Feminisms and Educational Research (Philosophy, Theory, and Educational Research Series)

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Articles

  1. 1. Early Feminist Contributions to American Pragmatism
  2. About Socially Just Pedagogies
  3. Feminisms and Educational Research
  4. Feminisms and Educational Research by Nicholas C. Burbules (ebook)

Primary themes that emerged from the across case analysis of the participants included: personal identification i. Additionally, for each of the four participants the importance of visibility was primary in what they considered a responsibility in advocating a positive model for their students. Cavicchia interviewed three gay male choral professors teaching at the university level over a six-week period. Each successive interview protocol was informed by directions discerned during the data analysis process.

Peer debriefing occurred with music education faculty familiar with qualitative research procedures. Thick description of participants, contents, and interview responses were provided to ensure that the emic voice was most prominent. In the case study, Cavicchia examined the career paths of the music educators and the ways being gay may have influenced their professional identities. Each of the participants described being bullied throughout their lives due to their sexual orientation and effeminate qualities.

Participants stated that their primary reason for coming out to peers and students was to serve as a role model for undergraduates who might be struggling with their own sexuality. Sweet and Paparo investigated the role of the academy, specifically teacher training programs, in providing meaningful preparation for addressing LGBT issues in the music classroom. By reviewing previous research in preservice education they sought to determine: a what music teachers need to know about sexual identity and orientation; b what are the implications of this knowledge; and c how are these issues relevant to teaching.

Primary themes that emerged from their investigation included the importance and difficulty of starting a conversation about LGBT topics, allowing for safe classrooms where critical questions and conversation can occur, and, finally, the importance of a personal identity statement for LGBT people. Abramo also addressed the role of a personal identity statement, but from the perspective of a gay male who chose to never come out during his tenure as a K—12 teacher. Data was collected through in-depth interviews, field notes from non-participant observations, and participant journal entries.

Using narrative analysis to analyze these data, Abramo identified themes through participant stories of dilemmas and successes p. He described his life as a music educator as chameleon, as he changed his behaviors in ways that allowed him to fit into his surroundings. He described his mannerisms outside of the classroom as substantially different from those he showed while in the educative community.

Feminism and standpoint Epistemology

In other words, he placed tremendous merit on his ability to act in a way that others would not perceive as effeminate or as a marker for a gay person. Abramo suggests that the ability to pass as straight can be seen as a commodity for teachers who chose to hide their personal lives from students. In sum, the majority of research in music education and LGBT topics thus far has focused on issues of equality and visibility. The examination of the lived experiences of LGBT music educators has revealed topics of coming out, serving as a LGBT ally for the educative community, the role of passing, among others.

While is may seem commonsensical or anecdotal to believe that music educators, or arts educators in general, are more aware of the needs of the LGBT community, few examples of empirical research exists specifically examining these connections.


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Lastly, researchers should attend to the complexities of multiple identities e. Although each of the underrepresented communities in this chapter varies in numerous ways, they each share one confounding commonality: a definition. Within qualitative research gender is no exception. Gender has been examined in relation to androgyny, binary construction, cultural traditions, equity, empowerment, conformity to cultural traditions, femininity, masculinity, sexuality, dysphoria, to name a few. Similar to p. Much of the work concerning gender thus far in music education research, especially in quantitative analyses, has centered on a binary consideration of gender as it relates to instrument choice or selection Abeles ; Delzell and Leppla While it is common practice in current sociological research to understand gender as socially constructed or performative and sex as biological, previous research often utilized the terms interchangeably.

Over a six-month period, students and teachers were observed and interviewed at a suburban school outside of London. Green observed meaningful differences in the ways teachers and students described their musical experiences. For example, teachers portrayed girls as more musically expressive and eloquent than boys. Furthermore, teachers described the girls as better singers and more enjoyable to teach in the classroom.

Similarly, the girls stated that they were more active in the classroom and demonstrated more sophisticated musical skills than the boys. However, with regard to music composition girls described their abilities and interests as inferior to the boys. Similarly, while the boys described their singing as substandard to girls, they bragged about their abilities as composers. Green asserts that for girls, taking risks and playing out of turn in the classroom during composition exercises was not considered fun or appropriate.

Meanwhile, the boys described composition activities as exciting and rewarding. For Green, gender roles were evident in the classroom, passive musical activities were favored by girls, while more individual, risk-taking activities were preferred by the boys. Similarly, Abramo observed music practices of adolescent students examining the role of gender in their own music-making. Abramo collected data throughout the course of a year at a school where he served as music instructor. Data collection included observations of rehearsals and individual interviews, which were documented through field notes and audio recordings.

In describing the theoretical framework of the study, Abramo rejects the identity of a male or female as fixed or static sexed identity. He positions gender as an identity that is fluid and changes depending on the social situation of the individual. This study is one of the few in music education research journals that embraced gender as performative and dynamic, looking beyond binary representations. He determined that girls and boys rehearsed and composed music in different p. Boys concurrently utilized musical gestures and nonverbal cues to create a seamless sonic soundscape, while girls separated talk and music production.

