moment of new creation.

Gentile had stated instead, as we have already mentioned, that repetition is impossible. For Gentile, these two moments are at the same time not simply different, but inseparable. One must think of them as supplementary to each other. Just as the historical, immortal Dante supplies and supplants us as readers, so do we supply and sup- plant the Dante of the Middle Ages. And in so doing, this Dante displaces us, expands us, make us grow out of ourselves.

It is plausible that no translation, however good it may be, can have any significance as regards the original. Yet, by virtue of its translatability the original is closely connected with the translation; in fact this connection is all the closer since it is no longer of importance to the original. Just as the manifestations of life are intimately connected with the phenomenon of life without being of importance to it, a translation issues from the original— not so much from its life as from its afterlife.

For a translation comes later than the original, and since the important works of world literature never find their translator at the time of their origin, their translation marks their stage of continued life. The idea of life and afterlife in works of art should be regarded with an entirely unmetaphorical objectivity. Yet actualism is not reducible to a simple presence: the substitution in place of the original.

In this way the direction we take is not from Dante to the reader of Dante, such that the reader becomes a metaphor for and of Dante who now makes himself present which is the danger that Croce saw. In the same way, it is also true that we the readers are not making ourselves present be- fore Dante the writer. This raises more questions about the direc- tion of metaphors.

In translation, we are no longer moving between language and its extralinguistic referent, but we are mov- ing sideways, so to speak, from one linguistic entity to another lin- guistic entity. The concern is no longer with meaning but with an interlinguistic movement. Meaning is entirely imbedded in the origi- nal work, and we can leave it there. In the final analysis, the range of life must be determined by history rather than by nature, least of all by such tenuous factors as sensation and the soul.

Benjamin 71 Also any linguistic creation should be translatable even if no one is capable of translating it at any given time There is implied in this a maturing process where the growth of the original language corresponds to the development of the language of translation. Recalling what we discussed above, the afterlife of a work of art should be determined by history rather than by nature, unaffected by factors such as sensation and the soul.

Unlike a work of literature, translation does not find itself in the center of the language forest but on the outside facing the wooded ridge; it calls into it without entering, aiming at the sole spot where the echo is able to give, in its own language, the reverberation of the work in the alien one. Translation turns language inside out. It breaks the walls of safety in which the subject finds itself protected, cared for, yet incarcerated. In this way, translation destabilizes. It reveals the instability of the original.

It disarticulates the original, says de Man, for whom critical philosophy, literary theory, history—resemble each other in the fact that they do not resemble that from which they derive. But they are all intralinguistic: they relate to what in the original belongs to language, and not to meaning as an extralinguistic correlate susceptible of paraphrase and imitation.

They disarticulate, they undo the original, they reveal that the original was always already disarticulated. They reveal that their failure, which seems to be due to the the fact that they are secondary in relation to the original, reveals an essential failure, an essential disarticulation which was already there in the original. They kill the original, by discovering that the original was already dead. Let us recall once more that in translation sensation and the soul should not play a role. But this pain that generates is not hu- man. Gentile agrees with this. Yet this formal use of language brings the messianic with it.

Every possible shortcoming perceived in a work of translation can now be overcome by this achieved higher knowledge of the work- ings of language. The words we now read are, in a sense, not human. Vico stated that in language, man begins to think humanly New Science , but this does not imply that there is meaning before and outside language before meaning is materialized linguistically. Language is his- torical, and it is used by the men who have it as their dwelling place without their being in control of, nor their being identified, with it.

The Dante Gentile speaks of gets grafted in the now-language of the reader, and such a translation occurs first of all within the Italian language in which Dante wrote. In this pro- cess the reader who captures Dante becomes captured by Dante, and thus by the Italian language already many languages , in the uniqueness of the only Language humans speak. Gentile, contrary to Benjamin, seems apparently to need to preserve the intentional- ity not only in the meaning but also in the mode of signification of a language in the hands of an all-encompassing subject.

