Within School Walls (Routledge Library Editions: Education)
Focusing on home education in Britain offers insights into ideas and practices of domestic instruction that were particularly influential and enduring. While the nineteenth century saw the gradual expansion of school provision and the professionalization of teaching, in England and Wales, this process was slower and more complex than in France, Germany, or the USA. It was not until the Forster Act in that anything like a system of elementary schooling for the working classes was established in England and Wales, and only in that secondary schooling was systematically provided and funded.
Such figures testify to the longevity of a vital educational culture that did not depend on formal schooling.go to site
Routledge Library Editions: Education Mini-Set F: Gender 7 vol set - CRC Press Book
Instead, differing ideas and practices of home education competed with, co-existed with, and complemented, institutional instruction. The late eighteenth century saw the articulation of a confident philosophy of home education. From the s, theorists influenced by Rousseau had begun to develop new. Such ideas were principally directed towards the middle and upper classes, who might have the luxury of choice in determining how their children should be educated. However by the beginning of the nineteenth century, arguments about the need for an education that would shape national character undermined those in favour of the individual approach.
A growing number of voices began to argue that school education was necessary - particularly for middle-class boys - who needed to leave the feminine domestic world and to experience the rigours of institutional life in order to achieve manly independence. The home was losing its legitimacy as a source of education. Even in the s and s, however, as my work on Charlotte Mason demonstrates, significant numbers of elite parents were drawing on eighteenth-century models to educate their children at home, choosing something other than the dominant public-school model.
For many families lower down the social scale, however, the question of choice was moot. Routledge Library Editions: Education and Gender.
Routledge Library Editions: Education Mini-Set F: Gender 7 vol set
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