ELearnings: Implementing a National Strategy for ICT in Education, 1998–2010
In the recent decade, the Hong Kong government has invested hugely in the three stages of territory-wide promotion of e-Learning in school education, in line with the announcement of three official strategic documents on e-Learning. The implementation of this e-Learning strategy focused on the technical factor, with initiatives mainly addressing three aspects. First, the Hong Kong government-supported schools on building ICT infrastructure on campus, such as the provision of desktop computers in school and the installation of campus-wide network Education and Manpower Bureau b.
The Hong Kong government implemented the second territory-wide e-Learning strategy entitled Empowering Learning and Teaching with Information Technology from to , with a focus on both technical and pedagogical factors Education and Manpower Bureau The initiatives in this e-Learning strategy mainly addressed three aspects. First, there were efforts to develop information literacy framework for school use.
Second, there were efforts to pioneer school-based e-Learning pedagogical innovations following the advancement of ICT infrastructure on campus. It also supported pilot schemes on the review of existing e-Learning resources and the educational use of new ICT tools, such as Law et al. Third, there were efforts to enhance training for e-Leadership in school education.
The Hong Kong government provided school leaders with guidance on the goal-setting for ICT in education; organized e-Leadership training and professional sharing for school leaders; and invited renowned academics in the field of e-Leadership for public seminars. These measures aimed to support school leaders to build capacity for using ICT to prompt curriculum innovation Education and Manpower Bureau The Hong Kong government implemented its third territory-wide e-Learning strategy entitled Right Technology at the Right Time for the Right Task from to , with a focus on the human factor Education Bureau First, it put efforts to develop online depository with curriculum-based digital resources.
The Hong Kong government developed a cross-subject online depository for four main subjects in primary school curriculum and 12 subjects in secondary school curriculum Education Bureau This online depository is constructed to have a systematic content categorization by subjects, grades, and themes for facilitating users to easily search, retrieve, and share useful digital resources geared to the local curriculum needs.
Second, it put efforts to develop e-textbooks for e-Learning in school education. It selected a number of educational publishers and non-profit-making organizations to develop diverse sets of e-textbooks which are self-contained curriculum packages with appropriate e-features for learning in class and at home. Third, it put efforts to support school-based planning of ICT in education. The Taiwan government has been making significant investment in the research and development on e-Learning since s. With the announcement of a year program on building school ICT infrastructure in , Taiwan has officially started the promotion of e-Learning in school education in the recent decades with three stages.
In this six-year stage, the Taiwan government made initiatives in three major aspects. First, ICT infrastructure of every school was established by building campus network of Internet connectivity, setting up personal computer laboratories, and equipping every classroom with a desktop computer connecting to the Internet for teaching use. Second, online learning communities were launched for school education by collaborating with the local research community on the EduCity Project , which allowed students to interact with each other in a hierarchy of classes and schools, exemplifying the concept of online learning society Chan et al.
Having a user population of 1. This online learning community, which was transferred to the largest local telecommunication company in Taiwan to continue its operation induced a profound impact on the later development and dissemination of e-Learning in Taiwan. Third, the Future Classroom Project , consisting of the eSchoolBag subproject and the Mobile Learning subproject, was experimented in a number of schools in Taipei City. Another subproject, the Mobile Learning subproject, studied how students learned outside classroom, such as the case that each student carried a portable and wirelessly connected computing device e.
The second stage of e-Learning development in Taiwan was guided by the year National Science and Technology Program for eLearning starting from as well as the White Paper for eLearning issued in It provided sponsorship of several eLearning Research Centers for Excellence , and in turn further spurred the growth of e-Learning research community in Taiwan. This research community is expected to continue contributing to the development of policy and practice of e-Learning in Taiwan in the future. The White Paper for eLearning issued in had three major missions: students making use of IT to enhance their learning and living; teachers utilizing IT to raise the quality of teaching; and classroom environment providing digital opportunity equally for all teachers and students Ministry of Education, Taiwan Indeed, these missions have been quite accurately describing the subsequent efforts of the Taiwan government on e-Learning.
Building on the achievements made in the second stage of e-Learning development, the Taiwan government continued the third stage of e-Learning development between and This stage was signified by four efforts: addressing the development of 21st century skills, putting the digital literacy as an official curriculum component, and introducing the Mobile Learning Program.
In particular, they identified the competencies L4C sounds like Learning for Competencies , namely Lifelong learning habit , Complex problem solving , Collaboration and communication , Critical thinking , and Creativity and imagination , as a set of 21st Century core competencies Chan This task force, for the first time in history of Taiwan, aims to define digital literacy for all school grades, making it to become a type of literacy per se, as like as the one for individual disciplines such as Chinese and English languages, mathematics, science, art, and others.
