Die Schöne und das Tier: Ein modernes Rollenbuch für ein altes Märchen (German Edition)
Land can be bought up not to use productively, but simply to prevent competitors getting hold of it. Furthermore, if we look at the economy through the lens of climate change, the idea that the state should not intervene strategically to control and direct key aspects of production and investment is positively deranged. Looked at in that way, it is a major problem that state aid rules essentially forbid a Green New Deal, which is all about the state intervening selectively in the economy to overhaul infrastructure, make housing and transport energy efficient and so forth.
Lauren Dingsdale, a prospective Labour candidate in Middlesbrough and former lawyer specialising in European Competition Law, has argued on Twitter that this is exactly what the Tories are up to in the case of British Steel, with Business Secretary Greg Clark repeatedly referring to EU state aid rules to down-play his power over the future of the company. Many other EU countries intervene in their own economies to a far greater extent than Britain does but do not always fall foul of state aid rules, finding a way around them.
The company is still on the verge of closure if no new contracts can be found. But French energy giant EDF own the site, and it looks like they are going to give most of the contract to an Indonesian firm rather than Bifab. Shutterstock Adam Barrett, University of Sussex On a finite planet, endless economic growth is impossible. There is also plenty of evidence that in the developed world, a continued increase of GDP does not increase happiness.
For Kreibich the future of Europe depends on the development of democracy and sustainability on the continent. A bold vision and its realisation are necessary to enable Europe to thrive with a secure perspective. Rolf […]. Whatever the Bank of Spain, among others, says, the reality is that the wage increase has not only not led to an increase in layoffs, but also creates jobs without generating inflation.
Juan Laborda teaches […]. Article Ben Wray. The epoch in which Haller first started as a poet, was both a trying and a critical one to the resources of his genius ; for he had to steer clear, on the one hand, of the false taste in literature, introduced by Lohenstein, and to beware, on the other, of falling into the error of emulating the un- intellectual, nay, unmeaning versification, then so much in fashion.
Accordingly, under circumstances so inauspi- cious, Haller commenced his poetical career, and in him a new period was opened in the annals of our vernacular learning. Haller's poetry is, no doubt, raised upon a didactic foun- dation. The religious feelings and pious sentiments which attended him at all times, in his studies of nature, conspired to invest his descriptions with an unstudied solemnity and artless splendour.
All his poems abound with ideas, all possess a notable prosodaic harmony ; while the moral interest is so habitually predominant, as to take off, in no HALLER. It was written during a progress over the Alps ; so that nature herself must needs have suggested to our poet the scenery he so justly and so eloquently describes. His soul is inspired by a love for the ideal, and his glowing appreciation of what- ever is true, assists him to pourtray, in the quiet valleys of the Alps, that primeval innocence, which has long since vanished from the busy, bustling world.
Profound, yet touching, are his sorrows ; he sets forth the errors of the mind and heart in a strain of vigorous and almost bitter satire : but nature he copies with great zeal and with an unaffected grace. Haller is great, bold, impetuous, and sublime ; but that which constitutes the essence and reality of beauty, it has not, in his poems, been his fortune to attain. Haller's "Song to Doris" is a heartfelt and beautiful poem. Haller himself considered his didactic paper, " Vom Ursprung des Ubels" as his masterpiece, and liked it the best of all he ever did.
It is, in fact, that exalted theme, about which the philosophy of that age perplexed itself in vain. His unfinished poem, "An die Ewigkeit" contains some grand and truly poetical conceptions. In one of his letters to Bodmer, Haller volunteers the admission, that, " in himself, he is no poet at all ; but that great quickness of observation, when a youth, had, to a certain extent, made him one": with the truth of which assertion we also feel bound to coincide.
The most striking scenery that mountain regions afford, is given by him, while actually traversing their vasty, cloud-compelling steeps, with great fidelity and skill ; still more finely, and with even a larger measure of success, does Haller pourtray the manners and customs of those races, who dwell in the Alpine district. This poem has, upon the whole, "made" the name of its author, and will always be read with the greatest pleasure and advantage. Coincidently, almost, with the above date in , two writers appeared in the university-town of Halle, — Gleim and Uz we mean, who worked their way up into notice ; the former acquiring such a measure of popularity as, in fact, no Gennan author ever obtained before.
He was educated at the Leipzic university, where, in conjunction with Goetz and Uz, he became a follower of the muses. Gleim attended the Prince Leopold of Dessau, in the second Silesian war, in the quality of his secretary. Shortly afterwards, Gleim was so for- tunate as to obtain the secretaryship of the cathedral of Halberstadt, which office he continued to fill for the space of fifty years, until the period of his demise, February 18, Gleim w T as the man upon whom the German nation bestowed, communi consensu, the appellation of " Vater," — " Vater Gleim," he is generally called ; a title that shews, at once, how high he ranked, and how much he was esteemed and noticed.
Now, it used to be the fashion to extol the poetical gifts of this writer above, no doubt, the GLEIM. Gleim is a man who almost seems to invite us to draw a comparison betwixt him and Gellert Both authors earned and secured their reputation rather from their amiable private characters than from anything they wrote. And is it not a choice and goodly pranomen, and one that has some heart in it, this notable and noble denomination of " Vater"?
The most known of Gleim 's literary products are his " Fabeln," which are, nevertheless, of very various pretensions ; some of them may be fairly accounted elegant realizations of poetry, while others, we must in critical justice allow, may be styled, " weary, stale, flat, and unpro- fitable," on account of the monotony of the political bias, or theological aims, with which they are invested. Berlin sei Sparta! Preussens Held Gekrbnt mit Ruhm und Sieg! Dem Adler gleich erhebe dich, Der in die Sonne sieht!
So he began, and went on, with the whole powers of his mind, pealing the war note and singing the songs of free- dom. Lessing greets these " Kriegslieder " with the hono- rable affixture of " Bardengesang," — no mean proof, this, of the high value that these productions had won in his eyes. Here we will introduce a small parallel we met with in Gervinus' " Deutsche Literatur," characteristic of the various writers of apologues, which have appeared from time to time.
