Laser Control of Atoms and Molecules (International Series of Monographs on Physics)

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It explains the behaviour of matter and its interactions with energy on the scale of atoms and subatomic particles. Quantum mechanics QM developed over many decades, beginning as a set of controversial mathematical explanations of experiments that the math of classical mechanics could not explain. It began at the turn of the 20th century, around the same time that Albert Einstein published his theory of relativity, a separate mathematical revolution in physics that describes the motion of things at high speeds.

Particle physics is the study of the fundamental particles of the universe, or, in other words, particle physics is the study of really, really small stuff. Modern particle physics research is focused on subatomic particles, which have less structure than atoms. These include atomic constituents such as electrons, protons, and neutrons protons and neutrons are actually composite particles, made up of quarks , particles produced by radiative and scattering processes, such as photons, neutrinos, and muons, as well as a wide range of exotic particles.

The particles that are dealt with in this field are governed by quantum mechanics. This signifies that they may show both wave-like and particle qualities. The overarching goal of particle physics is to identify the simplest objects of which matter is composed of, and to understand the integral forces that drive their interactions and combinations.

Quantum mechanics is a theory of matter that is based on the concept of the possession of wave properties by elementary particles, that affords a mathematical interpretation of the structure and interactions of matter on the basis of these properties, and that incorporates within it quantum theory and the uncertainty principle. This illustrated handbook provides a carefully structured and complete exposition of quantum mechanics and illustrates the common threads linking many different phenomena and subfields of physics.

Future Research Infrastructures: Challenges and Opportunities. Bertolucci, S. The workshop combined presentations on the science of particle accelerators and their applications with talks on the development of future accelerators, and the papers included here cover a diverse range of topics including: the European Spallation Source; the Swiss Light Source; accelerator projects in Korea; future circular colliders; synchrotron-based techniques for cultural heritage; and the new research horizon in hadron therapy.

The book also includes a summary of the panel discussion on the need for international world infrastructures. Vibration and noise are two interrelated terms in the eld of mechanical engineering. Vibration is caused by unbalanced inertial forces and moments whereas noise is the result of such vibrations. Noise control or noise mitigation is a set of strategies to reduce noise pollution or to reduce the impact of that noise, whether outdoors or indoors. While noise and vibration can be readily measured, harshness is a subjective quality, and is measured either via "jury" evaluations, or with analytical tools that can provide results re ecting human subjective impressions.

Energy exists in many forms, such as heat, light, chemical energy, and electrical energy. Energy is the ability to bring about change or to do work. Thermodynamics, the branch of physics, is the study of energy that deals with the relationships between heat and other forms of energy. In particular, it describes how thermal energy is converted to and from other forms of energy and how it a ects matter.

Thermodynamics, then, is concerned with several properties of matter; foremost among these is heat. Heat is energy transferred between substances or systems due to a temperature di erence between them. The amount of heat transferred by a substance depends on the speed and number of atoms or molecules in motion. The faster the atoms or molecules move, the higher the temperature, and the more atoms or molecules that are in motion, the greater the quantity of heat they transfer.

Temperature is "a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter, expressed in terms of units or degrees designated on a standard scale. The fundamental principles of thermodynamics were originally expressed in three laws. Later, it was determined that a more fundamental law had been neglected, apparently because it had seemed so obvious that it did not need to be stated explicitly. To form a complete set of rules, scientists decided this most fundamental law needed to be included. Geometrical optics refer to light propagation in terms of rays.

The ray in geometric optics is an abstraction, orinstrument, useful in approximating the paths along which light propagates in certain classes of circumstances. Geometrical optics is often simpli ed by making the paraxial approximation, or "small angle approximation. Geometrical optics does not account for certain optical e ects such as di raction and interference.

This simpli cation is useful in practice; it is an excellent approximation when the wavelength is smallcompared to the size of structures with which the light interacts. The techniques are particularly useful indescribing geometrical aspects of imaging, including optical aberrations. General relativity or general theory of relativity is the geometric theory of gravitation published by AlbertEinstein in and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

General relativity generalizes special relativity and Newton's law of universal gravitation, providing a uni ed description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time, or spacetime. In particular, the curvature of space-time is directly related to the energy and momentum of whatever matter and radiation are present. The relation is speci ed by the Einstein eld equations, a system of partial di erential equations.

Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity is one of the towering achievements of 20th-century physics. Einstein proposed that objects such as the sun andthe Earth change this geometry. In the presence of matter and energy it can evolve, stretch and warp, forming ridges, mountains and valleys that cause bodies moving through it to zigzag and curve. So although Earth appears to be pulled towards the sun by gravity, there is no such force.

It is simply the geometry of space-time around the sun telling Earth how to move. The general theory of relativity has far-reaching consequences. It not only explains the motion of the planets; it can also describe the history and expansion of the universe, the physics of black holes and the bending of light from distant stars and galaxies. Mechanics concerned with the behavior of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent e ects of the bodies on their environment. During the early modern period, scientists such as Khayaam, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton, laid the foundation for what is now known as classical mechanics.

Classical mechanics was the rst branch of Physics to be discovered, and is the foundation upon which all other branches of Physics are built. Moreover, classical mechanics has many important applications in other areas ofscience, such as Astronomy, Chemistry, Geology, and Engineering. Classical mechanics is also of great signi -cance outside the realm of science. After all, the sequence of events leading to the discovery of classicalmechanics--starting with the ground-breaking work of Copernicus, continuing with the researches of Galileo,Kepler, and Descartes, and culminating in the monumental achievements of Newton--involved the complete overthrow of the Aristotelian picture of the Universe, which had previously prevailed for more than a millennium, and its replacement by a recognizably modern picture in which humankind no longer played a privileged role.

When atoms are excited they emit light of certain wavelengths which correspond to di erent colors. Theemitted light can be observed as a series of colored lines with dark spaces in between; this series of colored lines is called a line or atomic spectra. Each element produces a unique set of spectral lines. Since no two elements emit the same spectral lines, elements can be identi ed by their line spectrum. As the atomic electron energy levels are unique to each element, the lines in a spectrum emission or absorption can be used to identify the elements present in the source a star, say or gas between the source and us e.

The light electronic transitions in atoms produces may not be in the visual part of the electromagnetic spectrum, but for atoms that are neutral or have lost only one or two electrons, most lines are in the UV, visual, or near infrared. For highly ionized atoms, the lines are found in the extreme UV or x-ray region. Quantum electrodynamics, commonly referred to as QED, is a quantum eld theory of the electromagneticforce. Because the behavior of atoms and molecules is primarily electromagnetic in nature, all of atomic physics can be considered a test laboratory for the theory.

QED applies to all electromagnetic phenomena associated with charged fundamental particles such as electrons and positrons, and the associated phenomena such as pair production, electron-positron annihilation, Compton scattering, etc. It was used to precisely model some quantum phenomena which had no classical analogs, such as the Lamb shift and the anomalous magneticmoment of the electron. QED was the rst successful quantum eld theory, incorporating such ideas as particle creation and annihilation into a self-consistent framework.

Mathematical physics refers to development of mathematical methods for application to problems in physics. The mathematical physics is concerned with problems in statistical mechanics, atomic and molecular physics, quantum eld theory, and, in general, with the mathematical foundations of theoretical physics.

This includes such subjects as quantum mechanics both nonrelativistic and relativistic , atomic and molecular physics, disorder e ects in condensed matter, the existence and properties of the phases of model ferromagnets, the stability of matter, the theory of symmetry and symmetry breaking in quantum eld theory, and mathematical developments in functional analysis, algebra and modern probability theory, to which such subjects lead.

Thermodynamics is the eld of physics that deals with the relationship between heat and other properties such as pressure, density, temperature, etc. Speci cally, thermodynamics focuses largely on how a heat transfer is related to various energy changes within a physical system undergoing a thermodynamic process. Such processes usually result in work being done by the system and are guided by the laws of thermodynamics.

Each law leads to the de nition of thermodynamic properties which help us to understand and predict the operation of a physical system. The heat of a material is understood as a representation of the energy contained within the particles of that material. This is known as the kinetic theory of gases, though the concept applies in varying degrees to solids and liquids as well. The heat from the motion of these particles can transfer into nearby particles, and therefore into other parts of the material or other materials, through a variety of means. Electricity and magnetism are manifestations of a single underlying electromagnetic force.

Electromagnetism is a branch of physical science that describes the interactions of electricity and magnetism, both as separate phenomena and as a singular electromagnetic force. A magnetic eld is created by a moving electric currentand a magnetic eld can induce movement of charges electric current.

The rules of electromagnetism alsoexplain geomagnetic and electromagnetic phenomena by explaining how charged particles of atoms interact. There is much symmetry between electricity and magnetism. It is possible for electricity to give rise to magnetism, and symmetrically for magnetism to give rise to electricity as in the exchanges within an electric transformer.

It is an exchange of just this kind that constitutes electromagnetic waves. These waves, although they don't need a medium of propagation, are slowed when traveling through a transparent substance. The advancement of science depends in general on the interplay between experimental studies and theory. Insome cases, theoretical physics adheres to standards of mathematical rigor while giving little weight to experiments and observations.

