Bretagne Nord 2 - Haut-Léon (French Edition)
Avec cuisine exterieure mais couvert ,sans salle de bain. Salle de bain et toilet du camping a la ferme. Electricite a l'exterieure du cabane. Lumiere interieure avec des lampes en batteries. Decoration style mer. Bois de recuperation. Sur terrain de 1 hectare. Tres calme, tres rustique. Cabane 'surfshack' Titulipe. Parking sur le terrain. Gite 15 ciecle. Refait avec des bois de recupe. Style moderne. Salle de bain comfortable. Cuisine bien rempli.
- I Honestly Love You.
- 2. The retreat of Breton;
- Dom Juan (Théâtre de Molière) (French Edition);
Lits grands et comfortable. Chauffage sur place. Gite moderne pas loin du cote nord. Roscoff est a 14 kms. Show all. Popular homes. Cottages on the silent countryside,river,the beach. It is always calm in green environment. Like the cottages for their a typical style, relaxed vibe and comfort.
- Patrimoine maritime vivant de Bretagne Nord.
- La toponymie nautique, un chenal vers la mémoire des populations littorales!
- The Use of French in Medieval Brittany;
- Almas cruzadas (Spanish Edition).
- Napoleons Military Maxims?
- Popular cycling routes in Saint-Pol-de-Léon, France - mountNpass?
Very good for couples and families with children in holidays or workers in the area or travelling for business. Cottages in building from Completly renovated with reused materials but with a typical style and comfort. Cottages on the country side not far from the coast. River and two farms in distance. Little countryside smell possible.www.integrated-trading.com/assets/hinds/spiritual-dating-sites-canada.php
Airbnb® | Saint-Pol-de-Léon - Vacation Rentals & Places to Stay - Brittany, France
Nothing terrible. Cottages on countryside not far from breton coast. Vous trouverez une chambre calme avec vue sur le jardin dans une aile de la maison. La salle de bains et les toilettes sont attenants.
Il faut aimer la nature et la verdure si vous venez chez nous! Draps et serviettes fournis pour 4 personnes. Au plaisir de vous accueillir! Grand terrain 2 hectares Animaux: moutons, poules. This may well be the case, especially after the expansion of the ducal financial administration from the mid fourteenth century It also came to be routinely used for other aspects of seigneurial life: a French epitaph occured on a now-lost tomb at the abbey of La Meilleray 44 , with the date 1 May and on another dated , old style A French version of a ducal Assise des pledeours of exists, though it is probably a later translation 64 ; more convincingly an agreement by the duke to abolish aveux and the famous Assise de Rachat , relating to wardships and reliefs owing on the death of noble vassals, exist in contemporary French exemplars which was their original language Evidence for the use of French in Breton towns at this stage is limited by the very poor survival of early records, though there are indications that it was certainly used for commercial purposes in Bretagne-bretonnante.
During the course of his investigation the vicomte revealed his thoroughness, if not hidden linguistic abilities, by interviewing at least one Italian and men from Bayonne. In more modern times, such towns represented islands of bilingualism in contrast to the surrounding countryside 71 , a state of affairs probably already evident by We also have hints at the end of the Middle Ages of social divisions later reflected in language differences with those speaking French tending to come from higher social groups, whether the aristocracy or the haute-bourgeoisie, with trilingualism most evident among the clergy and those exposed to higher learning.
Like their nobility, the Breton ducal family recorded family matters marriage alliances, dower arrangements from the s in French 72 , but the employment of French in the ducal administration was more hesitant.
From around we find Rivallan du Temple, seneschal of Nantes, writing fairly regularly in French, even to ecclesiastics French also came to be used in various ducal courts from this point. Many letters were issued under seals of contracts established in demesne centres or towns under ducal control; petitions and legal inquiries were also increasingly recorded in French 75 ; similarly documents relating to the business of the Breton parlement from the late s By the early fourteenth century French was used even in ducal courts in Bretagne-bretonnante; the earliest letters issued by that at Morlaix I have found dates from , Lesneven from , Carhais from and St-Renan from The earliest ducal financial records also demonstrate the measured pace of linguistic change: the first surviving accounts come from the s and s and are exclusively in Latin There is then a gap until by which time the surviving rolls are chiefly in French, though some still contain items in Latin After there is an almost complete dearth of ducal financial records until the reign of John IV, by when they are almost all without exception kept in French, though occasionally Latin was used in the auditing process by the Chambre des comptes or for memoranda In the interim, French had also become the main language for seigneurial household or estate accounts and estate surveys If there was a political agenda in the ducal use of French, it must be acknowledged that this only came about slowly and had been anticipated by seigneurial usage.