Gleim discriminates between their pro- ductions in the following way : — " iEsop's fables are poor, yet plain ; Phfedrus' pithy, but inornate ; Lafontaine's mytkics, — like a fine lady. He died when president of the provincial courts of justice, on the 12th of May, Uz produced a collection of odes and songs, which, although they rank among the higher compositions of his day, contain but little that would be satisfactory to us now. He took Horace for his model, and imitated the Roman lyrist as far as his abilities allowed him to do. That Uz was possessed of a certain degree of talent, no competent judge will ever think of disputing ; he evinced a turn for poetry, of which his " Theodicee " may be alleged as a sample, only he did not work up his powers to any point of even comparative perfection.
His descriptive poem, "Sieg des Liebesgottes " the Conquest of Cupid , has been always looked upon as something peculiarly happy and clever.
Consequential reasons against revoking notification.
Two odes by Uz, severally entitled, "Das bedrangte Deutschland" and "An die Deutschen," are, certainly, among the most successful efforts of his ethical pen. KLOPSTOCK, In that memorable and glorious epoch, when Frederick the Great ascended the Prussian throne, there was born, in the good city of Quedlinburg, a poet of a most original cast, who, surpassing in eloquence and in acumen all the bards, epic-writers, and master-spirits of foregoing times, had also sufficient genius to set rythmical fashions, alto- gether new and unessayed, while he wrote in a most un- wonted foundry of words, and incited intellectual endeavour to grasp at the highest topics that can, by any possibility, fall within the contemplation of the human mind.
His father was a " Kom- missionsrath. Accordingly, he left Jena for Leipzic, where we find him making one in the metrical confederation organized by Zacharia, Rabener, and the two Schlegels, — all of whom we have already reviewed. They were received with enthusiasm. Klopstock's " Mes- sias" appears, indeed, to be the very baptism of our national poetry, — the greatest and worthiest of our men of letters attending as scholarly sponsors around the consecrating-font of this new and beautiful style.
But before considering this magnificent pro- duction somewhat more at large, we must be permitted to digress shortly into some interesting particulars of its author's life. Our poet, at the outset of his career, had no means of triumphing over the obstacle of narrow cir- cumstances ; but a great admirer of poetry, Count Berns- torf, made himself acquainted with the " Messiad," and hearing of Klopstock's poor estate, recommended him very strongly to the notice of the king Frederick V, who forth- with granted him an annual pension of four hundred dol- lars.
His latter days were passed at Hamburg, where he died, when holding the office of councellor of legation, on the 14th of March, The funeral obsequies of the author of the "Messias" might justly rank amongst the most splendid pageants of the kind, that have ever been awarded to any poet of our fatherland. The German nation, the standard of whose literature he had so undeniably raised, and raising, had adorned it with the beauty of holi- ness, mourned, in Klopstock's demise, the loss of one of the most pious, the most humble-minded, and the most gifted of her virtuous children.
Die deutsche poetische Literatur seit Klopstock und Lessing. In the little village of Ottensen, near Hamburg, unpretending enough on the page of history, yet memorable ever after from this one circumstance, amidst the chaunting of that most beautiful and touching of his own hymns, beginning : " Auferstehen, ja auferstehen wirst du, Mein Staub, nach kurzer Huh! Merely from his salient genius, his unimpeachable character, his zeal in the cause of religion, and the pure and noble quality of his mind, we may easily recognize in Klopstock the poet who hymned the reverential stanzas of the " Messiad.
The idea of this poem was evidently suggested to Klop- stock by the Holy Scriptures, where indeed he found his whole scheme unfolded. Egerstorf, Esq. England can certainly boast of a " Messiad" of another sort, yet of a poem no less sterling and valuable, in Milton's " Paradise Lost," and we are naturally led by our subject to institute a comparison be- tween the two works. Klopstock found in Milton the way prepared and the paths made straight for the delineation indispensable to both plots of heaven and of hell ; but the incidents attaching to his human personages, it was left for him either to invent or to alter.
In these, the human parts, Klopstock' s poetry displayed its highest beauties. The cha- racters of the apostles and of the rulers of the Jewish san- hedrim, with many others, are delivered in a few pithy but masterly words. In the portraiture of the demons in hell, Klopstock has not equalled Milton, but the angels of the latter, compared with those of the former, are but meagre outlines.
Should any of our readers be desirous of forming an estimate of the " Messias," we would recommend those parts in especial, wherein the distinctive quality of Klop- stock's muse is evidenced with peculiar success, and where the great force of this writer is the most conspicuous. Such specimentary portions are : " The Convocation before the High Priest," in the 4th Canto ; the description of the early Christians in the 10th ; the death of Mary in the 12th ; the miracle of the Resurrection in the 14th ; and the period of forty days intervening between that and the Ascension in the 19th Canto.
The way in which Klop- stock wrote, and what he himself thought of the " Messias," as well as the tone of mind at which he had arrived upon the completion of this wonderful performance, are all finely shown in that Ode by him entitled : " An den Erloser," which he annexed to his poems. The cast of language in this magnificent epopee is emi- nently well chosen and select, and wrought up more and more to the highest point of literary finish.
Klop- stock was a devoted admirer of the German language ; he was not insensible of its great and manifold beauties, and was, in fact, so proud of it, that we are indebted to him for many a fine Ode, which he has written in its behalf, replete with that warmth of feeling, he ever evinced towards his mother-tongue. Klopstock was also a sublime odiac poet, and classical therewithal, blending, in his first odes especially, the genius and habitudes of antiquity with the spirit of the modern time.
Wie Kinder Schlachtens miteinander gespielt haben
In this description of literature, Klopstock is certainly without a rival ; in fact, he is the greatest ode-writer that any age can show, and may be styled the Pindar of modern lyric verse. But in richness and in depth of feeling he surpasses the harmonious Theban. Klopstock is so genuinely German, so faithful, yet so profound, as, perhaps, no bard of our fatherland ever was before.
Other fine sacred pieces by him, such as his " Ach, wie hat mem Herz gerangen," " Wenn ich einst von jenem Schlummer," may also rank among the most creditable efforts of his pen. He studied theology at Leipzic, in , but the theatre in that town awakening in him a leaning towards dramatic lore, he forthwith addressed him- self to this department of letters. Lessing, when in Berlin, lived in intimate friendship with Mcolai and Mendelsohn. Einiges zur Erinnerung an Lessing. Lessing was the man who set himself to abolish all those mannerisms, at once artificial and without sou], which had risen up in the writings of former poets.
