10 ans, pas méchant (French Edition)
In French, as in English, most adverbs are derived from adjectives. In most cases, this is done by adding the suffix -ment "-ly" to the adjective's feminine singular form. Some adverbs are derived from adjectives in completely irregular fashions, not even using the suffix -ment :. An adverb that modifies an Infinitive verbal noun generally comes after the infinitive:.
But negative adverbs, such as pas "not" , pas plus "not any more" , and jamais come before the infinitive:. The definite article agrees with a specific noun in gender and number. Like other articles indefinite, partitive they present a noun. In English, the definite article is always the the noun. Unlike English, the French definite article is used also in a general sense, a general statement, or feeling about an idea or thing.
Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
There are three definite articles and an abbreviation. Le is used for masculine nouns, La is used for feminine nouns, Les is used for plural nouns both masculine or feminine , and L' is used when the noun begins with a vowel or silent h both masculine or feminine. It is similar to English, where a changes to an before a vowel. In English, the indefinite articles are a and an. While some is used as a plural article. In French, indefinite articles take on the gender of the noun it precedes if singular, but also has a plural form that is used for either gender.
Note that des , like les , is used in French before plural nouns when no article is used in English. For example, you are looking at photographs in an album. The English statement "I am looking at photographs. If it is a set of specific pictures, the French statement should be "Je regarde les photographies. On the other hand, if the person is just randomly browsing the album, the French translation is "Je regarde des photographies.
The partitive article de indicates, among other things, the word some. As for prepositions, de le contracts combines into du , and de les contracts into des. Also, de l' is used in front of words starting with vowels. When speaking about food, the partitive article is used sometimes, while the definite article le, la, les is used at other times, and the indefinite article un, une in yet another set of situations. In general "de" refers to a part of food a piece of pie whereas the definite article le refers to a food in general I like pie in general.
The indefinite article refers to an entire unit of a food I would like a whole pie. When speaking about eating or drinking an item, there are specific situations for the use of each article. If the noun taken in a partitive sense happens to be preceded by a qualifying adjective, or a negative verb, then de is used alone. Wikipedia has related information at French articles and determiners. In French, all nouns have a grammatical gender ; that is, they are either masculin m or feminin f.
Most nouns that express people or animals have both a masculine and a feminine form. For example, the two words for "the actor" in French are l'acteur m and l'actrice f. The two words for "the cat" are le chat m and la chatte f. However, there are some nouns that talk about people or animals whose gender are fixed, regardless of the actual gender of the person or animal. For example, la personne f the person is always feminine, even when it's talking about your uncle!
The nouns that express things without an obvious gender e. This form can be masculine or feminine. For example, la voiture the car can only be feminine; le stylo the pen can only be masculine. There are many exceptions to gender rules in French which can only be learned. There are even words that are spelled the same, but have a different meaning when masculine or feminine; for example, le livre m means the book , but la livre f means the pound.
Some words that appear to be masculine like le photo , which is actually short for la photographie are in fact feminine, and vice versa. Then there are some that just don't make sense; la foi is feminine and means a belief, whereas le foie means liver. A pronoun replaces a noun in a sentence. Often used to prevent repeating the noun. French has six different types of subject pronouns: the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person singular and the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person plural. Tu is informal and used only with well-known acquaintances. In case of unknown persons you have to use the polite form Vous.
A good example, to explain that is the following: If two business acquaintances meet another, they say Vous. If they later fall in love, they say Tu. When unsure, it is better to say "vous. However, when pronounced, they normally sound the same as "il" and "elle", so distinguishing the difference requires understanding of the various conjugations of the verbs following the pronoun. Ils is used with all-male or mixed groups, elles is only used when all members of the group are female.
French pronouns carry meanings that do not exist in English pronouns. The French third person "on" has several meanings, but most closely matches the English "one", except that it is not so formal, and is more common. It has a number of uses:. On does not have ordinary direct- and indirect-object pronouns, only the reflexive pronoun se. Similarly, its disjunctive-pronoun form, soi , is only used when on is the subject and soi refers to the same entity. The pronoun quelqu'un "someone" can fill some of the roles of on , in the same way that one and someone are sometimes interchangeable in English.
A direct object is a noun that receives the action of a verb. You have learned earlier that names and regular nouns can be replaced by the subject pronouns je, tu Similarly, direct objects, such as "la balle", can be replaced by pronouns. Indirect objects are prepositional phrases with the object of the preposition. An indirect object is a noun that receives the action of a verb. Lui and leur are indirect object pronouns. When used with the direct object pronouns le, la , and les , lui and leur come after those pronouns.
Note that while le, la , and les are used to replace people or inanimate objects, lui and leur are not used to replace innanimate objects and things. Also note that unlike le and la , which are shortened to l' when followed by a vowel, lui is never shortened. Note that lui and leur , and not y , are used when the object refers to a person or persons.