How did other authorities and institutions react to the spreading use of French? The extent to which religious houses whether older Benedictine monasteries, the important group of eleven major Breton Cistercian houses, or even the many newer mendicant foundations dating from the s onwards used French varied, and not simply as a function of their relative position to the linguistic frontier between the two halves of Brittany though this is influential in the initial spread.
Indeed as late as we find the chapter of Quimper paying for a list of taxable tenants to be translated from French into Latin At the abbey of La Joie de Hennebont, founded by John I and his wife, French was used from but this is less surprising since it was a nunnery drawing most of its members from an aristocratic milieu, and it has long been known that female houses favoured use of the vernacular The erratic survival of records most notably those relating to Bretagne-bretonnante which has lost a disproportionate number of once existing ecclesiastical documents precludes any statistical approach to the relative use of French or Latin by religious institutions in the later Middle Ages, or of how this changed when a choice between them was acceptable My impression is that once established in the late thirteenth or early fourteenth century, French was regularly but not excessively used in the affairs of most houses, since Latin remained important in the administration of estates and protection of rights, and naturally for divine service and any business with the papacy.
But a majority of documents emanating from the ducal chancery in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and dealing with cathedrals, monasteries or mendicant convents, including general confirmations of privileges or more particular favours, like the licence to crenellate which John III granted in to the monks of St-Mathieu de Fineterre , deep in Bretagne-bretonnante, were in French At Quimper, too, which in many respects seems to have been conservative and resistant to the spread of French , as early as , an obit for Guillaume, archdeacon of Poher, was established under the contracts seal of the town in French At Beauport abbey, accounts were being kept in French by Additions in French were first added to the Necrology of Daoulas abbey in the s On the other hand, parochial registers of births, marriages and deaths, precociously introduced into Brittany in the early fifteenth century by Henry Le Barbu, bishop of Nantes, previously Chancellor of the duchy , and soon used in all other Breton dioceses, were initially kept in Latin.
In the earliest still extant register, that from Roz-Landrieux, diocese of Dol, which now contains details for the period , only those for the years are recorded in French But other registers from Dol, Nantes and Rennes show French being used from , as it was in the dioceses of St-Malo and Vannes from the early sixteenth century Another important category of record, wills, also shows that the replacement of Latin by French was a slow and incomplete process in the later medieval period.
But even among the Breton aristocracy who were most influenced by French culture, it was rare to leave testaments in French before the mid fourteenth century , and as late as the sixteenth century a proportion were still drawn up in Latin. But after it was unusual for any lay person to have a Latin will, even in Bretagne-bretonnante , though clerics throughout the duchy were likely to do so into the sixteenth century.
Trilingual in speech, only evidence for Latin and French used for administrative purposes survives from late medieval Brittany. This brief survey has shown that after French became fashionable for various purposes in the mid thirteenth century, different chronologies of usage co-existed for differing types of record whether used by lay or ecclesiastical authorities. Social and geographical factors can be used to explain some of these differences; the influence of the high aristocracy in promoting the use of French in Brittany for certain purposes is especially clear.
Other institutional developments in church and state require further consideration: for instance, the importance of the fact that until the later fourteenth century, two key administrative institutions, the ducal chancery and the Chambre des comptes , only existed in very embryonic form needs to be clearly recognized. Naturally, Latin remained very important for ecclesiastics but as this survey has shown, from a relatively early point the church was prepared to accept the use of written French and not simply for its dealings with the laity.
In Bretagne-bretonnante this also inevitably meant that the majority of clerics needed to be verbally trilingual even if they did not write in Breton ; civil servants found this competence useful on occasion, especially when carrying out inquiries in Basse-Bretagne Comparisons and contrasts with other nearby regions where trilingualism was significant at the end of the Middle Ages Flanders , England , Wales might be profitably pursued but not on this occasion. The Plainte de Pierre Leet to the vicomte de Rohan following an assault by Alain de Lanharmoyt and others shortly before Cez sunt ceux des quex Pierres Leet se deut en denonciant a vous mon seignour de Rohan comme a excellen seignour e a bonne justice, qui furent en force, e en ayde e en conseil de le ferir de le batre e de le fouler leement o batons, o espees e o piez e o poinz, en vostre chemin qe est en vostre garde, e ou pelerinage de Saint Jame de Saint Leon qe est en vostre terre, pour quoy il vous supleye comme a seignour que vous li faciez ce a mender, vous en enfourmant par qui vous verrez que bien sera comme de fet notayre.