He was the first of the modern versemen who combined the poetical Ideal with the poetry of real life : he cleared his ground as he went on, and weeded out antiquated moulds of thought with a skilful hand. In this labour, which we can easily imagine was a very difficult one, his genius proved his best assistance : on one side, he effected this by his critiques, which were perfect models in their way ; on the other side, he secured it by his own writings, which were types of poetical and prose art. Lessing also united in his own person the three leading qualifications of poet, philosopher, and critic.
All the varieties of his writings are highly finished, while in every one of them we can discover an onward progress. He threw down the gauntlet to his an- tagonists ; and triumphed over inveterate habits, creating, at the same time, something new and better. In Lessing' s argumentative works, an investigating power and philoso- phical spirit is evident ; while in his essays upon poetry, an artistic structure and aesthetical knowledge is striking.
His " Miss Sarah Sampson " is a lachrymose and heavy drama ; but the leading dramatic pieces by his pen are, — " Minna von Barnhelm," " Emilia Galotti," and " Nathan der Weise. By its dolorose scenes, which excel the comic ones, it ought, perhaps, rather to be classed with the tragic drama than with comedy.
The character in it of Major Tellenheim, is generally taken to be an ethical portrait of the poet Kleist. Lessing's tragedy, again, of " Emilia Galotti," finished in the year , charmed the public voice into a tone of general admiration. The human passions are exposed in this play with an extraordinary measure of sagacity ; there is not a single scene that could be pointed out as uninte- resting or sluggish ; no over-expanded dialogue ever pro- tracts the rapid progress of the dramatic action ; but the characters are thrown into masterly relief, and graced with the highest degree of artistic finish.
Borne remarks of it : " How faithfully are the interlocutors sketched, — with what force of nature, with what freshness of acumen! The sketches of character, as well as its famous vein of dialogue, are above all praise. William Taylor has given, in his " Survey of German Poetry," a copious translation of " Nathan der Weise," and a full account of Lessing's life and works. Lessing's correct taste and profound skill in the elegant sciences, are manifested by his " Laokoon," remarkable for the beauty of its style.
This is a noble monument of Les- sing's philosophy and erudition, possessing an equal value to the mere poetical aesthetician, to the antiquary, the phi- losopher, and to the connoisseur of Art. The composition of this extraordinary disquisition arose out of an expression of Winckelmann, that the priest " Laokoon," in that celebrated group, cried aloud with pain, like the " Philoctetes " of Sophocles. Lessing held, however, that Laokoon ought to be taken for a idealisation of suppressed human agony, and that the sculptor works by rules altogether different from those regulating the classical poet.
Our author then proceeds to institute a comparison between fine statuary and fine poetry, in the treatment of one and the same subject. But, after all, Lessing's true greatness is to be found in the fact of his having created an entirely new path of criti- cism. It can scarcely be expected that Lessing should, at the first outset, promulgate an sesthetical system, perfect and complete in all its minute features.
Folge meiner Lektiire, als durch die methodische Entwi- ekelung allgemeiner Grundsatze angewachsen. Es sind also niehr unordentliche Collectanea zu einem Buche, als ein Buch," shows us all he pretends to effect. Lessing was, no doubt, the greatest and most sagacious intellectual ruler of his day ; he had, in fact, studied with great zeal and perseverance whatever was to be known, and had acquitted himself so stalwarthily in consequence, that the whole circle of German critics, — who, at the outset of his career, were in an exceedingly depressed condition, — forth- with recognized in him that greater light, which was to eclipse whatever abilities they might themselves possess.
It is hardly necessary to add, that, under these circum- stances, our author came in for quite his full share of party- attack; howbeit, his acutely-polemical, and yet elegant pen, speedily put all his antagonists to silence. Lessing's " Dramaturgic" is an abounding golden mine of sterling criticism on the drama of his own day, includ- ing excellent and valuable comparisons of dramatic com- positions in general, which tended to refine the public taste, to favour the formation of a competent judgment, and, by an erudite examination, and by far-reaching insights into the classical and national drama, to ameliorate the style of the Comedist.
In this work it is, therefore, that Lessing's ire against the French drama is completely unmasked ; while it was to this production, perhaps, that Germany, at that period, owed her enfranchisement from the thrall of a servile imitation of the literary style of that kingdom. Lessing's " Fabeln " are mostly in prose, yet in the choicest and cleverest prose imaginable ; being all of them artistical, and replete with acumen and significance.
As a very spirited inkling, or fragment of Lessing's thoughts in philosophy, we may also instance his " Erziehung des Menschengeschlechts. Ueber Lessing's Genie und Schriften. This was one of our classical poets, and, accordingly, ought to be mentioned in a parallelism with Klopstock and Lessing. The embryo bard of " Oberon " received, from the wise solicitude of a parent's love, the advantages of an excel- lent religious education, and being, moreover, gifted with a feeling heart, his thoughts were early directed to the study of divine things.
His first essay at versifying, made when only ten years old, was to this effect : — " Fromme Kinder die gern beten Miissen vor den Herrn treten. In , our poet responded to the invitation of the duchess Anna Amalia von Weimar, to fulfil the office of preceptor to the young Princes. Here he lived in intimate connexion with Goethe, Herder, and Schiller, until the period of his demise, which event took place on the 20th of January Wielaxd may be reckoned one of the greatest names in the whole circle of German literature.
He wrote all kinds of poetry : hymns, dramas, and even novels ; effected a German version of Shakspeare and Horace, as well as a translation of the letters of Cicero and Lucian, — and was in most of them eminently successful. Wieland's Muse is a creature of extraordinary ease and grace, both in Her tones and in Her numbers. His fancy is most luxuriant. In his prose works he is natural and vivacious, and exhibits a good store of wit ; only a kind of Gallic attitudinism is Bbtticher's Literarische Zustande. But then his idiom is so ornate, and his expressions so nobly-aspiring, that we must fain lose our demurring surprise in a jubilee of admiration.
Wieland's delineations are replete with the power of pleasing.
Goethe observes, that "the whole of northern Germany is indebted to Wieland for its literary style. His " Oberon," completed in , is his chef-d'oeuvre, there being in this poem a beauty that may be felt, rather than described. The whole thing revels in a phasis of poetic fancy, and is coloured with the most strikingly-romantic hues.