Theoretical physicists use mathematics to describe certain aspects of Nature. Sir Isaac Newton was the rst theoretical physicist, although in his own time his profession was called "natural philosophy". The main purpose of theoretical physics is to understand physical phenomena. Accurate understanding is possible only using mathematical models. In the best case, experimental observations can be explained using only a small number of basic assumptions. Using the models it is possible to calculate the properties of the system under di erent conditions and predict new phenomena. Today's theoretical physicists are often working on the boundaries of known mathematics, sometimes inventing new mathematics as they need it, like Newton did with calculus.

Semiconductors are materials which have a conductivity between conductors generally metals and nonconductors or insulators. Semiconductors can be pure elements, such as silicon or germanium, or compounds such as gallium arsenide or cadmium selenide. Semiconductor devices are all around us. They can be found in just about every commercial product we touch, from the family car to the pocket calculator. Semiconductor devices are contained in television sets, portable radios, stereo equipment, and much more.

Science and industry also rely heavily on semiconductor devices. Research laboratories use these devices in all sorts of electronic instruments to perform tests, measurements, and numerous other experimental tasks. Industrial control systems such as those used to manufacture automobiles and automatic telephone exchanges also use semiconductors. Even today heavy-duty versions of the solid-state recti er diode are being use to convert large amounts of power for electric railroads.

Of the many di erent applications for solid-state devices, space systems, computers, and data processing equipment are some of the largest consumers. Polymer physics is the eld of physics that studies polymers, their uctuations, mechanical properties, as well as the kinetics of reactions involving degradation and polymerization of polymers and monomers respectively. Polymers are substances containing a large number of structural units joined by the same type of linkage.

These substances often form into a chain-like structure. Polymers in the natural world have been around since the beginning of time. Starch, cellulose, and rubber all possess polymeric properties. Man-made polymers have been studied since Today, the polymer industry has grown to be larger than the aluminum, copper and steel industries combined. Polymers already have a range of applications that far exceeds that of any other class of material available to man.

Current applications extend from adhesives, coatings, foams, and packaging materials to textile and industrial bers, composites, electronic devices, biomedical devices, optical devices, andprecursors for many newly developed high-tech ceramics. Applied mechanics is a branch of the physical sciences and the practical application of mechanics.

Appliedmechanics describes the response of bodies solids and uids or systems of bodies to external forces. Someexamples of mechanical systems include the ow of a liquid under pressure, the fracture of a solid from anapplied force, or the vibration of an ear in response to sound. A practitioner of the discipline is known as a mechanician. Applied mechanics bridges the gap between physical theory and its application to technology.

As such, applied mechanics is used in many elds of engineering, especially mechanical engineering. In this context, it is commonly referred to as engineering mechanics. Much of modern engineering mechanics is based on Isaac Newton's laws of motion while the modern practice of their application can be traced back to Stephen Timoshenko, who is said to be the father of modern engineering mechanics.

Wave mechanics refers to the mathematical description of atomic and subatomic particles in terms of their wave characteristics. What characteristics, properties, or behaviors are shared by the phenomena that we typically characterize as being a wave? How can waves be described in a manner that allows us to understand their basic nature and qualities?

A wave can be described as a disturbance that travels through a medium from one location to another location. Wave motion transfers energy from one point to another, which displace particles of the transmission medium—that is, with little or no associated mass transport. Waves consist, instead, of oscillations or vibrations of a physical quantity , around almost xed locations.

Waves are described by a wave equation which sets out how the disturbance proceeds over time. The mathematical form of this equation varies depending on the type of wave. Further, the behavior of particles in quantum mechanics are described by waves. In addition, gravitational waves also travel through space, which are a result of a vibration or movement in gravitational elds. Seeger, L. Geometrical optics describes light propagation in terms of rays. The ray in geometric optics is an abstraction, or instrument, useful in approximating the paths along which light propagates in certain classes of circumstances.

This book emphasizes a vergence approach to geometrical and visual optics, reinforcing its fundamental utility in clinical practice. Richard, S. General relativity is a scientific theory describing how matter, energy, time, and space interact. This book includes full discussions of many problem related to general relativity.

Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems. Biophysics covers all scales of biological organization, from molecular to organismic and populations. This book begins by explaining molecular and ionic interactions, movements, excitation and energy transfer, and the self-organization of supramolecular structures.

Kemron, D. Mechanics is an area of science concerned with the behavior of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment. Classical mechanics is one of the two major sub-fields of mechanics, along with quantum mechanics.

Classical mechanics is concerned with the set of physical laws describing the motion of bodies under the influence of a system of forces. Atomic spectroscopy is the study of the electromagnetic radiation absorbed and emitted by atoms. Atoms are made up of particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons, which are responsible for the mass and charge of atoms. Atomic structure is the concept of an atom as a central positively charged nucleus consisting of protons and neutrons surrounded by a number of electrons.

This book presents the fundamentals of atomic spectra and atomic structure. Physics is the natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force. It applies scientific methodologies to understand the most fundamental principles of nature: matter and energy, and how they interact. This book presents the common techniques of applied mathematics that are often used in theoretical physics. Thermodynamics is the branch of science concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

It states that the behavior of these quantities is governed by the four laws of thermodynamics, irrespective of the composition or specific properties of the material or system in question. The laws of thermodynamics are explained in terms of microscopic constituents by statistical mechanics. Thermodynamics applies to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering, especially physical chemistry, chemical engineering and mechanical engineering.

This book deals with the problems in thermodynamics. Khan, S. Electricity is the presence and flow of electric charge. Its best-known form is the flow of electrons through conductors such as copper wires. Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields. Electric currents and the magnetic moments of elementary particles give rise to a magnetic field, which acts on other currents and magnetic moments. This book provides a thorough understanding of the concept of all types of numerical problems in electricity and magnetism.

It also covers all the standard introductory topics, such as electrostatics, magnetism, circuits, electromagnetic waves, and electric and magnetic fields in matter. Theoretical physics is a branch of physics which employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena. This is in contrast to experimental physics, which uses experimental tools to probe these phenomena.

Many disciplines within physics fall under the umbrella of theoretical physics because they involve the design of formulas which may not be able to be empirically tested. This book presents the fundamentals of theoretical physics. Polymer physics is the field of physics that studies polymers, their fluctuations, mechanical properties, as well as the kinetics of reactions involving degradation and polymerization of polymers and monomers respectively.

This book deals with modern theory of polymer physics.


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It describes basic concepts and methods to discuss the statistical properties of the assembly of chain-like molecules. A wave is an oscillation accompanied by a transfer of energy that travels through medium. Frequency refers to the addition of time. This book presents the introductory concepts of mechanics and waves.

It describes the response of bodies or systems of bodies to external forces. Applied mechanics is useful in formulating new ideas and theories, discovering and interpreting phenomena, and developing experimental and computational tools. This book presents the mathematical foundations of applied mechanics. Nin, M. Wave mechanics is the branch of theoretical physics that mathematically represents subatomic particles as waves in fields, as in the theory of quantum electrodynamics. This book presents the basics of wave mechanics. Nanotechnology is the predominant basis which is presently responsible for numerous cutting edge and pioneering functional systems on a molecular scale where quantum mechanical effects are vital.

An entirely new generation of biological sensors, molecular imaging, solar cells, photo detectors, transistors and other optoelectronic devices have been made possible due to the direct use of phenomena such as quantum correlation, quantum entanglement, and quantum tunneling. Indeed, quantum effects can enable higher sensitivity and resolution than conventional sensors. Humanity can expect substantial improvements in their quality of life as a direct result of the advances in quantum-based nanotechnology integrations into biomedical and microbiology applications, including superior nano-sized drug delivery systems; cancer detection and treatment; DNA detection; and dental digital imaging.

A new generation quantum-based photo detectors, superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors, Nitrogen-vacancy centers, Graphene and Silicon carbide nanodevices are also opening the door for a new era of information technology with the realization of powerful quantum computing. Wave motion, propagation of disturbances? Most familiar are surface waves on water, but both sound and light travel as wavelike disturbances, and the motion of all subatomic particles exhibits wavelike properties.

The study of waves therefore forms a topic of central importance in all physical science and engineering. Wave Motion is devoted to the cross fertilization of ideas, and to stimulating interaction between workers in various research areas in which wave propagation phenomena play a dominant role. The description and analysis of wave propagation phenomena provides a unifying thread connecting diverse areas of engineering and the physical sciences such as acoustics, optics, geophysics, seismology, electromagnetic theory, solid and fluid mechanics.

A quantum system is a portion of the whole Universe which is taken under consideration to make analysis or to study for quantum mechanics pertaining to the wave-particle duality in that system and everything outside this system i. This book provides comprehensive treatment of modern quantum measurement and measurementbased quantum control, which are vital elements for realizing quantum technology.

A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. This book covers all the standard introductory topics, such as magnetism, electromagnetic waves, and magnetic fields in matter and also focuses on laser. Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics that studies the mechanics of fluids and the forces on them. Fluid mechanics has a wide range of applications, including for mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, geophysics, astrophysics, and biology.