As early as the s, researchers were investigating why males or females preferred certain musical instruments. The negative influence of gender in music instrument selection has been further identified by quantitative researchers Bruce and Kemp ; Delzell and Leppla ; Fortney, Boyle, and DeCarbo ; Tarnoski Research has also demonstrated that the negative of gender stereotyping has a greater impact on boys Delzell and Leppla ; Sinsabaugh Quantitative researchers have detailed the ways in which individuals mark or describe instruments, leaving a meaningful space for qualitative researchers to question why gender associations exist.

In one of the few studies investigating the question of why gender associations exist, Conway utilized a phenomenological lens to examine influences of gendered tropes on instrument selection. In this qualitative study, high school students that conformed to gender stereotypes and those that were non-conformist in their instrument selection were interviewed. The influence of family was prominent for students who played gender conforming instruments. These students were persuaded by both positive and negative observations family members shared about instrument selection.

The role of significant others, specifically peer groups, was also relevant to these students as they intimated a need to fit in, or play instruments their friends felt were most socially appropriate. The need to be different and embrace the counter narrative of gendered tropes was important to students choosing non-conformist instruments. Specifically, Conway details an interview with a female brass student who described an explicit choice to play an instrument that would differentiate herself from other girls, especially her sister who played the flute.

Both participants groups shared numerous influences in their instrument selection process with instrument timbre being the most cited in addition to instrument size, and other objective features of the instrument. Similar to findings in other studies, Conway noted that young potential music students are aware of the gendered tropes surrounding musical instruments and that awareness is meaningful in their instrumental selection.

Lastly, the author ends the article by recommending more qualitative inquiry into the ways gender informs young musicians perceptions of the musical experience. In a detailed literature review Wych , finds a similar shortage of qualitative studies, describing 19 studies concerning gender and instrument association, and noting that only two are qualitative. This marker alone suggests her call for more detailed work in this area is warranted. Similarly, in a recent review of literature, Eros describes that while numerous academicians have examined the role of gender in instrument selection, little information exists detailing what practitioners should do to counter negative stereotypes.

Eros posits that it is surprising how few qualitative articles exist in peer-reviewed music education journals detailing these phenomena. Another large body of research in music education related to gender is found within the performance practice of choral music that is addressed specifically in chapter 23 p. Many articles concern the dissonance boys feel participating in choir when singing is often considered effeminate. Kennedy examined the way teaching choral music differs when student were placed in single-sex environments. He found that while teaching in single-sex environments was beneficial, it was not a panacea for the problems boys encounter.

He states that the single most important part of teaching boys relates to the special needs of each individual student. Similarly, Freer found that male involvement in middle school choir is subject to fluctuation as a result of influential factors including desire to sing, allure of other activities, and scheduling conflicts. Demorest determined that the difficulties boys encounter during their vocal change is often so traumatic and embarrassing they discontinue singing within public spaces like the school choir.

Although elliptic to the K—12 experience, there are numerous qualitative studies in music education utilizing a gender studies lens. For example, Denora examined the way gender is marked by adolescent girls by preferring mainstream and acoustic styles while boys chose subversive forms of musical expression like rock, punk, heavy metal, and emo. More broadly, Moisala and Diamond suggest that popular music practices are largely male-centered and dissuade women from pursuing or prospering in popular music professions. Furthermore, research has also examined the way gender influences the musical approach of instrumental study Clawson ; Green ; and the way the physical body informs musical practice Bayton However, in the 10 years since the publication of the 2nd edition of the Handbook for Research in Music Education , in which Lamb reviewed feminist writings and called for more study, few qualitative research articles have been published in North American peer reviewed journals.

Moreover, the few academic feminist writings have largely addressed philosophical underpinnings. For example, in the text Nomadic Turns: Epistemology Experience, and Women University Band Directors , Gould articulates a definition of feminism that invites music academicians to question p. Drawing upon the metaphor of the nomad, Gould details the experience of women university band directors as similar to the exotic Western interpretation of a nomad that is isolated, feared, and misunderstood. She writes:. Feminism is a constellation of dynamic political positions, which addresses an attempt to change the unequal power relation and material conditions that are produced and supported by a normative regulatory ideal called sex…I acknowledge the existence of a multiplicity of modern and post-modern feminisms, and by calling these positions dynamic, I acknowledge their fluidity Lamb , Gould , and Koza recently address the ways feminist approaches inform our understanding of the music experience.

To date however, the lack of qualitative research drawing upon their attentive explanation of feminist inquiry is disheartening. When questioning why feminist lenses are largely silent one must question the field of music education. What underpinnings either in music education doctoral programs or parameters for journal acceptance provide barriers of entry for this line of inquiry?

While research that addresses gender is more prevalent than other areas of the social justice spectrum, much of the work relates to binary considerations of gender. The clarion call for research proposed by Lamb, Dolloff, and Howe calling for poststructural approaches to gender studies remains largely unanswered.

For qualitative researchers the prospect to meaningfully investigate the musical experiences from an LGBT or gender lens remains largely unexplored and rich with opportunity. Although these research areas present complications due to their fluid and multifaceted nature, the music education landscape would be deeply enhanced by their addition. There is a tremendous need for qualitative articles in music education journals that meaningfully explore topics related to underserved communities. Due to the small size of the music education research community, few articles exist to help scaffold sociological work.