The French pronoun y replaces a prepositional phrase referring to a place that begins with any preposition except de for which en is used. When expressing positive commands, there are several rules one must remember when using object pronouns. These are:. Wikipedia has related information at French Pronouns. In the introduction of the book the description of a sentence, versus a phrase was outlined.
A sentence, and not a phrase, is a grammatical unit, which may have nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc. Like English, a sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a punctuation mark. This word order is pretty much the same as English. While this is true in the literal sense, it doesn't mean you can't get the point across in another way.
In the second example you will see that the direct object and indirect object have been swapped. In order to translate an English statement like this, you would have to slide the indirect object to its proper place. Il aime les bonbons. He likes sweets. Il aime les bonbons? Does he like sweets? To form a question, attach "Est-ce que Sometimes "que" has to be modified to "qu'" for elision. Est-ce is actually the inversion of c'est "it is". Like all inversions a '-' dash is required. These questions in this form are typically mean't to elicit a "Oui" or "Non" answer.
If you want more than that, you must precede it with an interrogative: Quand est-ce que, Qui est-ce que, or Quel est-ce que, for example. Some of these later examples can more easily be said by just leaving the inversion off. If the question is negative, then the form is: n'est-ce pas, as in: N'est-ce pas qu'il fait beau temps? It is good weather, is it not? Example: Il aime ce film.
He likes this film. This is considered to be the most formal way to ask a question out of the three. The indicative form of the following sentences will be placed in parentheses for comparison. To ask a question by inversion, simply invert the verb and the subject the pronoun and insert a hyphen un trait d'union in between. Example: Do you like apples?
You like apples. Aimes-tu les pommes? Tu aimes les pommes. In the case where the verb ends in a vowel while the subject starts with one, a "t" needs to be inserted to avoid elision. Example: Did she make the decision already? She made the decision already. For third person plural verbs ending in "ent" , there is no need to insert the "t". Example: Are they buying a house?
They are buying a house. If the subject is a noun instead of a pronoun, invert the verb and the pronoun that represents the subject. Example: Did Marie choose this shirt? Marie chose this shirt. Marie a choisi cette chemise. For negative such as "ne You didn't eat the whole pizza. Example: Have you been there? You have been there.
Si tu finis tes devoirs, je te donnerai des bonbons. Pronominal verbs are verbs that include pronouns. These pronouns are me , te , se , nous , and vous and are used as either direct objects or indirect objects, depending on the verb that they modify. Either the conjugated verb or the infinitive can be negated each with slightly different meanings. In perfect tenses, the past participles agree with the direct object pronoun, but not the indirect object pronoun, in gender and plurality.
Therefore it would only agree when the reflexive pronoun is the direct object. Also remember that the past participle does not agree with the direct object if it goes after the verb. When a reflexive verb is put as an infinitive behind any other verb e. Like reflexive verbs, the past participle of reciprocal verbs agrees in number and gender with the direct object if it goes before the verb. It therefore agrees with all reciprocal pronouns that function as direct objects. In perfect tenses, these verbs agree with the direct object if it goes before the verb.
Otherwise, the past participle agrees with the subject. Now, the 'ne' sometimes disappears when one speaks. However, it is always used in written French and for formal conversations. To say not , never , or other negative verbs, you have to 'sandwich' the negative words around a verb.
Wikipedia has related information at French verbs. French conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a French verb from its principal parts by inflection. French verbs are conventionally divided into three conjugations conjugaisons with the following grouping:. The first two groups follow a regular conjugation, whereas the third group follows an irregular one. It is noteworthy that the verb aller is the only verb ending in -er belonging to the third group.
The participle is inflected with the use of the verb avoir according to the direct object, but only if the direct object precedes the participle, ex:. This verb has different stems for different tenses.
Although the stem changes, the inflections of these tenses are as a regular -oir verb. However, in the simple present, not only are there stem changes, but the inflections are irregular as well:.
Le Petit Prince By Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
Besides using avoir affirmatively. You can also use it interrogatively. A small complication arises, in that without some help, the result does not sound very good. The use of an euphonic pleasing to the ear is used with vowels before the pronoun. Thus, the letter -t- is placed between the verb and the pronoun:. Have I? There are jurisprudences relating to Charlie hebdo. Con was a clearly inlammatory term, but also one which reso- nated with the predilection for the use of con as an adjective within Hara-Kiri and the old Charlie hebdo to describe the abject quality of humanity in general.