This subject is still blind to its condition by uncon- sciously accepting its blindness. This allows the subject to think it has built its own fortress-house. This trans- lation of the inside is possible in the first place because of its insta- bility, says Benjamin [A]ll translation is only a somewhat provisional way of coming to terms with the foreignness of languages. An instant and final rather than a temporary and provisional solution of this foreignness remains out of the reach of mankind; at any rate, it eludes any direct attempt. Although translation, unlike art, cannot claim permanence for its products, its goal is undeniably a final, conclusive, decisive stage of all linguistic creation.

It cannot live there permanently, to be sure, and it certainly does not reach it in its entirety. Yet, in a singular impressive manner, at least it points the way to this region: the predestined, hitherto inaccessible realm of reconciliation and fulfillment of languages. The transfer can never be total, but what reaches this region is that element in a translation which goes beyond transmittal of subject matter.

This nucleus is best defined as the element that does not lend itself to translation. Even when all the surface content has been extracted and transmitted, the primary concern of the genuine translator remains elusive. The original can only be raised there anew and at other points in time. For Gentile, the original as well as every provisional appropriation work like relays: they are like switches through which each meaning triggers a new meaning, leading ever and ever closer to a new level of signi- fication. It seems that for Gentile that predestined region of fulfill- ment and reconciliation of languages is reachable, and its unstable terrain is left unaccounted for.

Gentile sees no disjunction between any of these multiplying steps toward that region, but rather an implied continuity that imitates life: a life where a living body grows in time and space. Yet in this process, that body the original poem never gets old but is forever rejuvenating. Gentile stresses a sort of messianic aspect of language that is nonetheless manmade, and not a God-given gift—like a messianism without a religion.

There is no bro- ken vessel to reconstitute. There is a chain of metaphors that, by actualizing themselves in a new meaning, relay to a higher region their growth in the form of a new metaphor. The problem of the unstable original is bypassed by this provisional appropriation of an original work of art.

The move is presented as the most natural operation of reading. In this process of endless redressing, Gentile necessarily sus- pends the original work of art, holding it outside the intra-linguis- tic relation and protecting its wholeness from revealing its met- onymic status. Ultimately, the subject is defined by the fortress- house, which it might have built, but of which it was never the king. This subject can only find itself already made into the Kafkaesque animal that it does not know.

The translator must be recep- tive to the disruptions already at work in the original language of the work of art that translation reveals; and the translator must ulti- mately make room for this disruption in the language of transla- tion, which painfully grows and expands in a non-human manner. Gentile conceives of the art of translation as an hermeneutics.

And translation is indeed an act of reading: in reading Dante, I become the new Dante, Gentile says— a Dante infinitely more complex than the original writer who wrote in the s. Thus I get in touch with what was repressed, covered up, hidden in the specific material language of the original work. There is no text with- out a reader who brings the text to life in its afterlife: an afterlife that is a new and continued life with a higher and enhanced level of understanding and fulfillment of the subjectivity of the one who reads. Translation is itself a translation first and fore- most of our own words as we proffer them.

Now, in my actual speak- ing of my language I am actually translating within my very lan- guage already many languages , in the uniqueness of the only Lan- guage humans speak. Translation acts itself out as translation: a mise en abyme that is noted in Benjamin as well de Man The ultimate task of the translator is to read the unreadable. It is to deal with a writing that writes what is never meant to read, what is unreadable—like graphemes for speech. Graphemes in writ- ing are taken for granted, yet they are the keepers of a promise of meaning.

For Gentile, to speak is to write since speech has all the prerogatives of writing. What Gentile says is, all at once, what is being said and the confirmation of what is being said. In repetition lies the novelty. In order to do this, the saying must be recognizable and repeatable— even if this may mean that the saying is recognizable by itself as a language that in turn recognizes itself as it speaks.