This book offers comprehensive topical coverage, with varied examples and problems, application of visual component of fluid mechanics. Computational physics is the study and implementation of numerical analysis to solve problems in physics for which a quantitative theory already exists. This book explains the fundamentals of mathematical and computational physics.

In physics, a nonlinear system, in contrast to a linear system, is a system which does not satisfy the superposition principle? Complex systems is a new field of science studying how parts of a system give rise to the collective behaviors of the system, and how the system interacts with its environment. This book describes the modern unified study of nonlinear and complex systems.

Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions. High energy physics is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation. This book focuses on nuclear and high energy physics. Thermal physics is the combined study of thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and kinetic theory. Statistical mechanics is a branch of theoretical physics that studies, using probability theory, the average behavior of a mechanical system made up of a large number of equivalent components where the microscopic realization of the system is uncertain or undefined.

This book introduces concepts of thermal physics and statistical mechanics from a unified view. Radiation physics is the branch of physics that studies the effects of radiation on matter. This field has been instrumental in providing improved manufacturing processes, nuclear energy, and advanced medical diagnostic and treatment options.

With particular emphasis on radiation protection and dosimetry, this book deals with statistical solutions to problems inherent in health physics measurements and decision making. Velinova, Maria E. In this book, we provide a collection of research articles about basic concepts of group theory and its applications in physics.

The contents have been chosen with the aim to highlight general features and methods that prove the power of group theory in several fields of the physics, such that, classical mechanics, nonlinear and stochastic systems, quantum mechanics and thermo-fluid dynamics. In particular, it will be shown different applications of Lie? This book provides a summary of important works in the field of the physics of macromolecular solids and liquids.

The papers report the research results about transition mechanisms, structure-property relationships, the physics of polymer solutions and melts, glassy and amorphous solids, and individual polymer molecules. Yonezawa, F. This book, 'The Physics of Metal — Nonmetal Transitions', explores the mechanisms so far discovered which cause the M-NM transition and presents a systematic discussion of them.

All the mechanisms are discussed in terms of energy bands, and the band theory is introduced and explained in chapter 2. Once chapters 1 and 2 have been assimilated, the remaining chapters can be read independently of each other if required. The mechanisms discussed therein include the Peierls transition, the Bloch-Wilson transitions — types I and II respectively — the second of which was discovered by the author and her students.

Subsequent chapters cover the Anderson transition and the Mott transition, and each chapter includes not only traditional theories, but also updated information about more recent research. Franklin, Scott V. Granular systems arise in a variety of geological and industrial settings, from landslides, avalanches, and erosion to agricultural grains and pharmaceutical powders. Understanding the underlying physics that governs their behavior is the key to developing effective handling and transport mechanisms as well as appropriate environmental policies.

Handbook of Granular Materials presents foundational techniques used to investigate granular systems, examples of their use in contemporary research, and extensions to granular-like systems that greatly expand the realm of study. The book provides guidance on how to conduct research in granular materials and explores promising directions for new research.

The first several chapters cover various methods used by contemporary researchers to investigate granular materials. Subsequent chapters delve into broader themes of investigation, focusing on results rather than methodology. The final chapters describe three extended systems of granular media: suspensions, emulsions and foams, and colloids. Sattler, Klaus D. Each chapter addresses the fundamental properties, growth mechanisms, processing and functionalization of a particular nanocarbon.

The first volume covers graphene, fullerenes, nanotubes and nanodiamonds. The second volume focuses on nanoparticles, nanocapsules, nanofibers, nanoporous structures and nanocomposites. Carbon Nanomaterials Sourcebook, Vol. The Carbon Nanomaterials Sourcebook contains extensive, interdisciplinary coverage of carbon nanomaterials, encompassing the full scope of the field—from physics, chemistry, and materials science to molecular biology, engineering, and medicine—in two comprehensive volumes.

This setup allows for quick and easy search, making the Carbon Nanomaterials Sourcebook: Graphene, Fullerenes, Nanotubes, and Nanodiamonds, Volume I a must-have reference for scientists and engineers. This setup allows for quick and easy search, making the Carbon Nanomaterials Sourcebook: Nanoparticles, Nanocapsules, Nanofibers, Nanoporous Structures, and Nanocomposites a must-have reference for scientists and engineers. Shohet, J. This encyclopedia covers all aspects of plasma technology from the fundamentals to a range of applications across a large number of industries and disciplines.

Topics covered include nanotechnology, solar cell technology, biomedical and clinical applications, electronic materials, sustainability, and clean technologies. The book bridges materials science, industrial chemistry, physics, and engineering, making it a must have for researchers in industry and academia, as well as those working on application-oriented plasma technologies.

The CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Nanotechnology sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. It began at the turn of the 20th century, around the same time that Albert Einstein published his theory of relativity, a separate mathematical revolution in physics that describes the motion of things at high speeds. Particle physics is the study of the fundamental particles of the universe, or, in other words, particle physics is the study of really, really small stuff.

Modern particle physics research is focused on subatomic particles, which have less structure than atoms. These include atomic constituents such as electrons, protons, and neutrons protons and neutrons are actually composite particles, made up of quarks , particles produced by radiative and scattering processes, such as photons, neutrinos, and muons, as well as a wide range of exotic particles. The particles that are dealt with in this field are governed by quantum mechanics. This signifies that they may show both wave-like and particle qualities.

The overarching goal of particle physics is to identify the simplest objects of which matter is composed of, and to understand the integral forces that drive their interactions and combinations. Quantum mechanics is a theory of matter that is based on the concept of the possession of wave properties by elementary particles, that affords a mathematical interpretation of the structure and interactions of matter on the basis of these properties, and that incorporates within it quantum theory and the uncertainty principle.

This illustrated handbook provides a carefully structured and complete exposition of quantum mechanics and illustrates the common threads linking many different phenomena and subfields of physics. Future Research Infrastructures: Challenges and Opportunities. Bertolucci, S. The workshop combined presentations on the science of particle accelerators and their applications with talks on the development of future accelerators, and the papers included here cover a diverse range of topics including: the European Spallation Source; the Swiss Light Source; accelerator projects in Korea; future circular colliders; synchrotron-based techniques for cultural heritage; and the new research horizon in hadron therapy.

The book also includes a summary of the panel discussion on the need for international world infrastructures. Vibration and noise are two interrelated terms in the eld of mechanical engineering. Vibration is caused by unbalanced inertial forces and moments whereas noise is the result of such vibrations. Noise control or noise mitigation is a set of strategies to reduce noise pollution or to reduce the impact of that noise, whether outdoors or indoors.

While noise and vibration can be readily measured, harshness is a subjective quality, and is measured either via "jury" evaluations, or with analytical tools that can provide results re ecting human subjective impressions. Energy exists in many forms, such as heat, light, chemical energy, and electrical energy. Energy is the ability to bring about change or to do work. Thermodynamics, the branch of physics, is the study of energy that deals with the relationships between heat and other forms of energy.

In particular, it describes how thermal energy is converted to and from other forms of energy and how it a ects matter. Thermodynamics, then, is concerned with several properties of matter; foremost among these is heat. Heat is energy transferred between substances or systems due to a temperature di erence between them. The amount of heat transferred by a substance depends on the speed and number of atoms or molecules in motion. The faster the atoms or molecules move, the higher the temperature, and the more atoms or molecules that are in motion, the greater the quantity of heat they transfer.

Temperature is "a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter, expressed in terms of units or degrees designated on a standard scale. The fundamental principles of thermodynamics were originally expressed in three laws. Later, it was determined that a more fundamental law had been neglected, apparently because it had seemed so obvious that it did not need to be stated explicitly.

To form a complete set of rules, scientists decided this most fundamental law needed to be included. Geometrical optics refer to light propagation in terms of rays. The ray in geometric optics is an abstraction, orinstrument, useful in approximating the paths along which light propagates in certain classes of circumstances. Geometrical optics is often simpli ed by making the paraxial approximation, or "small angle approximation. Geometrical optics does not account for certain optical e ects such as di raction and interference. This simpli cation is useful in practice; it is an excellent approximation when the wavelength is smallcompared to the size of structures with which the light interacts.

The techniques are particularly useful indescribing geometrical aspects of imaging, including optical aberrations. General relativity or general theory of relativity is the geometric theory of gravitation published by AlbertEinstein in and the current description of gravitation in modern physics. General relativity generalizes special relativity and Newton's law of universal gravitation, providing a uni ed description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time, or spacetime.

In particular, the curvature of space-time is directly related to the energy and momentum of whatever matter and radiation are present. The relation is speci ed by the Einstein eld equations, a system of partial di erential equations. Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity is one of the towering achievements of 20th-century physics. Einstein proposed that objects such as the sun andthe Earth change this geometry. In the presence of matter and energy it can evolve, stretch and warp, forming ridges, mountains and valleys that cause bodies moving through it to zigzag and curve.

So although Earth appears to be pulled towards the sun by gravity, there is no such force. It is simply the geometry of space-time around the sun telling Earth how to move. The general theory of relativity has far-reaching consequences.