In its draught and execution it is redundant in classic grace, while it is so very perfect and complete in itself, that this one accomplishment of Wieland's genius-directed pen, will render his name immortal. Can we say more than Goethe did, in the lines that here- inafter follow? What, then, did Goethe say and do? Ich habe Wielanden dafur einen Lorbeerkranz geschickt, der ihn sehr gefreut hat.
Lavater, to the following effect : " Wieland's Oberon wird, so lange Poesie Poesie, Gold Gold, und Crystall Crystall bleiben wird, als era Meisterstiick poetischer Kunst geliebt und bewundert werden. Our author has, perhaps, been most successful in this order of didactic poetry ; his manner therein is easy, and his satire, with which it is not sparingly mixed, is, nevertheless, always good-tempered. A specimen of an almost unrivalled flu- ency chartered, likewise, with the grace of classic lore is uniformly discernible in these compositions. Howbeit, we feel constrained to add our testimony to what was alleged at the beginning, viz.
Among Wieland's " Komische Erzahlungen" may be mentioned, — " Endymion," " Aurora und Cephalus," and " Der Kombabus " ; these are the most celebrated : while not less entertaining are his " Schach Lolo," and " Der Vogelfang. As one of the most charming novels in verse, we ought to account his poem of " Clelia und Sinibald "; as the two merriest pos- sible twin tales, his fairy tales of " Das Winterrnahrchen," and " Das Sommermahrchen.
This tale is an imitation of the " Don Quixote" of Cervantes, and one of its most amusing portions will ever be accounted the story — episodical to the main design — of the " Prinz Biribinker. In this work he deter- mines, with all the finesse of the French, the line of demarcation between wisdom and virtue. The truth, how- ever, of this novel of " Agathon " is, that it is Wieland's own history in a Greek dress. This is, in point of style, one of the most facile, polished, and fluent novels imagi- nable, and it ranks as the best fiction of his time.
Again, his " Abderiten," an urbane satire on the folly in manners indigenous to small country towns, is a first-rate production. In his " Goldenen Spiegel," and " Geschichte des Da- nischmed," Wieland has enunciated his principles of poetry. The most successful of the transla- tions by this author is his German version of " Horace," which is, in fact, a masterpiece. This rendering of the old Roman lyric we may, not inaccurately, pronounce " Horatius Redivivus," so closely does Wieland approach his great prototype.
The translation of " Cicero's Letters" is not less excellent. In his German promulgation of " Shakspeare," Wieland was scarcely as happy ; still, there is great merit due to him, on the whole, as he was one of the first who made our fatherland acquainted with the writings of that imperishable genius. The northern parts of Germany have been the nursing- mothers of master-spirits. The warlike era in the middle of the eighteenth century, and the hero and king of that time, Frederick the Great, furnished the poetry of the day with new subject-matter, while he furthered the arts and KLEIST.
The study of the ancient classics, and of the English and French literature, made a great impression upon the com- positions of that day ; and the style adopted by such lead- ing authors as Klopstock and Lessing, induced a progress altogether unusual and unknown in any other tongue.
The ode now assumes a classical form, and the interests of didactic poetry are advanced. Halle and Berlin applied themselves principally to poetry, philosophy, and criticism. Gleim and Uz sprang up in the university town of Halle ; whilst at Berlin: Kleist, Rainier, Mendelsohn, Nicolai, and Lessing, flourished ; at Hamburg : Klopstock and Hage- dorn assisted with great zeal in the organization of bardic unions. Of Hagedorn we have already spoken ; it remains for us now to consider the others. He became in an officer in the Danish army, from which, however, he seceded, when Frederick H recalled all his subjects from foreign sendees.
Kleist fought in as a colonel under General Eink at the battle of Kunersdorf, where he stormed the last battery of the Rus- sians ; in this sortie his right arm was disabled, so that he could only wield his sword with the left hand. The in- stant after a cannon-ball had shattered his leg, he shouted, sinking from his seat in the saddle : "Kinder verlasst euren Konig nicht!
Er starb fur's Vaterland, er starb voll Heldenmuth. Ihr Winde, wehet sanft! His works are characterised by pleasant portrait- ures, hannonious numbers, great appearance of ease, a richness of thought, with succinctness of expression and a noble morality. Occasionally, however, we meet with an abandonment of style, and a hardness of versification. Nevertheless, Kleist's " Fruhling" is undoubtedly a very beautiful piece of poetry.
Nor ought we to omit, that this poet certainly displayed considerable tact and talent in describing natural scenery, in laying out sweet country- parts, and in depicting the amenities of a rural life. In his " Fruhling," Kleist has put forth all his bardic powers, and it occupies one of the first niches in the pictu- resque and descriptive poetry of Germany. Kleist takes up his position on a scent-breathing hill or mount, and thence refracts the beauties of the landscape. He gives us the history of a genial day in spring. Kleist's hexa- meters constitute, in Klopstock's opinion, a fine anapaestic verse, which would be even finer, if the iambus oftener in- terrupted the action of the anapaest.
Kleist was also successful in other orders of poetry, the elegiac for example. In , he accepted the office of professor of aesthetics at the Military Academy of Berlin, and subsequently he became the director of the national theatre. He died on the 11th April Ramler was gifted with poetical talents and a notable appreciation of the Beautiful, — as far, at least, as the embo- diment of thought in words and landscape sketches would seem to indicate.
Notwithstanding that in his odes and poems he was continually polishing, Ramler may be justly accounted stiff in some parts of his style. He was, after Klopstock, the greatest odiac poet of that age. Horace was his prototype, and accordingly he wrote panegyrics upon Frederick the Great, his sovereign, exactly in the same way as Horace had done in the case of Augustus Caesar.
Hence he has been styled " the German Horace ;" only Ramler did not come up to his great original in point of lyrical power and liveliness of fancy. Ramler's trans- lation of fifteen odes of Horace was considered by his con- temporaries the very best thing of the kind. He was a bookseller there. He was also a doctor of philosophy, and a member of the academies of Munich and Berlin. He died on the 8th of January His critical Reviews, of which he usually was the editor, from the " Bibliothek der schonen Wissenschaften," down to the " Allgemeine Deutsche Bibliothek," had, for their principal object, the enfranchisement of human thought, combined with instruction in theology and philo- sophy, and the promotion of a finer taste in the " belles lettres" of German authorship.
