The delinquent - issue 19

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  5. Juvenile delinquency

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The Chinese mafia. New York: Stein and Day. Brown, M. Black gangs as family extensions. CrossRef Google Scholar. California Youth Gang Task Force Community access team. Camp, G. Prison gangs: Their extent , nature and impact on prisons.

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Cartwright, D. Gang delinquency. Clarke, R.

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Psychology and crime. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society , 30 , — Cloward, R. Delinquency and opportunity: A theory of delinquent gangs. New York: Free Press. Cohen, A. Delinquent boys: The culture of the gang. The delinquency subculture. Giallombardo Eds. New York: John Wiley. Dumpson, J. An approach to antisocial street gangs. Federal Probation , 13 , 22— Ellis, L. Neurohormonal bases of varying tendencies to learn delinquent and criminal behavior.

Morris and C. Braukman Eds. New York: Plenum. Feldman, M. Criminal behavior: A psychological analysis. London: Wiley. Friedman, C. A profile of juvenile street gang members. Adolescence , 40 , — Gardner, S. Street gangs.

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New York: Frankl in Watts. Glaser, D. Criminality theories and behavioral images. Cressey and D. Ward Eds.


Delinquency , crime , and social process. New York: Harper and Row. Glasgow, D. The black underclass: Poverty , unemployment , and entrapment of ghetto youth. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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Goldstein, A. Delinquent gangs: A psychological perspective. Champaign, IL: Research Press. Aggression replacement training. Gott, R. Juvenile gangs. Hagedorn, J. People and folks.

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Chicago: Lake View Press. Hardman, D. Historical perspectives on gang research. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency , 4 , 5— Helmreich, W. Race, sex and gangs.

Record number of mortgage loans are delinquent - Nov. 19,

Society , 11 , 44— Horowitz, R. Honor and the American dream. Howard, A. The study of minority groups in complex societies. Monroe, R. Monroe and B. Whiting Eds. Jacobs, J. Individual psychological or behavioral risk factors that may make offending more likely include low intelligence , impulsiveness or the inability to delay gratification , aggression , lack of empathy , and restlessness. Children with low intelligence are more likely to do badly in school. This may increase the chances of offending because low educational attainment, a low attachment to school, and low educational aspirations are all risk factors for offending in themselves.

Family factors that may have an influence on offending include: the level of parental supervision , the way parents discipline a child, particularly harsh punishment , parental conflict or separation , criminal parents or siblings, parental abuse or neglect , and the quality of the parent-child relationship. Juvenile Delinquency, which basically is the rebellious or unlawful activities by kids in their teens or pre-teens, is caused by four main risk factors namely; personality, background, state of mind and drugs. These factors may lead to the child having low IQ and may increase the rate of illiteracy.

Children brought up by single parents are more likely to start offending than those who live with both parents.

Juvenile delinquency

It is also more likely that children of single parents may live in poverty, which is strongly associated with juvenile delinquency. If a child has low parental supervision they are much more likely to offend. Children who are often in conflict with their parents may be less willing to discuss their activities with them.

Peer rejection in childhood is also a large predictor of juvenile delinquency. Although children are rejected by peers for many reasons, it is often the case that they are rejected due to violent or aggressive behavior. This rejections affects the child's ability to be socialized properly, which can reduce their aggressive tendencies, and often leads them to gravitate towards anti-social peer groups.

This often leads to an impulsive and aggressive reaction. Children resulting from unintended pregnancies are more likely to exhibit delinquent behavior. There are a multitude of different theories on the causes of crime ; most, if not all, of are applicable to the causes of juvenile delinquency. Classical criminology stresses that the causes of crime lie within the individual offender, rather than in their external environment.

For classicists, offenders are motivated by rational self-interest , and the importance of free will and personal responsibility is emphasized. Delinquency is one of the major factors motivated by rational choice. Current positivist approaches generally focus on the culture. A type of criminological theory attributing variation in crime and delinquency over time and among territories to the absence or breakdown of communal institutions e. Strain theory is associated mainly with the work of Robert Merton.