It not only explains the motion of the planets; it can also describe the history and expansion of the universe, the physics of black holes and the bending of light from distant stars and galaxies. Mechanics concerned with the behavior of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent e ects of the bodies on their environment.

During the early modern period, scientists such as Khayaam, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton, laid the foundation for what is now known as classical mechanics. Classical mechanics was the rst branch of Physics to be discovered, and is the foundation upon which all other branches of Physics are built. Moreover, classical mechanics has many important applications in other areas ofscience, such as Astronomy, Chemistry, Geology, and Engineering. Classical mechanics is also of great signi -cance outside the realm of science. After all, the sequence of events leading to the discovery of classicalmechanics--starting with the ground-breaking work of Copernicus, continuing with the researches of Galileo,Kepler, and Descartes, and culminating in the monumental achievements of Newton--involved the complete overthrow of the Aristotelian picture of the Universe, which had previously prevailed for more than a millennium, and its replacement by a recognizably modern picture in which humankind no longer played a privileged role.

When atoms are excited they emit light of certain wavelengths which correspond to di erent colors. Theemitted light can be observed as a series of colored lines with dark spaces in between; this series of colored lines is called a line or atomic spectra. Each element produces a unique set of spectral lines. Since no two elements emit the same spectral lines, elements can be identi ed by their line spectrum. As the atomic electron energy levels are unique to each element, the lines in a spectrum emission or absorption can be used to identify the elements present in the source a star, say or gas between the source and us e.

The light electronic transitions in atoms produces may not be in the visual part of the electromagnetic spectrum, but for atoms that are neutral or have lost only one or two electrons, most lines are in the UV, visual, or near infrared. For highly ionized atoms, the lines are found in the extreme UV or x-ray region.

Quantum electrodynamics, commonly referred to as QED, is a quantum eld theory of the electromagneticforce. Because the behavior of atoms and molecules is primarily electromagnetic in nature, all of atomic physics can be considered a test laboratory for the theory. QED applies to all electromagnetic phenomena associated with charged fundamental particles such as electrons and positrons, and the associated phenomena such as pair production, electron-positron annihilation, Compton scattering, etc. It was used to precisely model some quantum phenomena which had no classical analogs, such as the Lamb shift and the anomalous magneticmoment of the electron.

QED was the rst successful quantum eld theory, incorporating such ideas as particle creation and annihilation into a self-consistent framework. Mathematical physics refers to development of mathematical methods for application to problems in physics. The mathematical physics is concerned with problems in statistical mechanics, atomic and molecular physics, quantum eld theory, and, in general, with the mathematical foundations of theoretical physics. This includes such subjects as quantum mechanics both nonrelativistic and relativistic , atomic and molecular physics, disorder e ects in condensed matter, the existence and properties of the phases of model ferromagnets, the stability of matter, the theory of symmetry and symmetry breaking in quantum eld theory, and mathematical developments in functional analysis, algebra and modern probability theory, to which such subjects lead.

Thermodynamics is the eld of physics that deals with the relationship between heat and other properties such as pressure, density, temperature, etc. Speci cally, thermodynamics focuses largely on how a heat transfer is related to various energy changes within a physical system undergoing a thermodynamic process. Such processes usually result in work being done by the system and are guided by the laws of thermodynamics. Each law leads to the de nition of thermodynamic properties which help us to understand and predict the operation of a physical system. The heat of a material is understood as a representation of the energy contained within the particles of that material.

This is known as the kinetic theory of gases, though the concept applies in varying degrees to solids and liquids as well. The heat from the motion of these particles can transfer into nearby particles, and therefore into other parts of the material or other materials, through a variety of means. Electricity and magnetism are manifestations of a single underlying electromagnetic force. Electromagnetism is a branch of physical science that describes the interactions of electricity and magnetism, both as separate phenomena and as a singular electromagnetic force.

A magnetic eld is created by a moving electric currentand a magnetic eld can induce movement of charges electric current. The rules of electromagnetism alsoexplain geomagnetic and electromagnetic phenomena by explaining how charged particles of atoms interact.

There is much symmetry between electricity and magnetism. It is possible for electricity to give rise to magnetism, and symmetrically for magnetism to give rise to electricity as in the exchanges within an electric transformer. It is an exchange of just this kind that constitutes electromagnetic waves. These waves, although they don't need a medium of propagation, are slowed when traveling through a transparent substance. The advancement of science depends in general on the interplay between experimental studies and theory. Insome cases, theoretical physics adheres to standards of mathematical rigor while giving little weight to experiments and observations.

Theoretical physicists use mathematics to describe certain aspects of Nature. Sir Isaac Newton was the rst theoretical physicist, although in his own time his profession was called "natural philosophy". The main purpose of theoretical physics is to understand physical phenomena. Accurate understanding is possible only using mathematical models. In the best case, experimental observations can be explained using only a small number of basic assumptions. Using the models it is possible to calculate the properties of the system under di erent conditions and predict new phenomena.

Today's theoretical physicists are often working on the boundaries of known mathematics, sometimes inventing new mathematics as they need it, like Newton did with calculus. Semiconductors are materials which have a conductivity between conductors generally metals and nonconductors or insulators. Semiconductors can be pure elements, such as silicon or germanium, or compounds such as gallium arsenide or cadmium selenide. Semiconductor devices are all around us. They can be found in just about every commercial product we touch, from the family car to the pocket calculator.

Semiconductor devices are contained in television sets, portable radios, stereo equipment, and much more. Science and industry also rely heavily on semiconductor devices. Research laboratories use these devices in all sorts of electronic instruments to perform tests, measurements, and numerous other experimental tasks.

Industrial control systems such as those used to manufacture automobiles and automatic telephone exchanges also use semiconductors. Even today heavy-duty versions of the solid-state recti er diode are being use to convert large amounts of power for electric railroads.

Of the many di erent applications for solid-state devices, space systems, computers, and data processing equipment are some of the largest consumers. Polymer physics is the eld of physics that studies polymers, their uctuations, mechanical properties, as well as the kinetics of reactions involving degradation and polymerization of polymers and monomers respectively. Polymers are substances containing a large number of structural units joined by the same type of linkage. These substances often form into a chain-like structure.

Polymers in the natural world have been around since the beginning of time. Starch, cellulose, and rubber all possess polymeric properties. Man-made polymers have been studied since Today, the polymer industry has grown to be larger than the aluminum, copper and steel industries combined.

Polymers already have a range of applications that far exceeds that of any other class of material available to man.

Book Laser Control Of Atoms And Molecules

Current applications extend from adhesives, coatings, foams, and packaging materials to textile and industrial bers, composites, electronic devices, biomedical devices, optical devices, andprecursors for many newly developed high-tech ceramics. Applied mechanics is a branch of the physical sciences and the practical application of mechanics.

Appliedmechanics describes the response of bodies solids and uids or systems of bodies to external forces. Someexamples of mechanical systems include the ow of a liquid under pressure, the fracture of a solid from anapplied force, or the vibration of an ear in response to sound. A practitioner of the discipline is known as a mechanician.

Applied mechanics bridges the gap between physical theory and its application to technology. As such, applied mechanics is used in many elds of engineering, especially mechanical engineering. In this context, it is commonly referred to as engineering mechanics. Much of modern engineering mechanics is based on Isaac Newton's laws of motion while the modern practice of their application can be traced back to Stephen Timoshenko, who is said to be the father of modern engineering mechanics.

Wave mechanics refers to the mathematical description of atomic and subatomic particles in terms of their wave characteristics. What characteristics, properties, or behaviors are shared by the phenomena that we typically characterize as being a wave? How can waves be described in a manner that allows us to understand their basic nature and qualities?

A wave can be described as a disturbance that travels through a medium from one location to another location. Wave motion transfers energy from one point to another, which displace particles of the transmission medium—that is, with little or no associated mass transport. Waves consist, instead, of oscillations or vibrations of a physical quantity , around almost xed locations. Waves are described by a wave equation which sets out how the disturbance proceeds over time. The mathematical form of this equation varies depending on the type of wave.

Further, the behavior of particles in quantum mechanics are described by waves. In addition, gravitational waves also travel through space, which are a result of a vibration or movement in gravitational elds. Seeger, L. Geometrical optics describes light propagation in terms of rays. The ray in geometric optics is an abstraction, or instrument, useful in approximating the paths along which light propagates in certain classes of circumstances. This book emphasizes a vergence approach to geometrical and visual optics, reinforcing its fundamental utility in clinical practice.

Richard, S. General relativity is a scientific theory describing how matter, energy, time, and space interact. This book includes full discussions of many problem related to general relativity.

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Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems. Biophysics covers all scales of biological organization, from molecular to organismic and populations. This book begins by explaining molecular and ionic interactions, movements, excitation and energy transfer, and the self-organization of supramolecular structures. Kemron, D. Mechanics is an area of science concerned with the behavior of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.