In himself, Nicolai was possessed of good sound sense, a cultivated taste, and of a fund of information. He was also the author of several philosophical tracts, of a Tour through Switzerland, and a number of clever criticisms and pamphlets. The novels of Nicolai have no poetical value ; still they must be taken into the account, when we are detailing the literary cir- cumstances of that epoch. They are cleverly written. The " Sebaldus Nothanker" of Nicolai is a tale in imi- tation of Goldsmith's Yicar of Wakefield, in which he depicts the life of an incumbent of limited means, and exhibits, it must be owned, very considerable knowledge of men and things.
Whilst Poetry and Criticism were making a progress that tended to exalt the standard of the national literature, and were fast towering to a height, whence they could in- fluence and command by their own self-created strength, Philosophy also appeared in greater power than it had ever done before. Wolf was active in diffusing his ma- thematically-structured scheme, which pretended to be able to demonstrate and to define synthetically the entire circle of German learning. Wolfs doctrine was chiefly promulgated from the University chairs, and was even ad- vocated, in connexion with the dogmatism, from the pulpit itself.
Crusius of Leipzic, — a man who rather leant towards the olden Scholasticism. The brothers Baumgarten, both professors of philo- sophy, combined the two systems of Wolf and Leibnitz. The one was established as the expositor of this duplex thesis in the university of Halle, where he had Crusius for his antagonist.
The other brother, Alex. He became the founder of quite a new theory. It strikes us but too clearly, whenever we take a re- trospect of the historical progress of the national mind, that subsequently to the era of the Seven Years' War, phi- losophy was taken up rather in a dilettanti, amateur-like spirit, than in a temper of fair, scientific appreciation.
For a time, Jacobi and Herder essayed their utmost to raise philosophy out of its then prostrate condition. They were seconded by the contributions of two such pro- found thinkers as Lessing and Mendelssohn, the latter of whom ventured with his " Phaedon" within the precincts of religious inquiry. With Mendelssohn, the " Wolfianis- mus" was transferred into the popular philosophy, the representatives of which were himself and Engel ; whilst J. Sulzer , justly deserving of attention as an orator and aesthetical philosopher, endeavoured to prove and simplify practical truth, the belief in God and immortality, and to render them acceptable to the commu- nity.
Mendelssohn, no doubt, had the worthiest idea of philosophy ; its highest aim was, in his eyes, to serve as the mightiest cultivation and elevation of the human mind, and to exalt it into the highest science. We must further indicate as a popular philosopher Th. He was in very narrow circumstances when he removed to Berlin in ; he, however, got on as a tutor, and studied very hard. Latterly he became very intimately connected with Lessing and Nieolai. He died on the 4th of January Boutebweck says of him : " Mendelssohn may well be classed among the profoundest philosophers of his day.
He knew how to combine, in a most charming man- ner and exquisite degree, the philosophical with the avsthetical. Mendelssohn's ' Eclecticism,' which was the means of guarding his judgment from undue partialities, kept him also a long way from affecting the manners of the different schools of philosophy.
He was a great critic as well as a thoughtful writer. By the publication of his ' Phae- don, oder viber die Unsterblichkeit der Seele,' in which he deduced from the kingdom of morals, arguments for the soul's indestructibility, — keeping in view chiefly the doctrine of Socrates on this head, — he established his reputation ; and without being a strictly original philosopher, Mendels- sohn belongs to the greatest thinkers of his time. Thus set at ease in his circumstances, Engel was enabled to live solely for the engagements of philosophy and the lighter interests of the muses.
He died on the 28th of June , in the town in which he was born. Engel was a writer of great penetration, and won reputa- tion in every class of composition to which he addressed himself. To him Germany has been deeply indebted in her intellectual advances, for critical inquiries concerning taste and the fine arts, not forgetting also his highly-wrought dissertations upon topics connected with speculative, prac- tical, and popular philosophy.
Engel's " Philosoph fur die Welt," together with his " Fiirstenspiegel" — wherein his fine observations on men and morals assume a noble and exemplary form, supported, as they are, by some very lucid and tasteful descriptions — were the means of "making his name. This is universally allowed to be Engel's master-piece. Engel likewise wrote comedies, which for a long while retained possession of the stage ; the more so indeed, as the characters in them were drawn with nice judgment, and the dialogue was markedly elegant.
In the year , our author was appointed professor of theology at Gottingen ; but he had to undergo so many disagreeables on his arrival there, that he was not slow in accepting the post of superintendent-general and court-preacher which was open at Weimar. In , Herder was promoted to the dignity of vice-consul, and was raised to the class of nobility " geadelt" the same year.
He breathed his last on the 18th of December , in the sixtieth year of his age. Heedee ranks, undoubtedly, in the number of the greatest geniuses of which our fatherland can boast. Ac- quainted, or rather deeply versed in almost the entire circle of the sciences, he exercised a considerable influence, as a poet, no less than as a theologian, student of the humani- ties, philosopher, aesthetician, antiquary, and historiogra- pher.
Herder's thoroughly-poetical mind conceived all that entered it in an imaging sense ; wherefore he always wrote like a poet, even when not numbering his syllables, and while his words were streaming on in a unfettered manner. Even in his prose we acknowledge him to be a poet, and not merely, indeed, touching graphic expressions, unusual inflexions of phraseology, and arrangement of the words, but also in the exhibition of bold and brilliant metaphor. His friend Jean Paul said of him : — " Herder war kein Dichter, er war etwas weit erhabeneres und besseres als ein Poet, er war selbst ein Gedicht, ein indisch, griechisches Epos, von einem der reinsten Goetter erschaffen.
These " Walder " are written in a luscious vein, and in an ornate style. The first " Waldchen " exa- i mines Lessing's " Laokoon. A flower blooms through- out the whole of this work, structured out of man's inner nobilities ; and this exalting quality of its language is in- stantly thrown back into the theines of the heart, inasmuch as Herder's muse exercises no little influence over the ideal of man; it develops the exalted character of the human mind in a way altogether indescribable and peculiar. Herder's " Ideen " is, no doubt, a work well calculated to incline a man to habits of reflection, to set him in the track of discovery, and to engage his warmest admiration.