The historical continuity between the then and the now postulated by Gentile is marked by the univocity that indicates the historical ether, accord- ing to Husserl Derrida, Husserl The platonic mimetic relationship between image and speech will end up with writing occupying the last and hum- blest place within the chain of signification. Grammars always follow language in an attempt to stabilize what is already in itself destabilized.

In this sense, grammar shares the same project of translation: the materialization of language. In fact, the arbitrariness of each and every grammar is what Gentile has to reconcile with the spirituality of language.

The metaphorical sequence of replacement gets interrupted. When we translate, we open up all options of signification out of an original restricted referentiality. From here on, there is no way to orient ourselves any longer. Benjamin clearly says so. Otherwise grammar coincides with language and language with translation. Indeed, Gentile—and here is a paradox—says this much. The con- sequence is the killing of the originality of any origin.

Since Plato, writing has been the sign of a sign removed from truth, and this process is also at work always already in speech as we speak. I read, I say, I translate, therefore I reproduce all at once in an immediate iterability which is directly possible thanks to the me- chanical reproduction of any original sound bite, of any graph- eme playing within language. Benjamin himself addresses the mechanical reproduction of the work of art and the issue of the aura in The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction. It haunts the original.

Again, Gentile speaks of Dante—a Dante read, spoken, translated, therefore forever re- produced anew in his afterlife. When we read—as when we read Dante—we have to reinvent what we read. Our reading must affirm the original; and our reading, in or- der to be affirmative, must confirm its originary reading. The I-then-there and the I- now-here underscore my singular signature: I-now-here reaffirm the I-then-there. Ultimately, I am not Ulysses either, I have respect for the past, I submit to what is in front of me: to what I am reading, to what I am repeating.

The first event must already be iterable, it must immediately confirm itself in differentiating itself by its now spo- ken iteration. Paradise This is achieved by charging every word, every sentence, with meanings, possibilities, associations. In reading Dante, we partake of the chains of confirmation. However, Gentile sees this trans- lation as an affirmation of the original.

Benjamin, Walter. New York: Schocken Books, Croce, Benedetto. Filosofia della pratica. Bari: La Terza, , Derrida, Jacques. Inven- tion of the Other. Kamuf, Peggy and Elizabeth Rottenberg, eds. Of Grammatology. Gentile, Giovanni. Lanciano: R. Carabba, Vico, Giambattista. New Science. Bergin, Thomas G. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, Notes 1 Previously published in Rivista di cultura, a. The English translation from the Italian is mine throughout.

Also reprinted in K. Vosseler et al. Benedetto Croce. Sansoni: Firenze, The translation from the French is mine throughout. In this sense to be in the closeness of Being means to be there where the metaphor retreats. Derek Atridge, Ed. New york and London: Routledge, Francesco Petrarca Petrarch requires little introduction. Incomparable poet, in- novative Humanist, and brilliant scholar, his major works consist of the Rime sparse Rerum vulgarium fragmenta , I trioni, the Secretum, and numerous collections of letters.

In the second, the mythological Arabian phoenix is compared to Laura and of course poetry itself— il lauro. It includes a critical introduction, commen- tary, and a rich array of biographical and bibliographical informa- tion. It is based on the edition. Here we offer new versions, more focused on poetic harmony than literal meaning.

The Venetian poetess takes up the themes of love and memory while renewing the emblem of the Arabian phoenix and the ship struggling at sea. These imita- tions were rendered in English and in Italian. The Italian version was co-translated with Antonella Anedda.

The present version is more of a translation than an imitation. Nevertheless attempts have been made to recreate corresponding meters, rhymes, and tones as well. Francesco Petrarca, Canzoniere XC Her aura was scattered in strands of gold which she had wound in countless knotted crowns, her lovely light-illed eyes, which have turned old, once burned beyond their source of greenish brown.