Classical mechanics is one of the two major sub-fields of mechanics, along with quantum mechanics. Classical mechanics is concerned with the set of physical laws describing the motion of bodies under the influence of a system of forces. Atomic spectroscopy is the study of the electromagnetic radiation absorbed and emitted by atoms. Atoms are made up of particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons, which are responsible for the mass and charge of atoms.

Atomic structure is the concept of an atom as a central positively charged nucleus consisting of protons and neutrons surrounded by a number of electrons. This book presents the fundamentals of atomic spectra and atomic structure. Physics is the natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force. It applies scientific methodologies to understand the most fundamental principles of nature: matter and energy, and how they interact. This book presents the common techniques of applied mathematics that are often used in theoretical physics.

Thermodynamics is the branch of science concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work. It states that the behavior of these quantities is governed by the four laws of thermodynamics, irrespective of the composition or specific properties of the material or system in question. The laws of thermodynamics are explained in terms of microscopic constituents by statistical mechanics. Thermodynamics applies to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering, especially physical chemistry, chemical engineering and mechanical engineering.

This book deals with the problems in thermodynamics. Khan, S. Electricity is the presence and flow of electric charge. Its best-known form is the flow of electrons through conductors such as copper wires. Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.

Electric currents and the magnetic moments of elementary particles give rise to a magnetic field, which acts on other currents and magnetic moments. This book provides a thorough understanding of the concept of all types of numerical problems in electricity and magnetism. It also covers all the standard introductory topics, such as electrostatics, magnetism, circuits, electromagnetic waves, and electric and magnetic fields in matter. Theoretical physics is a branch of physics which employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena.

This is in contrast to experimental physics, which uses experimental tools to probe these phenomena. Many disciplines within physics fall under the umbrella of theoretical physics because they involve the design of formulas which may not be able to be empirically tested. This book presents the fundamentals of theoretical physics. Polymer physics is the field of physics that studies polymers, their fluctuations, mechanical properties, as well as the kinetics of reactions involving degradation and polymerization of polymers and monomers respectively.

This book deals with modern theory of polymer physics. It describes basic concepts and methods to discuss the statistical properties of the assembly of chain-like molecules. A wave is an oscillation accompanied by a transfer of energy that travels through medium. Frequency refers to the addition of time. This book presents the introductory concepts of mechanics and waves.

It describes the response of bodies or systems of bodies to external forces. Applied mechanics is useful in formulating new ideas and theories, discovering and interpreting phenomena, and developing experimental and computational tools. This book presents the mathematical foundations of applied mechanics. Nin, M. Wave mechanics is the branch of theoretical physics that mathematically represents subatomic particles as waves in fields, as in the theory of quantum electrodynamics.

This book presents the basics of wave mechanics. Nanotechnology is the predominant basis which is presently responsible for numerous cutting edge and pioneering functional systems on a molecular scale where quantum mechanical effects are vital. An entirely new generation of biological sensors, molecular imaging, solar cells, photo detectors, transistors and other optoelectronic devices have been made possible due to the direct use of phenomena such as quantum correlation, quantum entanglement, and quantum tunneling.

Indeed, quantum effects can enable higher sensitivity and resolution than conventional sensors. Humanity can expect substantial improvements in their quality of life as a direct result of the advances in quantum-based nanotechnology integrations into biomedical and microbiology applications, including superior nano-sized drug delivery systems; cancer detection and treatment; DNA detection; and dental digital imaging.

A new generation quantum-based photo detectors, superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors, Nitrogen-vacancy centers, Graphene and Silicon carbide nanodevices are also opening the door for a new era of information technology with the realization of powerful quantum computing. Wave motion, propagation of disturbances? Most familiar are surface waves on water, but both sound and light travel as wavelike disturbances, and the motion of all subatomic particles exhibits wavelike properties.

The study of waves therefore forms a topic of central importance in all physical science and engineering. Wave Motion is devoted to the cross fertilization of ideas, and to stimulating interaction between workers in various research areas in which wave propagation phenomena play a dominant role. The description and analysis of wave propagation phenomena provides a unifying thread connecting diverse areas of engineering and the physical sciences such as acoustics, optics, geophysics, seismology, electromagnetic theory, solid and fluid mechanics.

A quantum system is a portion of the whole Universe which is taken under consideration to make analysis or to study for quantum mechanics pertaining to the wave-particle duality in that system and everything outside this system i. This book provides comprehensive treatment of modern quantum measurement and measurementbased quantum control, which are vital elements for realizing quantum technology. A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

This book covers all the standard introductory topics, such as magnetism, electromagnetic waves, and magnetic fields in matter and also focuses on laser. Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics that studies the mechanics of fluids and the forces on them. Fluid mechanics has a wide range of applications, including for mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, geophysics, astrophysics, and biology.

This book offers comprehensive topical coverage, with varied examples and problems, application of visual component of fluid mechanics. Computational physics is the study and implementation of numerical analysis to solve problems in physics for which a quantitative theory already exists. This book explains the fundamentals of mathematical and computational physics. In physics, a nonlinear system, in contrast to a linear system, is a system which does not satisfy the superposition principle?

Complex systems is a new field of science studying how parts of a system give rise to the collective behaviors of the system, and how the system interacts with its environment. This book describes the modern unified study of nonlinear and complex systems. Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.

High energy physics is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation. This book focuses on nuclear and high energy physics. Thermal physics is the combined study of thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and kinetic theory. Statistical mechanics is a branch of theoretical physics that studies, using probability theory, the average behavior of a mechanical system made up of a large number of equivalent components where the microscopic realization of the system is uncertain or undefined.

This book introduces concepts of thermal physics and statistical mechanics from a unified view. Radiation physics is the branch of physics that studies the effects of radiation on matter. This field has been instrumental in providing improved manufacturing processes, nuclear energy, and advanced medical diagnostic and treatment options. With particular emphasis on radiation protection and dosimetry, this book deals with statistical solutions to problems inherent in health physics measurements and decision making.

Velinova, Maria E. In this book, we provide a collection of research articles about basic concepts of group theory and its applications in physics. The contents have been chosen with the aim to highlight general features and methods that prove the power of group theory in several fields of the physics, such that, classical mechanics, nonlinear and stochastic systems, quantum mechanics and thermo-fluid dynamics.

In particular, it will be shown different applications of Lie? This book provides a summary of important works in the field of the physics of macromolecular solids and liquids. The papers report the research results about transition mechanisms, structure-property relationships, the physics of polymer solutions and melts, glassy and amorphous solids, and individual polymer molecules.

Yonezawa, F. This book, 'The Physics of Metal — Nonmetal Transitions', explores the mechanisms so far discovered which cause the M-NM transition and presents a systematic discussion of them. All the mechanisms are discussed in terms of energy bands, and the band theory is introduced and explained in chapter 2. Once chapters 1 and 2 have been assimilated, the remaining chapters can be read independently of each other if required. The mechanisms discussed therein include the Peierls transition, the Bloch-Wilson transitions — types I and II respectively — the second of which was discovered by the author and her students.

Subsequent chapters cover the Anderson transition and the Mott transition, and each chapter includes not only traditional theories, but also updated information about more recent research. Franklin, Scott V. Granular systems arise in a variety of geological and industrial settings, from landslides, avalanches, and erosion to agricultural grains and pharmaceutical powders. Understanding the underlying physics that governs their behavior is the key to developing effective handling and transport mechanisms as well as appropriate environmental policies.

Handbook of Granular Materials presents foundational techniques used to investigate granular systems, examples of their use in contemporary research, and extensions to granular-like systems that greatly expand the realm of study. The book provides guidance on how to conduct research in granular materials and explores promising directions for new research. The first several chapters cover various methods used by contemporary researchers to investigate granular materials.

Subsequent chapters delve into broader themes of investigation, focusing on results rather than methodology. The final chapters describe three extended systems of granular media: suspensions, emulsions and foams, and colloids. Sattler, Klaus D. Each chapter addresses the fundamental properties, growth mechanisms, processing and functionalization of a particular nanocarbon. The first volume covers graphene, fullerenes, nanotubes and nanodiamonds. The second volume focuses on nanoparticles, nanocapsules, nanofibers, nanoporous structures and nanocomposites.

Carbon Nanomaterials Sourcebook, Vol. The Carbon Nanomaterials Sourcebook contains extensive, interdisciplinary coverage of carbon nanomaterials, encompassing the full scope of the field—from physics, chemistry, and materials science to molecular biology, engineering, and medicine—in two comprehensive volumes. This setup allows for quick and easy search, making the Carbon Nanomaterials Sourcebook: Graphene, Fullerenes, Nanotubes, and Nanodiamonds, Volume I a must-have reference for scientists and engineers.

This setup allows for quick and easy search, making the Carbon Nanomaterials Sourcebook: Nanoparticles, Nanocapsules, Nanofibers, Nanoporous Structures, and Nanocomposites a must-have reference for scientists and engineers. Shohet, J. This encyclopedia covers all aspects of plasma technology from the fundamentals to a range of applications across a large number of industries and disciplines.

Topics covered include nanotechnology, solar cell technology, biomedical and clinical applications, electronic materials, sustainability, and clean technologies. The book bridges materials science, industrial chemistry, physics, and engineering, making it a must have for researchers in industry and academia, as well as those working on application-oriented plasma technologies. The CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Nanotechnology sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it is a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to nanotechnology.

