Der deutsche Islam (German Edition)
Over the next few months, Solomon was bullied in an increasingly aggressive fashion.
One day, he returned home with a large bruise from a punch on the back. On another occasion, Solomon was walking home and stopped into a bakery. When he emerged, he found one of his tormentors pointing what looked like a handgun at him. The boy pulled the trigger. The gun turned out to be a fake.
But it gave Solomon the scare of his life. When Solomon first told his parents about the bullying, they resolved to turn it into a teaching moment. But the bullying worsened, Gemma told me, and they felt the school did not do nearly enough to confront the problem. The Michalskis went public with their story in , sharing it with media outlets in order to spark what they viewed as a much-needed discussion about anti-Semitism in German schools.
For the Michalskis, all this was evidence that German society never truly reckoned with anti-Semitism after the war. We dealt with anti-Semitism. The big, the hard, the painful questions were never asked. Jewish life in Germany was never fully extinguished. After the Nazi genocide of six million Jews, some 20, Jewish displaced persons from Eastern Europe ended up settling permanently in West Germany, joining an unknown number of the roughly 15, surviving German Jews who still remained in the country after the war. The new German political class rejected, in speeches and in the law, the rabid anti-Semitism that had been foundational to Nazism — measures considered not only to be morally imperative but necessary to re-establish German legitimacy on the international stage.
Seeing Ally Against Muslims, Some German Jews Embrace Far Right, to Dismay of Others
This change, however, did not necessarily reflect an immediate conversion in longstanding anti-Semitic attitudes on the ground. The reactionary, far-right Alternative for Germany, or A. Now some , Jews live in Germany, a nation of 82 million people, and many are increasingly fearful. Overall reported anti-Semitic crimes in Germany increased by nearly 20 percent last year to 1,, while violent anti-Semitic crimes rose by about 86 percent, to Police statistics attribute 89 percent of all anti-Semitic crimes to right-wing extremists, but Jewish community leaders dispute that statistic, and many German Jews perceive the nature of the threat to be far more varied.premiermoneysource.com/wp-content/baixar-rastreador/3363.php
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The large-scale influx of refugees into Germany from countries such as Syria and Iraq that began in further fueled worries. Many see the greatest peril as coming from an emboldened extreme right that is hostile to both Muslims and Jews, as the recent shootings by white supremacists in synagogues in Pittsburgh and Poway, Calif. Multiple surveys suggest that anti-Muslim attitudes in Germany and other European countries are more widespread than anti-Semitism.
At the same time, a number of surveys show that Muslims in Germany and other European countries are more likely to hold anti-Semitic views than the overall population. The Anti-Defamation League survey, for instance, found that 56 percent of Muslims in Germany harbored anti-Semitic attitudes, compared with 16 percent for the overall population. Conservative Jews see the political left as unwilling to name this problem out of reluctance to further marginalize an already marginalized group or because of leftist anti-Zionism. The far right, anti-Islam A.
An incident that garnered considerable attention and highlights some of the complexities of this new dynamic occurred on a Berlin street in April , when a year-old Syrian of Palestinian descent took off his belt and flogged a young Israeli man named Adam Armoush, who was wearing a yarmulke. Schuster advised Jews in cities against openly wearing yarmulkes outside. He said he received the yarmulke from a friend along with a caveat that it was not safe to wear outside. Armoush said he initially debated this. But it ended like that. Anti-Semitism is indeed a mainly European invention with a proven capacity to mutate.
Often intertwined with economic and social resentments, demonization of Jews was long part of Christian tradition, and, with the growth of European nationalism in the 19th century, it took on delusive notions of race. The early signs are mixed. Like other Jewish families, they were ambivalent about remaining in Germany. Despite a wave of racist attacks on immigrants, that revival did not seem to materialize. In fact, the European Union, which was created to temper those impulses, was ascendant. Now, he believed, that sense of security has eroded.
And you want to install yourselves here. And you have no homeland. It seemed like a rhetorical question, but Feinberg, taking a drag of his cigarette, ventured an answer. Feinberg spotted a passing police car and ran to get help. Nobody wants you. People had considered him to be a regular guy. A video of the affair went viral on social media.