He felt that there are institutionalized paths to success in society. Strain theory holds that crime is caused by the difficulty those in poverty have in achieving socially valued goals by legitimate means. A difficulty with strain theory is that it does not explore why children of low-income families would have poor educational attainment in the first place.

More importantly is the fact that much youth crime does not have an economic motivation. Strain theory fails to explain violent crime , the type of youth crime that causes most anxiety to the public. The theory of Differential association also deals with young people in a group context, and looks at how peer pressure and the existence of gangs could lead them into crime.

It suggests young people are motivated to commit crimes by delinquent peers, and learn criminal skills from them. The diminished influence of peers after men marry has also been cited as a factor in desisting from offending. There is strong evidence that young people with criminal friends are more likely to commit crimes themselves. However it may be the case that offenders prefer to associate with one another, rather than delinquent peers causing someone to start offending.

Furthermore there is the question of how the delinquent peer group became delinquent initially. Labeling theory is a concept within Criminology that aims to explain deviant behavior from the social context rather than looking at the individual themselves.

It is part of Interactionism criminology that states that once young people have been labeled as criminal they are more likely to offend. Social control theory proposes that exploiting the process of socialization and social learning builds self-control and can reduce the inclination to indulge in behavior recognized as antisocial.

The four types of control can help prevent juvenile delinquency are:. Direct : by which punishment is threatened or applied for wrongful behavior, and compliance is rewarded by parents, family, and authority figures. Internal : by which a youth refrains from delinquency through the conscience or superego. Indirect : by identification with those who influence behavior, say because his or her delinquent act might cause pain and disappointment to parents and others with whom he or she has close relationships.

Control through needs satisfaction, i. Juvenile delinquents are often diagnosed with different disorders. Around six to sixteen percent of male teens and two to nine percent of female teens have a conduct disorder. These can vary from oppositional-defiant disorder , which is not necessarily aggressive, to antisocial personality disorder , often diagnosed among psychopaths. Once the juvenile continues to exhibit the same behavioral patterns and turns eighteen he is then at risk of being diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder and much more prone to become a serious criminal offender.

These two personality disorders are analogous in their erratic and aggressive behavior. This is why habitual juvenile offenders diagnosed with conduct disorder are likely to exhibit signs of antisocial personality disorder early in life and then as they mature. Some times these juveniles reach maturation and they develop into career criminals, or life-course-persistent offenders. Quantitative research was completed on 9, juvenile male offenders between the ages of 10 and 18 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the s. Therefore, while there is a high rate of juvenile delinquency, it is the small percentage of life-course persistent, career criminals that are responsible for most of the violent crimes.

Delinquency prevention is the broad term for all efforts aimed at preventing youth from becoming involved in criminal, or other antisocial, activity. Because the development of delinquency in youth is influenced by numerous factors, prevention efforts need to be comprehensive in scope. Prevention services may include activities such as substance abuse education and treatment, family counseling, youth mentoring, parenting education, educational support, and youth sheltering.

Increasing availability and use of family planning services, including education and contraceptives helps to reduce unintended pregnancy and unwanted births, which are risk factors for delinquency. Education is the great equalizer, opening doors to lift themselves out of poverty Education also promotes economic growth, national productivity and innovation, and values of democracy and social cohesion. It has been noted that often interventions may leave at-risk children worse off then if there had never been an intervention.

As mentioned before, peer groups, particularly an association with antisocial peer groups, is one of the biggest predictors of delinquency, and of life-course-persistent delinquency. The most efficient interventions are those that not only separate at-risk teens from anti-social peers, and place them instead with pro-social ones, but also simultaneously improve their home environment by training parents with appropriate parenting styles, [28] parenting style being the other large predictor of juvenile delinquency.