It seemed compassion set her face aglow, I do not know if it was dreamt or real the fuse of love that lit me long ago though I should not wonder since I still feel. She did not move as any mortal thing but like angelic dawn, nor were her words dull sounding like a human, they seemed to sing like one celestial spirit, sun struck wings had touched her soul and voice which I irst heard and had they not, my wound would lose its sting. Cerulean edges of her violet dress, conceal her fair shoulders scattered with roses uniquely beautiful aura, novel guise.

Fame still proclaims that her sweet scented breast in Arabian mountains hides and poses yet she lies so haughtily through our skies. What helmsman could steer his precious ship through tides as I have done, never afraid to wrestle the currents or cliffs, guiding my frail vessel amidst the battering blows of her harsh pride?

And yet this rain of tears and fearsome winds of ininite sighs now drive my vessel on throughout my sea of winter and horrid night bestowing tedium to her, aches and chagrin to itself, nothing else, vanquished by strong sea surfs disarming sails to ungoverned might. Oh night, worthy of praise by the highest and keenest of minds, not by my ecstasy.

You brought him back to me with tenderness the one who each joy of mine has governed disarmed my doubts, dissolving all stubborn remains of bitterness with sheer sweetness. My game and my every delight consist of living ire and never feeling pain, of never caring if he who causes this relents the vehemence of his domain. Soon after the irst lame had burned away, then Love lit up another, which I feel with more intensity and greater sway.

A ire just like the irst I feel; if this, in such tight space, is now the case I fear it will be greater than the other. What can I do, if burning is my appeal, if voluntarily I consent to taste ill after ill, one ire after another? Durling, Harvard University Press, Annotazioni di Daniele Ponchiroli.

Torino, Einaudi, , pp. Borrelli Joan E. She has published essays of literary criticism in Critical Companion to J. Her work displays a full range of emotion as she reacts to challenges she faced as an orphan, wife, mother and widow. Her immediacy of voice and personal subject matter create not only an unprecedented feel for the struggles of women of her historical period, but also relect a sensibility almost modern in its confessional tone.

During the next twelve years, Turini Bufalini continued to write and revise this work, which she describes in two sonnets3 as providing her with an outlet for her creativity as well as with much-needed consolation throughout her dificult life. At the time of her death in , however, the poem remained unpublished. Over the centuries, the text of Il Florio was believed lost until, in the s, a manuscript was located among the family archives at the Bufalini castle in San Giustino Umbria.

I am greatly indebted to Professor Antonio Lanza, Director of Letteratura Italiana Antica, for permission to reproduce the original, as well as for translation permissions. I extend my heartfelt thanks to Professor Natalia Costa-Zalessow San Fran- cisco State University , for her unlagging generosity in sharing her knowledge of Italian literary history with me.

Comment on the translation In Il Florio, Turini Bufalini utilizes ottava rima,6 the traditional stanza form of Italian narrative poetry, to recreate the story of two young innamorati, Florio and Biancoiore, as they labor to overcome obstacles to their love. I was, however, labbergasted at her extensive use of text-within-text technique in the selection that follows.

The two letters between the lovers, inserted verbatim into the narrative frame, heighten the realism and the emotional charge of the exchange and allow for close reader involvement. Ariosto does not show a response letter from Bradamante. Turini Bufalini, moreover, shows a response letter from Biancoiore comprising an additional fourteen stanzas nos.

The two letters in Il Florio thus total an astonishing lines of text-within-text. Although Turini Bufalini may not have been the irst to employ the technique, we are nonetheless seeing in her Canto XVI an early and signiicant use of meta-narration. On the one hand, I wanted my target language to capture the emotional spontaneity expressed in the letters of the young lovers.

On the other hand, I vowed to keep faith with the formal metrics of the ottava and its elegant tone. The exciting atmo- sphere of a medieval tale—replete with chivalric knights, distressed damsels, court intrigues and feats of derring-do—demanded a broad action vocabulary. To parallel the hendecasyllabic lines of the original with stanzas that gallop forward, I charged ahead with iambic pentameter, the preferred meter of narrative verse in English.