Viewed as a philosopher, Herder was a follower of Kant, until, eventually, he went over to eclecticism. For his knowledge of criticism and aesthetics, Herder was, evi- dently, indebted to the compositions of Winckelmann and Lessing. As a theologian, we find him chiming in with the spirit of Christianity ; his work, " Vom Geist der hebraischen Poesie" is a very valuable performance. Consider Herder as a poet, and you find him great in the epic. Herder turned to account whatever romances he could find, that were handed dow n by the old chroniclers, and had reference to the for- tunes of the Spanish hero.
Yet, to what use did he put these annals? The tone he assumes, bears as is most fitting quite the genuine stamp of the old Spanish romance writers ; and, taken as a whole, this is a most wonderful achievement in verse : it is elegant, and most pleasing. Herder's " Legends " are also excel- lent.
He fonned an anthology, too, of all the most popular traditions and national rhymes, — the aggregate symposia of all nations, — which he gave to the world under the title of" Volkslieder. The poetical productions of Herder's latter years are almost all of a philosophic and speculative kind, arrayed in allegorical drapery ; thus may also his religious poems be classed,— they are even at times mystical ; there is, as we said before, an allegorical, melancholic breath upon them which occasionally lapses into a real dream.
Let us now bestow a glance upon Herder's con- ception, execution, and language, and what his genius contrived to place quite palpably before the eyes of his readers. His ideas are multifarious, and were often sug- gested by his own studies, often by the promptings of exter mil circumstances. We see how enamoured he became of his own contemplativeness, and of his own clear way of think ing : in every path of philosophy and knowledge we en counter the poet Herder, — now as critic, now as specific inquirer, and anon, as an inspiring poet.
Language an its oesthetical bearings have taken up a good deal of his time upon that most sacred concernment of the human race — GESSNER. With what delicacy of spirit has he not writ- ten throughout! Herder felt incited to make his fellow- men attentive to the highest works of the creation, of God, and of the noble structure of the human mind, and even to serve as a guide thereunto. His " Ideen zur Geschichte der Menschheit " is certainly such a striking work, that, although not without faults, it bears witness to the great mind of its author. Herder has supported his propositions with the force of his own attainments, and brought a philo- sophic depth to the carrying of them out.
His reflections are lucid, and although his results are often encumbered by poetical imagery, they, nevertheless, resolve themselves just as frequently in a masterly manner. The amenity of his language is hardly to be described ; he is so easy, so agree- able, and artistic : and then again, so elegant and so poetically beautiful. His father being a bookseller, young Gessner was sent to Berlin to learn the same trade.source url
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This occupation, however, was but little suited to his taste : in the end he broke his connexion with commerce, and began to draw, to paint, and to write poems. Shortly after this, he left Berlin and returned to Zurich, where he was much beloved and respected. He was a member of the grand council, in the offices of a painter, en- graver, and poet. He died on the 2nd of March Gessner is one of those few German bards who gained a great reputation in the " Idyl.
Another greater poem appeared in the following year, viz. His first volume of " Idyllen " was given to the world in This work won for its author European fame, and, making allowance for its monotonous air, is written in an amiable spirit, with a graceful naivete, with many sal- lies of refined wit, and with a native elegance of allusion. It abounds also in picturesque colouring, and the costume of the tales is strictly appropriate. A companion-volume oJ " Idyls" came out in , together with " Briefe iiber die Landschaftsmalerei. Gessner's "Tod Abel's" first appeared in , and was received with great favour by the religious world.
The " Death of Abel " is a beautifully-executed little story, founded alto- gether upon the narrative in the Bible. The whole piece ought, indeed, to be looked upon as an epic poem, which pleases us by the delicacy with which it is done, and by vast numbers of well-conceived pictures, which are coloured il we may so speak , with the greatest taste and talent.
Wolff's National Literatur. The following little verse is very descriptive of Gessner's character: — " Als einst urn seine Kunst Die Muse des Gesangs und die der Zeichenkunst Sich stritten, hiess Apoll, um ihren Streit zu schlichten, Inn malen im Gesang, und im Gesange dichten. He became, in , doctor of laws and counsellor of the government at the city of Leipzic.
He died on the 7th of July The fables of this author secured him a great popularity in Germany, and are read even at the present day. Their chief recommendations are, excellent moral feeling and a powerful invention. Lessing said of them : " The in- equality that strikes us in the compositions of Lichtwer, is of quite a peculiar kind. We cannot say that we detect in them genius without taste, for genius alone will create great, though disproportionate beauties ; and a noble work of art has seldom proceeded from the brain of genius, which a masterly hand might not have altered or improved.
But you will have observed," proceeds Lessing, " that many of Lichtwer's fables, as they came fresh from his hand, wear such a finished appearance, as to defy the most sagacious critic. They would seem to bespeak a man in whom the Ideal, and the best rules for realizing it, lie enshrined and deeply-seated. Lichtwer, at the same time, falls off in the majority of his fables, so that he is hardly to be recognized as one and the same writer. He retired from service in , and accepted, in , the Danish consulship at Lubec, where he died on the 1st of November This follower of literature has distinguished himself both as a lyric and dramatic writer, having under his control not only the most highly-wrought and passionate represent- ative power, but also all the refined amenities of poetry.
His famous tragedy of " Ugolino," which came out in , was taken from the " Purgatory " of Dante. It is not a piece adapted to the stage, but of very considerable merit, notwithstanding. Its characters are most forcibly brought out, and the style — which is among Melpomene's highest walks, although, no doubt, overstrained at times — still proclaims a poet of the highest degree. Numerous portions may he selected, that are emphatically poetical and good ; while it may not be uninteresting to know, that " Ugolino " was one of the favourite works of Schiller, when a young man.
The year gave us a lyric poem from the pen of our author, which bore the title of " Das Gedicht eines Skalclen. It is necessary, however, to be somewhat versed in the phraseology of the " Edda," in order to enjoy, in its full force, the poem in question. He was brought up at the Gottingen University. He expired on the 18th of March , when secretary and counsellor of the Gothan legation. This writer was rather gifted with good common-sense, and a shrewd wit, than with a poetical turn of mind. For this reason, the most valuable of his works will be his prose didactic epistles, — ranking, as they do, much higher than the remainder of his compositions, which are more or less imitations of the French style.