The book examines the design, application, and utilization of devices, techniques, and technologies critical to research at the atomic, molecular, and macromolecular levels ranging from 1 to nanometers. Practical realization of this approach in a Cs atomic fountain allowed researchers to probe the microwave absorption of Cs atoms with a resolution of just 1 Hz Clairon et al.

With such a narrow resonance, Cs fountain clocks are stable to about one part in Thanks to this development, atomic clocks are now so good that time and frequency can be measured more precisely than any other physical quantity. In contrast, an optical-frequency clock with a frequency of — Hz and a stability of one part in needs just a few seconds, rather than a day, for precise real-time measurements of time and frequency.

This was one Laser trapping of atoms of the main motivations for the search for various approaches to optical frequency standards Basov and Letokhov Although a single trapped ion could be used in a highly accurate atomic clock, this would not be perfect, because the use of only one ion in the trap provides a limited signal-to-noise ratio for the atomic absorption signal. His group have realized the trapping of single cold atoms in a cavity Ye et al. This opened up an opportunity for the deterministic control of atom—photon interactions quantum by quantum.

A critical aspect of this research is the development of techniques for atom localization that are compatible with strong coupling and do not interfere with cavity QED interactions, as is required for schemes proposed for quantum computation and communication via cavity QED. Within this setting, the experiments done by the Caltech Quantum Optics Group constitute important steps forward in enabling diverse investigations in quantum information science.

Ye et al. This explains the importance of the experiments on the trapping of single atoms under conditions of cavity QED. Matter waves The term atom optics is due to the natural analogy with light optics, or the optics of photons. The most familiar application of electron optics is electron microscopy Ruska Another analogue of light optics is neutron optics, which is based again on a the wave properties of ultracold neutrons and b the interaction between neutrons and atomic nuclei, which can be described by means of what is known as the optical potential.

As distinct from electron optics, we deal here with more massive particles ultracold neutrons , whose wave properties are manifested at low temperatures. The next natural objects are neutral atoms or molecules. The advent of the laser allowed the possibility to demonstrate atom optics based on the atom—light interaction. This was done on the basis of techniques for the manipulation of atomic motion with lasers.

The analogy between light optics and atom optics is fairly deep. The collimation of an atomic beam by making use of 2D laser cooling has already been considered in Section 5. In the latter case, laser radiation is used to produce the atomic beams necessary for the observation of the interference of atoms. An electromagnetic mirror for neutral atoms was suggested by Cook and Hill The idea was to use the radiation force of an evanescent laser wave outside a dielectric surface to repel slow atoms.

This evanescent-wave atomic mirror was realized experimentally by Balykin et al. If we put an atom in such an evanescent wave, the atom will experience a radiation force due to momentum transfer from the wave. For a two-level atom, the radiation force has a component parallel to the surface the light pressure force or radiation pressure force Frp and a component normal to the surface the gradient force Fgr. It follows from eqn 5.

The maximum value of the gradient force is reached at a detuning of the order of the Rabi frequency. At such a detuning, the light pressure force is considerably smaller than the gradient force and can be neglected in the interaction of the atom with an evanescent wave. It can be shown Cook and Hill , from consideration of the motion of atoms under the action of the gradient force eqn 7. In this case eqn 7. The next term in the expansion gives rise to a dissipative part in the gradient force. Atom optics 7. That the atomic mirror is quantum-state-selective follows from the character of the relationship between the gradient force and the detuning.

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Let an atom or molecule have several sublevels in the ground state. Owing to the statistical weights of these sublevels, Figure 7. Subtraction of the signal due to scattering of atoms dashed line in Fig. In another experiment Kasevich et al. The sample of cold atoms was prepared in the following way.

Na atoms were loaded into a magnetooptical trap by slowing down a thermal atomic beam with a counterpropagating frequency-chirped laser beam. After loading of atoms for 0. The atoms were dropped from a height of 2 cm, and two bounces were registered in the initial trapping region. The main loss of atoms was due to the ballistic expansion of the sample of atoms, which had a certain initial spatial and velocity extent.

An atomic mirror could be a device of practical importance in applications such as a recombiner in an atom interferometer, for deep focusing in the form of a concave mirror , and in storage of atoms in an atomic cavity. First, spontaneous emission of photons by an atom during its interaction with light, and second, spatial variation of the laser intensity due to inhomogeneity of the laser beam and roughness of the dielectric surface.

This method can be considered as matter waves probing a dielectric surface. Surface plasmons are usually excited by coupling them to an evanescent wave at a dielectric surface. A plasmon wave atom mirror can be formed on a glass surface with a thin deposited Laser control of atoms and molecules metallic layer with a typical thickness of 70 nm. By varying the angle of incidence of the light beam, the wave vector of the evanescent wave can be varied.

When the wave vector coincides with the surface plasmon vector, most of the laser photons are converted into surface plasmons. The resonance condition for plasmon excitation depends on the thickness of the metal layer, which results in a thickness dependence of the enhancement of the plasmon wave. There are several drawbacks to this scheme of using plasmon waves as an atom mirror. The metal layer strongly absorbs light, which leads to destruction of the layer and this process limits the intensity.

Several groups have reported experimental realizations of an atomic mirror which were based upon the dipole force exerted by a surface plasmon wave. There are at present two possibilities for focusing an atomic beam by means of laser light: by using the gradient force or by using the light pressure force. The lenses used in light and electron optics satisfy the following condition: a divergent concentric beam is transformed by means of the lens into a convergent concentric beam.

A particle-optical approach can also be used for the treatment of focusing of atoms by laser light McClelland and Scheinfein The higher-order terms in the expansion 7. The atomic beam propagated along and inside a narrow Gaussian laser beam. The laser frequency was tuned below the atomic transition frequency, so that the gradient force was directed toward the laser beam axis. The radial potential here is determined by eqn 6. Reprinted from Bjorkholm et al. The lines are 50 nm wide, spaced by nm. Reprinted from McClelland et al.

Further development of this idea of using a standing light wave was performed in several successful experiments. The next important experiment McClelland et al. A collimated uniform atomic chromium beam is directed onto a silicon surface. Each node of the standing wave acts as a cylindrical lens for the atoms. The atoms are thus focused into a series of lines with a spacing equal to half of the wavelength. One-dimensional optical molasses was setup in the atomic beam before it crossed the standing wave. This small angular divergence permitted a sharp focusing of the atoms.

The chromium atoms were deposited on the silicon substrate and observed with either a scanning electron microscope or an atomic force microscope. The widths of the lines are about 50 nm. These pioneering experiments became the basis for nanofabrication by atom optics see the review by Meschede and Metcalf The atomic lens was formed by divergent Gaussian beams propagating pairwise in opposite directions along the x-axis perpendicular to the atomic beam Fig.

The waists of these beams were situated at equal distances from the center of the atomic beam. The lasers were tuned to precise resonance with the atomic absorption frequency. Such a lens is similar to a cylindrical optical lens made of scattering glass. The focal length is proportional to the square of the longitudinal atomic velocity. This leads to chromatic aberrations.

This causes spherical aberrations. In the above experiment, the imaging of the source of an atomic beam was also observed. The atomic lens was formed by two divergent Gaussian laser beams whose waists were at a distance 2 mm from the symmetry axis of the lens. The atom—radiation interaction length was 10 mm. The beam of sodium atoms was formed by one exit hole for focusing of the atomic-beam, or by two exit holes separated by 2 mm symmetrically about the atomic beam axis for the imaging of the atomic source.

The diameter of the probe laser beam was considerably less than the size of atomic beam in the image plane. This laser beam crossed the atomic beam in a certain region along the axis of the atomic beam. Such an atomic source would correspond to a two-point source in light optics. The longitudinal velocity was varied from 5. This can be seen exactly in Fig. At velocities below 5. As the longitudinal atomic velocity was increased, there appeared a two-peak structure corresponding to the focusing of the atomic beam from the two sources. The best resolution was observed at a velocity equal to 7.

This is of potential interest for nanoscience and nanotechnology. The focusing of thermal atomic beams with the aid of this mode was considered by Balykin and Letokhov Laser control of atoms and molecules a Atomic beam r Laser-focused beam TEM01 mode Focus z b 1. The solid curve corresponds to the aberration-free case, the dashed curve shows the distribution with chromatic aberration, and the dashed and dotted curves represent the distribution with spherical aberration allowed for. From Balykin and Letokhov In conclusion, let us list the requirements that must be met by the laser radiation and by the atomic beam to enable deep focusing of an atomic beam.

The radiation power needed to focus beams that have thermal velocities is several hundred milliwatts. Reprinted with courtesy and permission of the American Physical Society from Gould et al. Nairz et al. They demonstrated that the principles of light gratings can be successfully carried over to fullerenes, which are internally in a thermodynamic mixed noncoherent state. They concluded that an optical grating possesses the scaling properties that the mass and polarizability have roughly the same scaling behavior, because they are both proportional to the volume of the object.