In particular, the task force develops the assessment framework for digital literacies for the year-old students, who are in their last year of senior high schools. Third, for advancing the use of mobile technology across school curricula, in , the eSchoolBag program was renamed as the Mobile Learning Program and extended with tens of schools for participation. This on-going program adopts the bottom-up approach to school-based research and development of potential mobile learning strategies. Most principals of the schools participated in this program are innovators of adopting technology in their schools, and they can, with considerable freedom, choose what they want to do for their school-based mobile learning projects.
Fourth, for supporting systematic or sustainable teacher professional development, the Taiwan government started to plan for teacher professional development programs to motivate teachers to change their pedagogical concept and teaching habit related to ICT integration into daily instruction, especially for the e-Learning pedagogies in the era of student-centered one - to - one classrooms Chan et al. It can be said that the efforts made at this stage were urged by the stronger recognition of the value of transforming the teacher-centered classrooms that addressed expository instruction, to student-centered classrooms that addressed personalized learning and collaborative learning.http://ugdb-api.eila.io/azithromycin-100mg-dosis.php
International Journal of Education and Development using ICT: Journal Statistics
The Beijing government has promoted the integration of ICT into learning and teaching in K schools since the late s, with the expectation that ICT can transform school education and facilitate student learning. In this regard, the Beijing government further announced two other strategic documents. Firstly, it required all primary and secondary schools in the city to get access to the Internet, and all of the county and urban areas must build up regional education hub and connect to Beijing Distance Educational Network BDEN.
Secondly, it required all of secondary schools, most of primary schools in urban area and part of primary schools in towns to build up campus network before the end of Thirdly, it required all primary and secondary schools to build up high-level campus network, with all classrooms having networked computers and being connected to each other.
High levels of Education Resource Centre were also set up. Firstly, the Beijing government put efforts in offering ICT-related curriculum in school education. It made ICT course become compulsory for high school students from the fall of , and required primary schools in the city to offer ICT curriculum from the fall of ; students at three grades in primary school, one grade in senior school, and one grade in junior school were in turn need to take ICT course.
Secondly, the Beijing government put efforts to promote ICT integration into curriculum delivery. It established effective e-Learning environment for encouraging teachers and students to use ICT in the learning and teaching processes. Thirdly, the Beijing government put efforts to provide ICT-related training for teachers. It trained ICT subject teachers with a scope on expertise knowledge and skills for ICT curriculum delivery, as well as trained teachers of other subjects with a scope on general knowledge and skills for the flexible use of ICT in subject teaching.
This started the second stage of e-Learning promotion in Beijing, which included seven actions within three major focuses. First, the Beijing government put efforts in strengthening ICT integration into curriculum. Second, the Beijing government put efforts in enriching e-Learning pedagogy for curriculum delivery. Third, the Beijing government engaged in establishing digital platforms for e-Learning in school education.
It built data systems for the Beijing education information network to connect all the urban schools and rural schools in the city, and also a multimedia-supported distance learning system, an online teaching platform, and an educational information management platform Luo This guided the third stage of e-Learning promotion in Beijing, which included six actions with four major focuses.
First, the Beijing government has put efforts in promoting mobile learning in school curricula. The major initiatives include establishing online Beijing Digital School and building an interaction platform for teachers to share their teaching experience in a wider range Dong et al.
Second, the Beijing government has put efforts in enhancing the development, provision, and sharing of digital resources for learning and teaching. Third, the Beijing government has made technical investment for optimizing e-Learning. The major initiatives include upgrading the basic network to connect Beijing Education Information Network to each family; building digital campus model schools; building educational electronic authentication system; building hierarchical data storage and disaster recovery center; and establishing a scientific and effective mechanism supporting e-Learning.
The construction of the digital campus enhances the utilization of instruction, research, administration, school-family connection, etc. Huang Fourth, the Beijing government has put efforts in enhancing school leadership on e-Learning. School leadership on e-Learning is distributed among different sources of leadership, including senior management SM , middle management MM as well as teachers Huang and Hu The major initiatives include improving the decision-making abilities of school leaders in e-Learning promotion; integrating education e-government system, education system, internal coordination office, government, and school innovation management model; and establishing data management and capital support platform for an organic integration of education data, a scientific management, and a dynamic monitoring of educational decision-making and crisis management with valid data.
Advocating the use of ICT for learning with the development of 21st century skills. Supporting school-based programs on piloting e-Learning pedagogies in classrooms. The e-Learning policies on the dimension of infrastructure over the recent two decades have a change in focuses from basic infrastructure to digital resources and then to digital platforms for e-Learning. There was an increasing attention to the digital resources for e-Learning purposes, as the efforts made by the Beijing government in establishing Beijing Digital School with digital resources for e-Learning in school education.