Alongside that of numerous other politicians and prominent public igures, 55 Interview of 2 February Fais autre chose! Do something else! It was probably never in great danger of losing, given the absence of blasphemy laws in France, but this did not detract from the media attention the case attracted. Tensions had long existed between Val and certain other contributors to Charlie hebdo, who still strongly valued, wherever possible, a more global, taboo-breaking and anarchic content. His work was simply faxed in on a weekly basis. For Val, this comment perpetuated an odious form of anti-Semitic stereotype by linking Judaism with inancial success.
His removal from Charlie hebdo generated both widespread reader- ship uproar, which was often vented on the internet, and intense discussions in the media, which went on throughout the summer of Charlie hebdo est mort. Pourquoi conserver ce titre? Val de changer le nom de son journal. Charlie hebdo is dead. Why keep this title? The label is misleading, even deceptive. As a historian of the Charlie hebdo of the s, I solemnly request Mr Val to change the name of his newspaper.
Moi, Cavanna. Me, Cavanna. I breathed into it my conception of humour and critique, all of that. When circumstances meant I became a simple collaborator, I kept in line with the common discipline. This is why I am defending this newspaper with all my strength, all my convic- tion. The satirical taboo-breaking of Hara-Kiri in the s was almost unique to the publication at the time, but today pseudo-acts of provocation are appropriated even in advertising culture, to the point of becoming a standardised, ubiquitous and pleasure-driven carnivalesque orthodoxy.
They talk about the evolution of political caricature in France, difering reactions of people to being caricatured by a cartoonist or being ilmed, and the use of arche- types in caricature. Cabu also discusses the inluences of other cartoonists on his own art, the high points of his cartooning career, his cartoon reportages, and various book publications of his work. The most obvious function of the game of caricature is to provide a critical deforma- tion that tends to reform or to abolish what it deforms.
Those were the Pompidou and Giscard years, with the media bottled up and government ministers who called up journalists on the editorial boards of the public news media. Notes by the translator Mark McKinney are indicated as such Trans. All others are by Tanitoc, from the original French version. The quotation is from page Both European Comic Art 2. So what is so special about the idea of a confrontation between reality and a drawing, to create a narrative aimed at a multitude of readers? Some day one must write the history of all the cartoonist reporters, who, from Jules Grand- jouan to Ronald Searle, via Feliks Topolski, crossed social and geographical fron- tiers to capture words and gestures, thanks to their eloquent drawings.
In Cabu went to Nantes to view the Jules Grandjouan exhibit: it seemed wise to compare their work of cartoon reportage for the press and to speak with someone who has been a key player in the history of the satirical press in France since the s, focusing especially in this interview on his work as a reporter. Cabu: Yes, and town-hall meetings. I started out like that. Tanitoc: So you were doing reportage from the very beginning of your career. What form did this take? Sequences of images? Some drawings of important moments, with commentary?
Or were you simply taking down visual notes? Cabu: Sometimes, but because I was not too good at sketching [en croquis], they were right-wing presidents. Philippe Val is a musician and journalist, who with Cabu and others helped relaunch the left-wing satirical Parisian weekly Charlie hebdo in He is currently its editor and publisher. Interview of Cabu by Tanitoc were really snapshots; not direct drawings [du dessin direct].
Not sketches such as I make now, on the spot, directly. They were a form of commentary on news items. They can create a newspaper much more easily than we could: yesteryear, we did this with roneotype — you know, it was prehistoric stuf! What is it, how do you see yourself, as a cartoonist, in your position as editor, for example in your choice of editorial matter? And what do your professional responsibili- ties consist of? At Charlie, you know, the decisions are collective, even the choice of the cover is mostly collective.
On Monday evenings, there are about 50 drawings on the wall, and everyone gives his or her opinion. Otherwise, if there are several, its the editor-in- chief, Philippe Val, who casts the deciding vote. How about that! I had just returned from the Algerian War. I was lucky, I had encountered Fred at Ici Paris, while taking in my drawings, as I had done weekly, beginning in We hit it of well. Do you want to join in? He introduced me to Cavanna. Topor was already there. She crisscrossed the town to pick up boxes, or tin cans, which she sold.
But after a while I realised that kids were throwing rocks at her, whereas I wanted people to take pity on this poor old lady. The fact that she was in the newspaper meant that she was on the receiving end of even more stones than before. So I stopped. Tanitoc: I had been wondering whether you had ever given up defending anyone, as a cartoonist reporter.
Your comics are pretty ferocious with the people you meet, on the whole. Roland Topor — was an artist of many talents: cartoonist, song-writer, script-writer, etc. The biting humour of this page, produced to a considerable degree by the contrast between the narrating textual voice and the visual narrative, should not prevent the reader from understanding that it superbly condenses and recounts the war-time experiences of Cabu in Algeria.
So one has to remain modest. In the Jeanson network. You inally got together again in , , for a joint publication. Did all the material that you had accu- mulated during those town meetings serve as root soil for it?