German far right fuels Muslim ‘takeover’ fears
On the day of the event, Feinberg sat underneath a series of paintings of the Star of David before a score of reporters. Since the incident, he had received a torrent of anti-Semitic messages. After Feinberg spoke, the head of RIAS, Benjamin Steinitz, said that the organization had documented well over 3, anti-Semitic incidents since it was founded. Or are they right- wing extremists? When researchers looked at all reported anti-Semitic incidents — including threats, harassment and targeted vandalism — in Berlin in , they were unable to determine the ideological motivation in nearly half the cases.
Salim Abdullah speaks of "defiant reactions" in the face of the constant criticism brought against Islam, although he's also familiar with converts who appreciate the "clear rules for behavior" provided by the Koran. Sometimes the newly-acquired Muslim values can clash with Western principles, in the opinion of some. The key question is how literally Islam's holy book is interpreted.
A Hamburg lawyer's office provides an intriguing example of what she means. Thirty-six-year-old Nils Bergner prays to Allah five times a day. The two visit the mosque together, but it's only in the German's office that the prayer rug is regularly rolled out. Recently, they were invited to dinner. The desert was tiramisu. Bergner hesitated because of the alcohol in the recipe. It's just a flavoring. Related Topics. In contemporary Germany, by contrast, people seem to prefer voicing opinions about converts rather than doing research on the history of Muslim converts in Germany.
The "German Muslim League" was founded in in the restaurant at the Hamburg Schauspielhaus theatre. Fatima Grimm, a veteran of the League, notes that the original statutes required members to have German nationality; Islam was not to be perceived as a "religion of foreigners". Her recently posthumously published memoirs, "Mein verschlungener Weg zum Islam" My Winding Path to Islam , are in many respects a document of contemporary history. The author was the child of an SS general who was a friend of Himmler. Stepping out of his shadow, as Fatima Grimm puts it, was one of her motives for turning toward Islam.
In southern Germany, the first Muslims rented taverns for Islamic celebrations because there were as yet no mosques there. Headscarves were unknown, and the few German Muslim women even wore short skirts. The first mosques were later established in Munich, Aachen and Hamburg by people from academic settings: Arab students and German converts.
The Archbishop donated the chairs for the auditorium of the Munich mosque. Back then, the political climate was unimaginably different from today: Egyptian members of the Muslim Brotherhood, welcome as opponents of Nasser, were even officially invited to the opening of Oktoberfest. Fatima Grimm's memoirs, which are written in conversational form, were published by the Narrabila publishing company, itself founded by a new Muslim.
The "Islamische Zeitung" newspaper, which just celebrated its twentieth anniversary, was likewise established by converts. Their essays on the intellectual life of Islam are studiously overlooked by German majority society — in order not to jeopardise its own stereotypes. Wolf Ahmed Aries became a Muslim in , at the age of 16, in a middle-class household in Hanover. At the time, his family laconically remarked of his decision that some people became boy scouts, others Muslims.
Islam in Germany - Wikipedia
Aries was director of a Volkshochschule adult education centre for a quarter-century. People in Germany seem to feel the need to constantly talk about radical converts, about the crazies, the preachers of hate — the swords. Theologian Rabeya Muller, who was born into the Catholic faith in the Eifel region in , exemplifies a different brand of radicalism. She was already in the women's movement before she converted, and then became a Muslim feminist and one of the founders of the Cologne "Zentrum fur islamische Frauenforschung" Centre for Islamic Women's Studies.
She is an imam who leads prayers and performs marriage ceremonies. Does the social history of conversion in Germany reflect a loss of prestige for Islam, asks Islam scholar Esra Ozyurek, who traces its path from an elite niche religion to the religion of foreign workers and finally today to an outcast faith.
But does this theory go far enough? The frequently cited figure of , converts in Germany may or may not be true — but in any case, there are too many converts in Germany to reduce them all to one single phenomenon. Germans who embrace Islam not out of frustration but out of a sincere passion for the religion are often disappointed by native-born Muslims, finding that they insufficiently embody the beauty of Islamic doctrine and spirituality.
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Politics sees things the other way round, accepting Muslims out of necessity , but not Islam. The goal is to create and foster dialogue between the communities. By Jan Schmidt-Whitley. Skip to main content.