To run the end-rhyme gauntlet, I relied on my anglophone steed, well equipped with slant rhyme, to echo the musical ring of the original when I did not have a full rhyme sound at the ready. To capture spontaneity, I reached for idiomatic expressions. Conversely, by inverting word order and pinning down a few archaisms here and there, I hoped to render some historical atmosphere and to move the translation closer to the source text. To pay homage to the prosodic features of the original, I matched consonance and internal rhyme wherever I could.

We come upon the scene with Florio in the distant city of Montorio, where he has been sent by his parents, the king and queen, in an effort to separate the lovers. Florio believes that Bian- coiore has jilted him for Fileno, an errant knight just arrived from Marmorina seat of the court where Biancoiore remains. The truth is that Biancoiore, against her will, was commanded by the queen to do so after Fileno won a tournament at court. Now alone, Florio denounces Biancoiore as unfaithful seeing the veil as proof of her betrayal , and threatens to turn his sword against himself.

Translations by Joan E. In sonnets numbered and , Turini Bufalini directly addresses the title character, Florio, of her eponymous narrative work, declaring to him that writing has remained her only consolation refugio through years of grief. Not quite twenty-one years old, she married Count Giulio Bufalini then seventy years of age. With professional military duties in Rome, Giulio was absent for long periods. She subsequently gave birth to two sons and a daughter but was widowed at age thirty.

Her maternal love and devotion, evident throughout her poems, is later coupled with the lament of not enjoying a reciprocal affection. Her sons, upon reaching manhood, quarreled with her over money and litigated formally against her and against one another, as Giulio, the eldest, would retain future right of inheritance to the castle, whereas Ottavio, his younger brother, only the right to reside there. At age sixty-one, because of family discord, she left Umbria for Rome to take a post in the Colonna household as lady- in-waiting to the duchess, Lucrezia Tomacelli Colonna.

She returned to Umbria only upon the death of Tomacelli in Directed by Antonio Lanza. Rome: Moxedano Editrice. ISSN: electronic ; paper. This international journal is dedicated to texts and studies on Italian literature and is available for purchase on the internet. His Filostrato c. See also: J. For a short synopsis of the Filocolo, see: Giovanni Boccaccio, Antologia delle opere minori volgari, a cura di Giuseppe Gigli.

Nuova presentazione di Vittore Branca Firenze: Sansoni, : Torquato Tasso : Revered for his narrative poems, principally Gerusalemme Liberata pub.

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Turini Bufalini may have known Tasso personally during her residency in Rome at the Colonna household. My thanks go again to Professor Costa-Zalessow for indicating these passages to me. He is often accompanied by his brothers Icelus who personiies beasts, birds, serpents and Phantasus who transforms himself into rocks, water, woods and inanimate objects along with 1, other male siblings in order to enact the dream. O mio dolore intenso, smisurato! O me infelice sopra gli altri amanti! O senza alcuna colpa abbandonato! O mia dura sventura! Oh wretched me, more so than other lovers!

Oh guiltless, thrust aside upon no grounds! Oh thing yet unseen in this universe! Oh my hard luck! Throughout his dream rested the unsheathed sword that he had drawn to run through his own breast, such was the reasoning so twisted, crude, against himself, its harm to manifest. But like a shield, hope lent him fortitude.

Without you I am good for naught, and neither would I live on: further, this blazing pyre, alas, now so consumes me, dram by dram, I feel myself transformed into pure lame! Finge egli teco! Io solo odio e disamo, per te, me stesso: e ne ricevo morte! Nothing can alter my desire—not fate, place, time, Fortune; neither can Love nor Death!

Oh stars, you witnesses of my hard plight, reveal how I so fail and furthermore may die of keeping faith to cruel degrees with those nocturnal trysts and mournful cries! I alone hate and eschew myself for you, though death I would receive! Joan E. My right hand, poised for death to end my grief, clutches the sword. The hurt he felt so struck his heart, so rent, he thought his certain death drew very near. Within the paper, his complaints he folded and called a servant, one faithful and shrewd, Be there by dark, and seek out Biancoiore.