In a manner at once easy and mellifluous, and with a most persuasive eloquence, Gotter knows how to lay down the most useful advice, and to deliver the lessons of wisdom and prudence. The re- mainder of his efforts in verse, comprising elegies, epistles, and songs, are very correctly and neatly written ; but they betray a dearth of invention, have too much of a plagiar- istic air, and are wanting in poetical idea. The correct- ness of his style has been always a merit in this writer.
Gotter also published several comedies. His " Erb- schleicher," " Der schwarze Mann," " Marianna," " Die Dorfgala," were all of them much admired at the time, for the powerful way in which they are conceived and executed. His tragedies of " Electra " and " Merope " are imitations of Voltaire. EUS Was born at Jena, in He died when professor of the College at Weimar, on the 28th of October He is reported to have been amiable and exemplary in his private character, — a circumstance that his writings sufficiently attest.
A most agreeable humour and a fine order of sarcasm meet us prima facie in the writings of Musaeus. The association of his ideas is remarkably grand, his delineations spirited, and his language choice and graphic. The design of Musaeus, in bringing out his " Physiogno- mische Reisen," was to ridicule the system of Lavater, and to throw over it a mantle of satire. His " Volksmahrchen der Deutschen " is his most popular production ; and even if it may have lost not a little of its nationality, and have suffered occasionally from a tendency to gossip and ego- tism, it still occupies one of the highest positions in litera- ture, and has, in fact, become quite a standard publication.
Even the most seemingly unprofitable matter, gathered from the current of popular tradition, grows up, under the nursing of Musaeus, into most charming and entertaining reading. A sagacious humour, mingled with much reflectiveness, is discernible in his " Freund Heins Erscheinungen.
The whole works of Musaeus are, therefore, not only very entertaining, instructive and lively, but also very refreshing reading. In a lady-like and elegant tone of mind she has also penned " Volksmahrchen " and historical novels. Her style is agreeable, and the tales are praiseworthy, from the train of refined sentiments with which they are garnished. The best and most successful of her novels is " Thekla von Thurn. That order of composition we designate a novel, and which had been more or less neglected during the preceding period, or if at all taken up, was carried to no point of even compa- rative perfection, was now seriously adopted by many writers — among whom were Jung, Lafontaine, and Meisner — with a view to its further amelioration.
They usually derived their subjects from scenes in domestic life, and originated an entirely new class of fictitious works, to which the name of " Familienromane " was given. Some of their produc- tions are very highly thought of, and we may particularly adduce Jung's as an example. He was the son of a poor tailor, who had not the means of giving him a liberal education, but brought him up to his own business. But the needle had naturally few charms for him ; and a person in a higher station, fortu- nately discovering the abilities of the youth, adopted him, and became answerable for the completion of his education.
Jung Stilling studied medicine, and became a very famous oculist.
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He died at Karlsruhe, on the 23rd of March Jung Stilling wrote his own life, which he entitled " Jugend," " Jiinglingsjahre," "Wan- derschaft," " Hausliches Leben," " Alter," and this auto- biography is a very precious and rare composition. In the whole circle of German literature, there is scarcely a book to be found, written in such simplicity of style, in such a tone of reality and truth, as this same life ; it always has borne, and always will bear, the credit of possessing these qualities in an eminent degree.
Jung Stilling was a very peculiar phenomenon to poets like Herder and Goethe ; — the manner in which this man contemplated Life,— the way in which he related his fortunes and misfortunes, — how he conceived the ways of Providence — appeared to our poets as an idyl, and a poetry of a nature of a very peculiar cast, because it was not modelled, nor did it fascinate them by the artistic composition of the form, but by its peculiarity throughout.
After Jung Stilling had written his life, he was incorpo- rated among the learned professors of the university, and he then founded a book-making establishment, and the manufactures he produced were his religious-mystical novels, such as " Theobald," " Das Heimweh," " Ge- schichte des Herra von Morgenthau," and a goodly num- ber of the same class.
He was the son of an artist. He applied himself to the study of theology, and became Doctor of Philosophy and " Cano- nicus" at Halle, where he died, on the 20th of April Gru- ber. For a number of years, these works were quite the fashion, and pleased by their naturalness and by their amusing style. Lafontaine was the author of an immense number of works of fiction, among which his " Budolph von Werdenberg," " Die beiden Braute," " Sittengemalde," " Der Sonder- ling," " Die Pfarre an der See," may be considered his best. He expired on the 20th of February , when master of the high school at Fulda.
Meissner was the author of a long series of historical novels. The style he adopted was markedly polished and ornate, while his language was fine, and for the most part solemn. Meissner was not deficient in the imaginative faculty, yet his delineations were often affected, and his expressions in want of verisimilitude.
His " Skizzen " were, at the time, a favourite with the public. He studied at Gbttingen. He died on the 6th of March , as Hanoverian inspector of the Doom School. Knigge ranks far higher in our literature than the two preceding authors. He was endowed with great talents" for the comic vein of letters.
His essay " Ueber den Umgang mil den Menschen" was once much admired ; but, taken as a whole, we can hardly venture to coincide with it, as it enunciates a kind of social Machiavelism, which enshrines egotism in a pleasant and elegant garb.
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KARL Kl. This celebrated lieutenant- colonel w as born on the 11th of February , at Weserinsel, near Oldendorf, and died on the 26th of December, Muxchhafsen ought not to be discarded from this class of authors, were it merely on account of his " Abentheuer," which, although they happen not to have been written by himself, have, nevertheless, made their way among all nations. Munchhausen recounted them in company and among his particular friends, who willingly undertook the task of their publication.
Surely there is no reader, in almost any nation, who does not know and appreciate the great and singular excellences of these " Abentheuer. This veteran was born at Gotha, on the 6th of October Twenty years afterwards, we find him prosecuting his studies at Jena, though all his time subsequent to was passed in his native town, where he had the good fortune to be promoted to the honourable office of librarian-in-chief and president of the ducal numismatic cabinet. Jacobs stands very high as a novel writer. He is, at the same time, a sagacious philosopher, and had a correct taste as a connoisseur of antiquities; being, in addition to this, extremely clever as a tale-teller.