In principle, light gratings may ultimately even be used for particles the size of which is comparable to the grating period. An atom entering the evanescent wave can also absorb a photon from either of the two counterpropagating waves in the vacuum—dielectric interface. The atom can then reemit that photon by a stimulated process back into the same wave. In this case there is zero net change of the momentum of the atom parallel to the interface.

The atom can also reemit the photon in a direction opposite to the evanescent wave. The absorption and emission of photon pairs changes the momentum in the direction of the standing wave but not the kinetic energy of the atom, owing to energy conservation. The atom can also leave the evanescent wave in an excited state. This kinetic energy changes the atomic momentum only in the direction perpendicular to the surface. In the direction parallel to the surface, the atomic momentum can only be changed by one unit of the photon momentum and hence the atom cannot absorb additional kinetic energy in this direction.

Talbot made his remarkable observation in , which was explained by Rayleigh in In this case interference of electron matter waves takes place inside microsystems such as atoms and molecules. Reprinted from Chapman et al. Atoms or molecules can be detected in a universal way, for example by way of their ionization by laser radiation. We know of many types of optical interferometer the simple double-slit Young interferometer, the Mach—Zehnder interferometer, the Fabry—Perot interferometer, the Talbot interferometer, etc.

A similar situation occurs in atom interferometry. This experiment is schematically illustrated in Fig. The atoms can move along two spatially separated paths from the source to the detector. The dashed line is the detector background. The line connecting the experimental points is a guide to the eye.


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A three-grating atom interferometer was demonstrated by Keith et al. In this experiment, use was made of microfabricated gratings with periods of and nm. Interference was detected by measuring the intensity of the atomic beam passing through the system upon transverse scanning of the central grating. The matter-wave interferometry of large molecules is another a very interesting line of research, allowing one to investigate the wave properties of massive particles Atom optics fullerenes, biomolecules, and viruses ; it originated with the experiments conducted by Zeilinger Arndt et al.

A Talbot—Lau interferometer can accept a spatially incoherent beam, which implies that no collimation is needed, and it works with a spatially extended detector. Therefore, with a Talbot—Lau interferometer, the atom count rates can exceed those obtained with a three-grating Mach—Zehnder interferometer by several orders of magnitude. So far, researchers have failed to devise an ideal laser atomic-beam splitter that would be comparable with the semitransparent mirrors in optical interferometry. Such Bragg interferometers can be used with a cold beam of atoms to drastically increase its area and improve sensitivity in applications atomic gyroscopes etc.

Various elegant atom interferometer schemes have been devised, including in particular the Ramsey—Borde interferometer Borde , which developed further the Ramsey method of spatially separated beams Ramsey , extended to the optical region by Chebotayev and coworkers Baklanov et al. In this interferometer, interference of not only internal but also external degrees of freedom was obtained. Finally, Borde put forward the concept of an atom interferometer using a four-zone geometry with spatially separated atomic paths.

These beams impinge on the second standing light wave, where each beam is coherently split. Finally, at the third standing light wave, each of the incident beams is once more coherently split and a number of emerging Laser control of atoms and molecules a Port 1 32 mrad Collimation slits 5 mm First Second Third Standing light wave Port 1 Detection slits 10 mm b Port 1 Counts Port 2 0 3rd grating position [nm] Fig.

For reasons of presentation, the wavelength of the light beams has been greatly exaggerated. In the experiment, the atomic beam was wide enough to cover more than 12 light wave antinodes. The complementary intensity variations in the two output ports observed is a consequence of particle number conservation. Reprinted from Rasel et al. Rasel et al. The two output ports of the Mach—Zehnder interferometer show complementary intensity oscillations Fig.

Atom interferometers based on optical transitions have made possible ultrahighprecision measurements of gravity Peters et al. Cold-atom interferometry holds much promise, especially when use is made of a Bose—Einstein condensate, that is, a coherent collective of wellorganized, very cold atoms in the ground state see Chapter 8 , for developing guidedatom interferometers Kreutzmann et al. The progress in the production of laser-cooled atomic beams has made it possible to obtain a holographic image by means of Ne atoms and a computer-generated binary hologram Fujita et al.

In principle, many atoms can be used for atomic-beam-holography purposes. It is possible to deposit the atoms directly on a substrate to produce a desired pattern, with a theoretical resolution of about nm under typical conditions. Atomic-beam holography has considerable potential for the production of patterns with a nanometerscale resolution. The present state of the art of atomic holography is rather primitive. However, it is a promising technique for atom manipulation in three-dimensional space, which could be used for control of the spatial phase and amplitude structure of atomic de Broglie waves in the future Shimizu The development potential of nanooptics is great enough, especially as regards nanoscopy and optical imaging and diagnostics, but laser light makes it possible not only to passively investigate objects with a nanometer-scale spatial resolution, but also to modify matter on a nanoscale Ohtsu And certainly the manipulation of free atoms in a nanoscale Balykin et al.

The possibility of focusing of an atomic beam to spot of a nanometer size has already been discussed in Section 7. Now let two small coaxial apertures be made in the conductive screens forming the waveguide. Laser cooling and trapping of atoms have made it possible to successively attain millikelvin, microkelvin, and nanokelvin temperatures, at which the de Broglie wavelength of the atoms becomes commensurable with the interatomic separation, even in dilute gases.

The interaction of atoms in ultracold dilute gases becomes essentially quantum mechanical. The physics of such quantum gases is more akin to the well-developed physics of condensed matter at low temperatures. This is much more than physicists had at their disposal previously 3,4 He. The objective of this Chapter is, rather, to illustrate the new wide possibilities and challenges opened up by the invention of new methods for controlling the motion of atoms and molecules, namely, the laser cooling and trapping of particles.

From laser-cooled and trapped atoms 8. One of the most interesting of them is the quantum-statistical behavior of dense atomic gases made up of bosons, that is, atoms possessing an integer spin, or of fermions, that is, atoms possessing a half-integer spin. Figure 8. In this region of parameters, it is essential to consider the quantum mechanical interaction of atoms. The overlapping of wave functions in the case of integer-spin atoms gives rise to a constructive interference between the individual atomic wave functions and, accordingly, creates a macroscopic coherence in the atomic gas.

The Bose—Einstein condensation of atomic alkali-metal gases was experimentally achieved in atom traps Anderson et al. An atom laser is a source of coherent collimated atomic de Broglie waves, which was nicely demonstrated in the observation of interference between two Bose—Einstein condensates Andrews et al.

Like a conventional optical laser emitting coherent light waves, an atom laser emits coherent waves of atomic matter. This means that atom lasers may have an impact on coherent atom optics, which may lead to new achievements in atom interferometry, holography, and microscopy. The next very important step was the observation of Fermi—Dirac degeneracy in a trapped atomic gas of the fermionic atoms 40 K DeMarco and Jin The bosons tend to occupy the lowermost quantum state and, conversely, not more than one fermion can reside in one and the same quantum state.

If the density of bosons in the lower state is high enough, they interact to form a collective state, called a Bose—Einstein condensate BEC. Thus originated a new domain of physics—the physics of ultracold matter. At the beginning of the investigations into the laser cooling and trapping of atoms — , described in Energy Trap Quantum states Degenerate fermions Bose-Einstein condensate Bosons Fermions a b Fig.

From laser-cooled and trapped atoms Chapters 5 and 6, one could even hardly imagine such rapid progress of atomic and laser physics. These studies had their predecessors Stwalley and Nosanow But taken together, they meant a crucial breakthrough in ultracoldquantum-gas physics. If the atoms in the gas have an integer spin, that is, if they are bosonic atoms, they are distributed among the quantum states in accordance with the Bose—Einstein distribution 1 , 8.

Above this transition temperature, the atoms are distributed among many quantum states and the gas behaves as a classical system. Below the transition temperature, the atoms mostly occupy the ground state, and the thermodynamic properties of the gas undergo dramatic changes. In particular, above the transition temperature the heat capacity of the atomic gas Laser control of atoms and molecules is contributed to by the population of many atomic states, whereas at temperatures below the transition value the heat capacity depends mainly on the ground-state population.

Very small changes in the atomic potential can give perceptible changes in the scattering length a and its sign. Positive scattering lengths correspond to repulsive interaction potentials between the atoms, whereas negative scattering lengths correspond to attractive atomic interaction potentials. The scattering of atoms whose de Broglie wavelengths are much greater than the size of the scattering object is of isotropic character s-scattering.

The resultant equation has come to be known as the Gross— Pitaevskii equation Dalfovo et al. In this case, the quantum zero-point motion in the trap helps to keep the atoms apart, allowing a condensate to form. In the case of a spatially homogeneous gas, the Bose—Einstein condensation occurs as a phase transition in momentum space.

The thermal fraction is distributed over a momentum range from zero to the thermal momentum, while the BEC fraction is localized at zero momentum. In the case of a spatially inhomogeneous gas, the BEC fraction is localized near the central region, where the gas density is near its maximum value. The evaporative cooling of atoms is based on a process of removing hot particles from an ensemble of particles see the review by Ketterle and van Drutten This process is accompanied by the rethermalization of the rest of the atoms as a result of their elastic collisions. In the course of rethermalization, the temperature of the atomic ensemble is reduced.