Hand her this envelope and wait, and then with her response hurry back here again! Bending to the importance of the charge, the servant swiftly takes leave of his lord and gets there on the double, for his passage and pace with loyalty and trust he spurred. From me, the reason for his pain is hidden, and why he leads a life so sorrow-laden. Soon as she learned of all he would infer in what he wrote and what he left untold , and of his indignation and his anger— that his heart was by Jealousy controlled— cold fear, martyring anguish to endure, gripped her at heart and instantly took hold.

Those pages would have burned from sighs so searing, had not her tears kept them from disappearing! Repeatedly between choked sobs and tears, having read what he wrote, and read again, seeing fault of lovers ingenuous! As long as breath and life in me be found, let not Love pierce me with another wound! As this, my soul, within my lesh so frail, is spoil to dart diverse.

Love cannot slay my breast that loves and prizes you alone , lest with your beauty his darts he would hone. To unravel our love she made provision and wove with craft, and perhaps proited. So cruel is she! By her I was betrayed, and by you, too, falling for traps she laid! Heaven well sees that when you sought your leave from me, my life turned hard, for I without a heart remained!

You plucked it from my person when you abandoned me to pain, cruel one! By calling me ungrateful you then ind aire anew a means to skirt my blame! Mancar si sente in tal dolor la vita e la faccia ha tutta di pianto aspersa. Constant I know you; know, too, that a love constant for you does Biancoiore have! To live and die with you do I aspire! Let not that crude steel blade to you lay claim and cover you with an eternal shame! So pained, she felt that life itself receded, her face wholly awash in tearful sprays. Her pages folded, she expertly brought together and entwined the wax and knot.

Those crimson lips now parched from such distress, with her plentiful tears did she, the damsel, moisten the gem in order to impress her image, lovely, proud, upon the seal.

Translating Echoes

Then, perturbed by an anger amorous, to carry back her answer does she call the messenger. Devoted, bowing low, off like an arrow shot straight does he go. Ha pubblicato diversi romanzi, narrative di viaggi e racconti sia in italiano che in inglese, tra i quali Tiro al piccione , ristampa , Peccato originale , Biglietto di terza , ristampa , Una posizione sociale , ristampa col titolo La stanza grande, , Grafiti , Molise Molise , Il tempo nascosto tra le righe , Detroit Blues , e i romanzi in inglese Benedetta in Guysterland , premio American Book Award, , Accademia , Il paese di Nonsisadove - romanzo telematico, websito arscomica.

Bergin, Salvatore Battaglia e, ultimamente, Robert Lafont. Bibliograia Azais, Gabriel. Beck, J. Die Melodien der Troubadours. Strasbourg, Broadbent, J. Poetic Love. London, Fernandez de la Cuesta, Ismael. Tolosa, Paris, Hill, R. New Haven and London, Margoni, Ivos. Milano-Varese, Angelo Monteverdi.

Studi in onore di Angelo Monteverdi. Modena, Aurelio Roncaglia. La lingua dei trovatori. Roma, Maurice Valency. In Praise of Love. New York, Van der Werf, Hendrik. Utreck, Et ella lo fetz a gran honor sepeillir en la maison del Temple; e poi en aqel dia ella se rendet monga, per la dolor qe ella ac de la soa mort. A cura di Robert Lafont.

Casa Editrice Le Let- tere, Firenze , p. Io mi avvalgo per convalida e guida del Vo- cabolario ragionato del dialetto di Casacalenda, di Antonio Vincelli, Edizioni Enne, Campobasso, Also a novelist and literary critic, she founded and directs the only poetry prize for bilingual book publication for Italian American poets with Italian poet, Alfredo dePalchi. Ned Condini is a native-born Italian who has lived in the United States for many years, a fact that makes him thoroughly bi-lingual. Lafayette, Indiana,