What form did the collaboration take? Because the putchist generals had been amnestied before […] the people, including him, who had assisted the FLN.
After the Algerian War — , a series of French amnesty laws, enacted over several decades, eventually erased virtually all penalties and judge- ments against French government personnel including the generals and civilians who had taken part in illegal actions e. All the stores clustered around it, just like in a lot of medium-sized cities in France. The downtown became a desert. The things that we had lived through before stood us in good stead, because we had something to measure by: we had known a city that had been animated.
He warned him. It took ten days for us to have books sent out again through another channel. But there was a moral to the story: inally, the mayor demolisher lost the elections and a Communist was elected! Imagine, in a city of civil servants, with a military base, what a traumatic event there had to have been, for a Communist to be elected!
There was a funny side, a very endearing one… We had the impression that we could have an impact on something. How did you proceed, to select a portion of your countless works? Begin- ning with about two thousand pages, I then made a purely subjective selection, trying 8 Trans. Interview of Cabu by Tanitoc to eliminate the anecdotal, although keeping some of it, and retaining the essential material. I had to eliminate a lot, and tried to focus on the beautifully done pages. And, I should add, is not sectarian.
Tanitoc: There are many double-pages, published in Hara-Kiri, then in Charlie hebdo. Cabu: Always at the end of the week. Now we do the wrap-up on Monday. What was interesting is that at that time I would stay with readers. There was always someone who would answer me and invite me over. Tanitoc: Did you have a special purpose? For example, before drawing these pages about the nuclear facility at Dampierre-en-Burly Fig.
Cabu: Yes, I had chosen the subject of nuclear power, because at the time people were talking about it a lot. There were a lot of anti-nuclear demonstrations — furthermore, you can see what that produced: nothing at all. There needed to be a lot more people. How did you go about building the narrative and organising the 9 Trans. Did you think it through ahead of time? Did you draw the page on site, or in the train on your way home? Two days later? You need an angle. Sometimes I had one from the outset. In any case, I make sketches on little slips of paper and then I put them together.
Interview of Cabu by Tanitoc Cabu: I also encountered rednecks on site! One should reproduce reality. Reality is funny enough. If you do reportage, you should translate what you see. They really are very, very good. Tanitoc: … and reportages like that of Hamburg, in the red-light district they depict strip-teasers, clients, etc. Cabu: Yes, yes. Tanitoc: Did you also read publications like The New Yorker? Because it has a coldish humour.
He was an unsuccessful candidate twice in legislative elections. After his Commu- nist commitment and then his expulsion from the Party, he had projects, a kind of utopia for the city of Nantes… In any case, I see a connection between your 11 This illustrator and great admirer of George Grosz was sent around the world from to by Frank Zachary, the artistic director of Holiday Magazine.
He also worked extensively on a wordless comic book Maestro , never published during his lifetime, and published many short, wordless comics. Tanitoc: What experiences have you had in drawing cartoons at trials? But that was before Hersant, and I would never have done that under Hersant! Tanitoc: In the press box… Cabu: Yes, and you know, they never found his body. A great trial. Tanitoc: So there was a nice collection of individuals?
Cabu: Yes, it was ideal for drawing. I even saw Papon take the stand. Cabu: Now there are young cartoonists at Charlie who are picking up the torch. He is now best known for two state crimes in which he played a key role: sending Jews from the Bordeaux region to the Drancy concentration camp where many died in the Paris region, and from there to the Nazi death camps; as Prefect of Police for Paris, under President De Gaulle, he directed the police massacre of dozens or hundreds , beatings and a vast roundup of thousands of Algerians during a mass demonstration organised by the FLN in Paris on 17 October At the time of the ire people, from several African countries Mali, Senegal, Ivory Coast, Gambia , were living in the s-era building located on boulevard Vincent Auriol.
It was one of the worst French ires, in terms of deaths caused, since the end of the Second World War. The building was owned by the city of Paris and operated by an independent agency France Euro Habitat , whose responsibility in the nature and spread of the ire has been investigated. It was one of three ires in Paris that same year that killed a total of 49 people, many of whom were African immigrant workers or their children. It sparked a major public debate and an efort by the government to provide better housing to vulnerable, working-class immigrant workers.
In Charlie hebdo one can do reportage, because no other newspaper gives a whole page to a cartoonist. You look at the people you encounter with the acute eye of a cartoonist. I believe that you are very discreet in your way of going about your business, but do you encounter hostile or positive reactions, from people being drawn?
Or do you work from memory after having taken notes directly? Cabu: No, I always try to draw in front of the client! Someone who sees you scribbling is unnerved. There were three perspectives [regards]: the eye of a great photographer, there was a ilm director and there was a cartoonist.
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And we mixed it all together. It was montage, not live material. Obviously, there was preparatory work irst.