At the third stage, the focus was shifted to the readiness of computing hardware and Internet connectivity at home. There was also a growing concern on the need to advance supporting systems for e-Learning. The Hong Kong government also put efforts to develop an online depository and a series of e-textbooks for supporting students and teachers to conveniently retrieve and share useful digital resources for e-Learning. The above summary reveals the trend toward the development of digital systems or platforms that can support students and teachers on an integral retrieval of learning data on e-Learning process.
At the first stage, there were official inputs in setting teaching thresholds and offering ICT-related curriculum. For the latter type of official inputs, the government of Singapore, Hong Kong, and Beijing requested schools to provide ICT-related subjects for students in primary and secondary schools. At the second stage, there was an emerging consideration of paradigm shift to student-centered learning through e-Learning delivery.
The governments of Beijing and Taiwan planned for actions to integrate the use of mobile technology in day-to-day learning and teaching across different subjects in school education. Besides, there was also a growing concern on the development of 21st century skills in e-Learning. The governments of Singapore, Hong Kong, and Taiwan explicitly made the development of 21st century skills as one of the major goals of learning in school education.
The above summary reveals that future e-Learning should be a student-centered learning process which is supported by mobile technology and targeted on enabling students to develop 21st century skills through curriculum integration and delivery. This was kept at the second stage, in which the governments of Taiwan and Hong Kong put further efforts to prepare students to use ICT proficiently and ethically.
The Taiwan government encouraged schools to engage students in the regular use of ICT in various day-to-day learning tasks, while the Hong Kong government developed an information literacy framework for guiding local teachers to empower students with the necessary knowledge and proper attitudes for information processing. The Singapore government focused on ensuring students use ICT proficiently, through the establishment of baseline ICT standards for students together with the corresponding assessment tools for teacher use.
The above summary reveals the trend toward the empowerment of students in the proficient and ethical use of ICT for daily pursuits, especially for day-to-day learning. The e-Learning policies on the dimension of teacher professional development over the recent two decades have an expansion of focuses from skills-oriented training to peer-supported sharing. The training events were mainly organized in the form of workshop or seminar.
At the third stage, there was a growing attention to the sustainability and scalability of teacher professional development on e-Learning. The Taiwan government concerned the cohesiveness of teacher professional development programs on e-Learning; with an expectation that teachers are enabled to regularly practice and refine pedagogical concept and teaching habit related to ICT integration into daily instruction.
The Singaporean approach for teacher professional development has evolved as the ICT Masterplans for Education matures. Essentially, a more grounded and direct support structure emerges as the needs of teachers increase in complexity and diversity.
eLearnings: implementing a national strategy for ICT in Education, 1998–2010
The above summary reveals the trend toward the provision of coherent professional development fostering peer support within the teacher community. The e-Learning policies on the dimension of leadership and capacity building over the recent two decades have an expansion of focuses from government-supported research to peer-supported training, school-based inputs, and parental involvement.
At the first and second stages, efforts were made in government-supported research on e-Learning. The Taiwan government also supported schools on experimenting e-Learning pedagogies in the real classroom environment, with a focus on extending the use of mobile technology for learning and teaching across school curricula. There were also initial efforts in the community involvement in e-Learning. At the third stage, there was a growing emphasis on peer-supported training, school-based inputs, and parental involvement in e-Learning development.
As for the peer-supported training, efforts were made by the Singapore government in enhancing school leadership on e-Learning through the online professional development program for school leaders under a peer-coaching approach. For the school-based inputs, efforts were made by the Hong Kong government in two ways: promoting school-based planning of ICT in education through the provision of relevant resource pack and planning tool, as well as piloting school-based e-Learning pedagogical innovations through the launch of territory-wide e-Learning school pilot scheme.
The above summary reveals the trend toward the concerted inputs from both schools and parents on supporting students to coherently use ICT for learning inside and outside of school. E-Learning in future has the goal of supporting schools on realizing the process that is geared to student-centered development of both domain knowledge and 21st century skills and cultivating students who are able to proficiently and ethically use ICT for day-to-day learning. The first implication is related to the provision of ICT infrastructure for e-Learning on campus.
As mentioned, future e-Learning will emphasize a student-centered learning process which is supported by mobile technology and targeted on enabling students to develop both domain knowledge and 21st century skills. This implies that schools need to be supported on creating e-Learning environments that make use of mobile technology to facilitate students to enhance 21st century skills through domain knowledge learning. Official policy initiatives on the creation of one-to-one digital classrooms are one of the promising directions in this aspect.
The governments of Taiwan and Hong Kong both focus its related initiatives on the issue of wireless networking. In Taiwan, the government pledges to support schools to build campus-wide wireless coverage with considerable increase of network bandwidth, and in turn create digital classrooms for e-Learning with the support of mobile and wireless technology. In Hong Kong, the government pledges to support public sector schools to incrementally build the necessary WiFi infrastructure to cover all classrooms by phases within next three school years Education Bureau The second implication is related to the development of digital resources and e-textbooks for e-Learning.