E premierement se deut le dit Pierres de Alain de Lanharmoyt e de Olichon, son freyre, et de dous batarz de Lanharmoyt, e de Alain le fuiz Olivier de Pouquomar, comme de Guillou le fuiz Henri, du fuiz Olivier le Foul de Saint Guen e de plusours autres que ledit Pierres Leyet ne quenoet pas.
La langue des actes O. Glessgen, introduction Section 1. Latin et vernaculaires Latin-vernaculaire : substitutions et recouvrements M. Calleja Puerta et M. Nicolaj, Il volgare nei documenti italiani medievali S. Barbiche et O.
1. Breton and French
Section 2. Confins et contacts M. Prevenier et T. Un pays de trilinguisme administratif H. Pryce, Uses of the vernacular in the acts of Welsh rulers J. Richard, Le plurilinguisme dans les actes de l'Orient latin L. Jurek, Die Urkundensprache im mittelalterlichen Schlesien K. Les pouvoirs de la langue Tours et atours de langue H.
Feo et A. Antonelli, La lingua dei notai a Bologna ai tempi di Dante A. The Use of French in Medieval Brittany 1. Breton and French 2. The retreat of Breton 3. Monastic records and language 4. Cathedral records 5. Early lay records 6. The co-existence of Latin and the Vernacular 7. The spread of French in administrative records 8. The role of the nobility and towns in promoting use of French 9.
Use of French by the dukes of Brittany and their administration A wider adoption of French in the later Middle Ages Which language to use? The retreat of Breton By the later Middle Ages there had been a significant retreat westwards, a development that was certainly by then venerable. Monastic records and language I shall now concentrate chiefly on the period when French came to stand alongside and then largely replace Latin for administrative purposes, except in certain categories of document for example, notarial instruments 16 , that is the thirteenth to fifteenth centuries, but with some forays outside these centuries.
Cathedral records Of the nine medieval Breton cathedrals, Dol and Quimper have preserved the best collections of medieval documents made in the course of the Middle Ages. Early lay records Efforts to preserve ducal or seigneurial records before the late fourteenth century is not very evident. The co-existence of Latin and the Vernacular There are many contemporary references to the general fact that two vernacular languages were commonly spoken in the medieval duchy. The spread of French in administrative records What then of French?
The role of the nobility and towns in promoting use of French It also came to be routinely used for other aspects of seigneurial life: a French epitaph occured on a now-lost tomb at the abbey of La Meilleray 44 , with the date 1 May and on another dated , old style Use of French by the dukes of Brittany and their administration Like their nobility, the Breton ducal family recorded family matters marriage alliances, dower arrangements from the s in French 72 , but the employment of French in the ducal administration was more hesitant.
A wider adoption of French in the later Middle Ages How did other authorities and institutions react to the spreading use of French? Conclusion Trilingual in speech, only evidence for Latin and French used for administrative purposes survives from late medieval Brittany. Jackson, A Historical Phonology… , p. I am very grateful to Don Shewan for drawing the map. Broudic, Histoire de la langue… , p. Loth , Paris-Rennes, , p. Alfred Jeanroy , Paris, , p. I, provides comprehensive coverage. A new edition of the Chronique is a desideratum, especially in the light of work by Hubert Guillotel cf.
Trenchs y Odena, Valencia, , 2 vols. II, p. In some notarial documents from the late fourteenth century onwards, after a Latin protocol, the narratio and dispositio were in French, before final clauses in Latin, especially in instruments of an important diplomatic character or those concerning secular business. A second volume containing further texts, discussion of dating and other critical annotations has now been published Guillotel et al.
There is also a very convenient two-volume 19 th c. Jones, The Creation of Brittany , London, , p. Stein, Turnhout, , p. Some dispensations were sought for parishes far to the east of the late medieval Loth line in the dioceses of St-Malo and Rennes; how far this is indicative of surviving pockets of Breton-speakers has not, as far as I am aware, been the subject of serious discussion, but cf.