His novel entitled " Rosaliens Nachlass," is his principal work of fiction : " Die beiden Marien" is also one of his chief productions. The action in these pieces is generally rapid, the descriptions are man- aged with great skill, and the treatment is tridy poetic. They are all of them novels especially adapted for the perusal of the fair sex, — all the personages embodying a deep-seated piety, combined with great warmth of feeling and love of truth.
They belong to the most distinguished attainments in modern German literature. While filling the office of librarian in the family of the minister von Brunau, a most ardent love of the fine arts appears to have taken possession of his soul, kindled, probably, by the trea- sure of ancient curiosities enshrined in the repository at Dresden.
All his thoughts, therefore, now ran on Italy. Not very long afterwards, we find Winkelmann become a convert to Roman Catholicism, and duly installed in the dignified posts of president of antiquities and secretary to the Vatican library. His end was tragical : while travelling to his native country, chance threw him, at Trieste, into the company of an Italian, one Erancesco Archangeli, who, affecting to be seized with a numismatic mania, Winkel- mann displayed to him very readily his whole store of gold coins.
During this employment, his seeming friend, under the hope, probably, of appropriating the glittering hoard he saw before him, treacherously assassinated the president, on the 8th of June Winkelmann was embued with the spirit of the olden times, practised in criticism, and conversant with the Greek and Roman poets; he discovered and explained afterwards the treasures of art.
His " Geschichte der Kunst und des Alterthums" is not only a sample of beautiful prose, but exhibits a wonderful treasure and connexion of archaics. Winkelmann's book and Klopstock's " Messias " have been the means and the origination of an entirely new epoch in our vernacular literature. Winkelmann may be safely regarded as one of the rarest examples of aesthetical study and research. He it was who first began to examine minutely those magnificent remains of ancient art, which have been handed down to us from the classical age, to serve the present generation as the most perfect models of artistical design and execution.
His life and soul, we may truly say, were in the Vatican ; he was to be seen there from morning till night, exploring and scrutinizing the hoards of human invention, and not unfrequently explaining, very graciously, to the aesthe- tical visitor, the genius and spirit of those sculptures, amongst which he may almost be said to have lived. By these means he was gradually laying up materials for the accomplishment of that memorable labour, the giving to the world, we mean, his grand aesthetical work, wherein he explains and comments upon the illustrious monuments of classical statuary, with deep feeling, profound enthusiasm, and, at the same time, with a measure of Platonic sagacity.
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Who can read those wondrous words of Winkelmann, in which he expounds the " Group of Laocoon," the " Torso in Belvedere," and other subjects, and not be touched by the elegant structure and the profundity of his lofty-toned mind? Who is there, that is not transported with admi- ration, when following the flood of his ideas, in which he unmasks those grand artistic creations of classical art?
The fidelity of Winkelmann's conception, and the astonishing depth of his classical vision, have combined to bestow an infinite value on whatever he wrote, and have raised a monument to his fame, that will abide and be admired in remote ages, just the same as the relics of old Greece are now. We must say, with Goethe : — " Winkelmann's Werke sind ein Lebencliges, fur die Lebendigen geschrieben, ein Leben selbst!
He became the head-director of the Dresden museum of an- cient marbles, and of the celebrated stucco works of Mengs. He died in Bottiger gave to the world several archaeological works. Alterthumskunde," possess a great value in the kingdom of art. He also published a work called " Sabina, Morgenscenen im Putzkimmer einer Romerin," giving an account of the domestic life and manners of the Romans, — and conducive, in a certain extent at least, to the real appreciation and understanding of the Latin classics.
Bottiger's Eesthetical criticisms are profoundly conceived and skilfully constructed. Karl W.
Karl August Bottiger, eine biographische Skizze. The quality of historic prose had declined as much in depth and in elegance, as had the vein of metrical com- position, before the epoch of the regeneration of poetry, and we have therefore as far as the annals and develop- ment of historiography itself are concerned to look upon J. Gatteeer as one of the first, who, with a store of learning, wrote his works with an historico-critical depth, becoming, at the same time, the founder of the school of historians at Gottingen. Then arose L. Spittler , one of the most talented writers, whose works have the high praise of being composed in the liberal-minded spirit of the European nation.
His lan- guage is concise, whilst a remarkable clearness of represen- tation reminds us of Tacitus and Thucydides, whom he evidently adopted as models. Spittler enchanted his hearers at the University, by his deep and psychological glances into history and by the magic of his speech ; but since he ceased being a free man he became a minister , he gave up writing. Whilst J ena entirely took upon itself the idealistic and aesthetic paths of the science, Gottingen became the seat of real and materialistic inquiries, and produced more his- torians than any other University.
Some of them, cer- tainly, — such as C. Me iners 0 , — never rose above mediocrity. Meiners was a foe to ail liberty, opposed to all civilization of nations, and dwarfed down into a mere bookmaker ; — his " Geschichte der Wissenschaften in Griechenland und Rom " will rank as his best work. Dohm was of a superior cast ; he was at first professor at the Karolinum at Cassel, and lat- terly ambassador. His narratives of history and statist- ical surveys are distinguished by a marked simplicity ; no affected geneality or philosophy is discernible therein: MULLER.
But at this time, Johannes v. Muller's great talents, in this vein, were developed, and historiogra- phy uplifted into pure classicality; the vast objects in Muller's works being achieved with much power. Friedrich von Gentz , one of the most talented politi- cal writers, and one of the most ingenious diplomatists of his time, may fitly find his place here. He applied himself to the study of history, in the city of G ottingen, and followed up those in- vestigations in which he afterwards so much excelled, until his fife's end. When he died, he was director-general of the public institutions at Cassel.
The date of his death is the 29th of May Thucydides and Tacitus were his models ; and in dealing with his subject, he has, unquestionably, made the noble style of composition, peculiar to the standard writers of the olden times, altogether his own. His language is characterized by an aesthetical beauty, and his mode of giving shape to his thoughts is exceedingly fine. Even if he be now and then wanting in urbanity, he is never with- out a certain degree of elegance and grace ; and if fre- quently elaborated into obscurity, is, nevertheless, always vigorous and energetic.
Muller's most celebrated, and indeed imperishable, works are : " Die Geschichte der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft," and " Vierundzwanzig Biicher, allgemeiner Weltgeschichte. Leben Johannes von Miiller, Heeren, Johannes von Miiller, He was an officer in the Prussian army, an' present at the seven years' war.