The learning process inside of digital classrooms exposes students to an extensive use of digital resources and e-textbooks for subject learning. This implies that schools need to be supported on the easy and systematic retrieval and sharing of suitable and sufficient digital resources and e-textbooks for e-Learning across school curricula. Official policy initiatives on the development of curriculum-based e-Learning resources and e-Learning platforms are, therefore, expected by the school education sector.
In Hong Kong, the government pledges to expand, enrich, and update the free learning and teaching resources, packages, and e-textbooks on the existing governmental one-stop portal for the school education sector, as well as to develop an interoperable online integration services platform for the sharing of e-Learning resources and the access to e-Learning data among teachers and students. In Beijing, the government pledges to develop an online curriculum for school education, in which a series of e-textbooks fitting the local school curricula and online systems for pedagogical and administrative purposes will be constructed to support students, teachers, and parents on an integral retrieval of learning materials and learning data in e-Learning process.
The third implication is related to the focus of student learning under e-Learning. The learning goal of future e-Learning is to empower students to the proficient and ethical use of ICT in daily life. Both of the governments of Singapore and Taiwan emphasize the promotion of paradigm shift to student-centered learning in the school education sector, and value the role of ICT in realizing the student-centered learning process that engages students in the development and application of 21st century skills. The Taiwan government even prepares to make digital literacy as an official component in school curricula.
The fourth implication is related to the provision of teacher professional development on e-Learning.
As mentioned, there is a trend toward the provision of peer-supported professional development on e-Learning for teachers on a sustainable and scalable manner. This implies that schools need to be supported on organizing peer-supported professional development activities for teachers to sustainably enhance their e-Learning pedagogies. The fifth implication is related to the school leadership and capacity building for e-Learning. The desirable e-Learning process emphasizes not only the formal learning initiated in digital classrooms on campus but also the extended learning in which students continue peer discussions on the online platforms supported by mobile technology after class.
In Singapore, the government has put in place incentives to encourage homeowner of broadband connections and computers. In Hong Kong, the government pledges to continue encouraging parents to support students on the proficient, healthy, and ethical use of ICT for home learning, as well as on a better use of their own portable computing devices for school learning. This article reviews the e-Learning policy in school education in Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Beijing in the recent two decades.
From the planning in Taiwan, e-Learning in school education should target at supporting students to develop both domain knowledge and 21st century skills. This educational goal requires the shift to student-centered paradigm in school education. From the planning in Hong Kong, the creation of one-to-one digital classrooms would be helpful in this regard.
The learning process in one-to-one digital classrooms requires students to extensively use digital resources and e-textbooks, as reflected by the planning in Beijing and Hong Kong. The learning environment which emphasizes the use of such e-Learning materials in one-to-one digital classrooms may be new to teachers. From the planning in Singapore, related teacher professional development on sustainable and scalable manner is therefore necessarily important. For the holistic realization of these e-Learning directions in future, official supports on school leadership and capacity building are required.
These analysis results imply several challenging issues that policy makers should address in the future planning for e-Learning in school education. In the dimension of infrastructure, schools might face challenges in ensuring every student to possess a personally owned portable computing device for classroom learning, despite the government supports on building campus-wide wireless network.
Policy initiatives should then be made for supporting schools to mobilize parental inputs in hardware procurement for students. Policy initiatives should then be made for supporting schools to engage students in the ICT-supported learning process inside and outside school coherently. Policy initiatives should then be made for supporting schools to re-interpret learning opportunities for students to develop and apply generic skills to self-regulate their learning process. In the dimension of leadership and capacity building, schools might face challenges in developing an e-Learning plan that holistically addresses every concern of different stakeholders in school, even the government supports emphasize the school-based planning of e-Learning development.
Policy initiatives should then be made for empowering principals to build a common consent with the senior management team, curriculum coordinators, panel heads, subject teachers and parents, to the vision and direction of e-Learning plans in school.
Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. A review of e-Learning policy in school education in Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Beijing: implications to future policy planning. Article First Online: 08 August Introduction The advent of information and communication technology ICT in the recent decades drives the school education sector to strive for integrating ICT into curriculum delivery across different subject domains. Au, W. Information technology competency for Hong Kong teachers—A new era and a new paradigm. In Young, S. Google Scholar. Beijing Municipal Commission of Education.
Announcement on initiating compulsory course of information technology in Beijing K schools. Beijing: Beijing Municipal Commission of Education. Implementation on campus network construction in Beijing K schools. Ngaiotanga Professional Learning Solutions We can help you with Professional profile Ross was a classroom teacher for 13 years before taking on the role of site manager at Te Kete Ipurangi. Expertise Ross is able to combine a sound technical knowledge of the tools available to us today, with a practical understanding of the needs of students, teachers and schools to integrate these tools into effective learning programmes.
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