However, if the trapping potential is lowered continuously, the rethermalization process continues until all the atoms have evaporated from the trap. This process, called forced evaporation, allows one to reach extremely low temperatures as a result of the reduction of the number of trapped atoms. The evaporative-cooling process requires that the elastic collision cross section, governed by the elastic scattering length a, should be larger than the inelastic collision cross section. By appropriately selecting the internal state of the atoms being cooled, one can make inelastic collisions occur with a lower probability and at distances shorter than the scattering length a.

Technically, evaporative cooling can be performed in various traps Laser control of atoms and molecules and by various techniques. Evaporative cooling has been realized in various types of magnetic traps, including time-orbiting-potential TOP traps and optical traps. The development of laser-cooling techniques, magnetooptical traps MOTs , and the evaporative-cooling technique opened the way to producing cold, dense atomic samples satisfying the Bose—Einstein condensation condition in eqn 8. Later on, the critical phase density was achieved with atomic hydrogen Fried et al.

This list is being constantly extended and now includes various isotopes, the metastable atomic state 3 S1 of He Robert et al. The extension of Bose—Einstein condensation to molecules has also proved possible. In an experiment by Anderson et al. The evaporative cooling of the atoms was initiated by reducing the potential of the TOP trap. In the last stage the atomic cloud was rethermalized for 2 seconds, released from the trap, and ballistically expanded. An example of such a dependence is shown in Fig.

The expanded cloud was probed with a laser beam tuned to resonance with a strong cycling transition. Adapted from Courteille et al. From laser-cooled and trapped atoms Optical density 1. Reprinted from Han et al. In an experiment by Bradley et al.

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Subsequent to evaporative cooling for 5 minutes, the cloud of some Li atoms cooled down to a temperature of about nK. In the experiment, about atoms were condensed. The phase transition to a BEC was detected by a near-resonant absorption imaging technique applied to the optically thick atomic cloud. In an experiment by Davis et al. Following the successful experiments with alkali-metal atoms, a BEC was achieved in atomic hydrogen. In an experiment by Fried et al. The appearance of the BEC fraction was followed via the wings in the Doppler-free and Doppler-sensitive peaks at negative detunings.

Reprinted with courtesy and permission of the American Physical Society from Fried et al. The atoms were cooled by collisions with the cold walls. Deep cooling of the atomic cloud was attained through rf evaporation. Fluorescence from the 2S state was observed by its decay via the 2P state. Basic information about the properties of the hydrogen BEC was obtained from the absorption spectrum shown in Fig. The spectrum includes a broad Doppler line due to the absorption of photons from the same laser beam, and a narrow Doppler-free peak due to photon absorption from a counterpropagating laser beam.

The next important step was the realization of the Bose—Einstein condensation of ytterbium atoms. Bose—Einstein condensates of two-electron atoms such as ytterbium and alkaline-earth metal atoms are remarkable because of the capacity of such atoms for narrow intercombination transitions, the simple structure of their spinless ground state, and their metastable triplet states. The Dopplercooling limit eqn 5. This makes it possible to reach the recoil limit temperature by the alternative method illustrated in Figs.

The successful realization of the Bose—Einstein condensation of Yb atoms promises the production of BECs of other two-electron atoms. As in the conventional optical laser, which uses some pumping process to produce the active medium, in an atom laser coherent atomic matter—a Bose— Einstein condensate—is produced by pumping from a thermal atomic cloud cooled by evaporation.

The release of the BEC from the trap is similar to the outcoupling of a light pulse from a conventional pulsed laser. The coherence length of an atom laser is approximately the same as its physical size. One more similarity between the conventional laser and the atom laser can be understood in terms of stimulated processes. In the atom laser, a similar process of bosonic stimulation produces more atoms in the ground state of the trap, that is, in the condensed state.

In other words, the essence of an atomic beam from a BEC, as well as a laser beam, lies in its statistical properties. Direct evidence of bosonic stimulation was obtained in experiments with sodium atoms evaporatively cooled to a temperature near the phase-transition value Miesner et al. The exponential growth of the BEC was clear evidence of the bosonic-stimulation process. To operate an atom laser in a continuous-wave mode was not an easy problem, for this task could only be coped with by decreasing the losses and replenishing the condensate. This goal was achieved by Chikkatur et al.

The condensate periodically produced in one of the chambers was fed to the other chamber to merge with the condensate contained therein. This procedure provided a permanent reservoir of condensed atoms. The continuous release of the condensate from the former chamber thus provided for the continuous-wave operation of the atom laser. It is worth noting that an atom laser can be realized not only with Bose—Einstein condensates stored in magnetic traps, but also with condensates stored in optical traps.

In that experiment, rubidium atoms were stored in a dipole trap produced by a single focused CO2 -laser beam. Using the evaporative-cooling technique to cool the atom cloud stored in the dipole trap, these authors produced a condensate of about 1. The realization of Bose-Einstein condensation and the atom laser has opened up an opportunity to observe and use in experiments the coherent properties of atomic matter. Coherent atomic sources can be used for the purposes of atom interferometry and holography. A direct observation of interference in a BEC was made in an experiment by Andrews et al.

The two parts of the condensate were then released from the trap. In the course of their free expansion, the two parts of the BEC overlapped and produced an interference pattern, which was probed by absorption imaging. The interference fringes showed good contrast, thus pointing to the conservation of long-range order in the condensates. Fermions, such as electrons, photons, and neutrons, constitute the whole of the matter surrounding us. Fermi—Dirac statistics governs the structure of atoms, electrons in condensed matter, nuclei, etc. However, the particles in the matter accessible and inaccessible astrophysical matter to us have a high density and interact strongly with one another.

Therefore, to obtain Fermi-degenerate matter in the form of a dilute quantum gas under controllable conditions seems very important in the physics of ultracold matter for many reasons. First, the physics of Fermi-degenerate gases is obviously richer exactly because of the interaction between the particles, which can be both repulsive and attractive. Secondly, two Fermi particles of half-integer spin can be made to form one Bose particle of integer spin, whereas the opposite is impossible. This has a strong impact on the behavior of fermions in nature, including dilute quantum gases.

In particular, two fermionic atoms in the same quantum state are not subject to the elastic collisions that are necessary to reach submicrokelvin temperatures by way of evaporative cooling. A Fermi-degenerate gas can coexist with a Bose—Einstein condensate. But another approach was found and proved a success, namely, the photoassociation of translationally laser precooled atoms. This idea and the theory of the process were introduced by Thorsheim et al. At present, this process is the main method for producing ultracold molecules in traps.

The photoassociation process for the K2 molecule is illustrated in Fig. At the same time, the upper excited electronic—vibrational state has very narrow radiative and Doppler widths. But for colliding ultracold atoms, the energy range kB T of the initial state is very small, and so all the colliding atoms can participate in photoassociation.

If they absorb a photon while at a great distance from each other, as illustrated in Fig. However, if in the course of their oscillation they fall within an interval R where the Franck—Condon factor for the radiative transition to the ground state is large, they then form, after spontaneously emitting a photon, a bound vibrationally excited state.

By using laser radiation of appropriate frequency, one can excite a molecular state below the dissociation limit, that is, one can at once produce a bound electronically excited molecular state. Reprinted with courtesy and permission of the American Physical Society from Nikolov et al. An experiment by the scheme illustrated in Fig. In this case, collisions between the trapped ultracold molecules produced through photoassociation will not result in the release of vibrational—rotational energy in vibrational— translational V—T or rotational—translational R—T energy transfer processes, and hence there will be no translational heating of the molecules and no escape of them from a trap whose optical trapping potential is not very high.

To attain this goal, Band and Julienne suggested the two-color photoassociation scheme presented in Fig. That can be realized by Raman excitation to the ground electronic state of the molecules Fig. The most interesting implementations and applications of laser-induced photoassociation of ultracold atoms have emerged in experiments with quantum gases BECs and Fermi-degenerate gases. These experiments made it possible to obtain and investigate molecular quantum gases.

The photoassociation of ultracold atoms in a trap by means of a tunable laser makes possible the spectroscopy of the energy states of the molecules formed near the dissociation limit, with a very high spectral resolution. To this end, it is necessary to detect the electronically excited molecules being formed. Photoionization of the excited molecules with an additional laser has become the standard technique. From laser-cooled and trapped atoms In short, photoassociation spectroscopy of cold trapped atoms is a very powerful tool for exploring molecular energy levels heretofore inaccessible to conventional spectroscopy.

The interaction of the colliding particles can be of a resonant character. The possibility of the existence of magnetically tunable resonances in ultracold collisions was theoretically suggested for collisions between two H atoms Stwalley and two Cs atoms Tiesinga et al. The physics of the Feshbach resonance in the formation of ultracold molecules is illustrated in Fig. However, the dissociation limit of the potential B is situated higher than that of the potential A. In order to tune the system to resonance, it is necessary to shift the energies of the nearest levels the dissociation limit of the channel A and the bound level of the molecular potential B with respect to each other.