Additionally, qualitative research, especially as it relates to areas of race, gender, class, and LGBT studies, are dynamic and constantly evolving and being redefined. Consequently, for music educators, current work exploring the underserved is best supported by researching sociological work from various arenas of the academy seeking intersections with up-to-date qualitative lenses. Intersectionality theory asserts that oppression acting upon members of all marginalized groups does not occur in singular or uniform methods.

Social inequalities experienced by these groups occur in complex systems of subjugation that require comprehensive and critical interrogation by social scientists. In this way, there is also a need for music education research to look beyond one-dimensional description of an underserved population.

Life is too messy and complicated to simply state that being a member of one group denotes a single type of representation. Returning to the title of the chapter, I look forward to qualitative research that examines the constellation of life and musical experiences of people who identify themselves in multifaceted ways. For example, how does growing up as both lesbian and a minority impact the musical identity formation of a young person?

Qualitative research continues to offer insightful ways to examine the musical experience of underrepresented groups in nuanced ways. Abeles, Hal. Find this resource:. Abramo, Natalie. Bayton, Michael. Whiteley, 7— London: Routledge. Beasley, Chris. London: Sage Publications. Britzman, Deborah. Bruce, Rosemary, and Anthony Kemp. Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge. Cass, Vivienne C. Cavicchia, John. Clawson, Mary Ann.

Fischer and K. David, — Conway, Colleen. Delzell, Judith, and David Leppla. DeNora, Tia. Music in Everyday Life. Denzin, Norman, and Yvonna S. The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. Duling, Edward.

1. Early Feminist Contributions to American Pragmatism

Eros, John. Ferris, Joshua New York: Harrington Park Press. Foucault, Michel. New York: Pantheon Books. Freer, Patrick. Furman, Lisa. The Cambridge analytical school, led by Moore, Broad and Wittgenstein, has attempted so to analyse propositions that it will always be apparent whether the disagreement between philosophers is one concerning matters of fact, or is one concerning the use of words, or is, as is frequently the case, a purely emotive one. It is time, I think, that a similar attitude became common in the field of educational theory.

Hardie xix. About a decade after the end of the Second World War the floodgates opened and a stream of work in the analytic mode appeared; the following is merely a sample. Siegel Smith and R. Ennis edited the volume Language and Concepts in Education ; and R. Archambault edited Philosophical Analysis and Education , consisting of essays by a number of prominent British writers, most notably R. Among the most influential products of APE was the analysis developed by Hirst and Peters and Peters of the concept of education itself.

A criminal who has been reformed has changed for the better, and has developed a commitment to the new mode of life if one or other of these conditions does not hold, a speaker of standard English would not say the criminal has been reformed. Clearly the analogy with reform breaks down with respect to the knowledge and understanding conditions. The concept of indoctrination was also of great interest to analytic philosophers of education, for, it was argued, getting clear about precisely what constitutes indoctrination also would serve to clarify the border that demarcates it from acceptable educational processes.

About Socially Just Pedagogies

Thus, whether or not an instructional episode was a case of indoctrination was determined by the content taught, the intention of the instructor, the methods of instruction used, the outcomes of the instruction, or by some combination of these. Adherents of the different analyses used the same general type of argument to make their case, namely, appeal to normal and aberrant usage.

Unfortunately, ordinary language analysis did not lead to unanimity of opinion about where this border was located, and rival analyses of the concept were put forward Snook Scheffler [ 9—10]. After a period of dominance, for a number of important reasons the influence of APE went into decline.

Feminisms and Educational Research

First, there were growing criticisms that the work of analytic philosophers of education had become focused upon minutiae and in the main was bereft of practical import. It is worth noting that a article in Time , reprinted in Lucas , had put forward the same criticism of mainstream philosophy.

See Mehta Fourth, during the decade of the seventies when these various critiques of analytic philosophy were in the process of eroding its luster, a spate of translations from the Continent stimulated some philosophers of education in Britain and North America to set out in new directions, and to adopt a new style of writing and argumentation. In more recent years all these trends have continued. APE was and is no longer the center of interest, although, as indicated below, it still retains its voice.

As was stressed at the outset, the field of education is huge and contains within it a virtually inexhaustible number of issues that are of philosophical interest. To attempt comprehensive coverage of how philosophers of education have been working within this thicket would be a quixotic task for a large single volume and is out of the question for a solitary encyclopedia entry. Nevertheless, a valiant attempt to give an overview was made in A Companion to the Philosophy of Education Curren , which contains more than six-hundred pages divided into forty-five chapters each of which surveys a subfield of work.

The following random selection of chapter topics gives a sense of the enormous scope of the field: Sex education, special education, science education, aesthetic education, theories of teaching and learning, religious education, knowledge, truth and learning, cultivating reason, the measurement of learning, multicultural education, education and the politics of identity, education and standards of living, motivation and classroom management, feminism, critical theory, postmodernism, romanticism, the purposes of universities, affirmative action in higher education, and professional education.

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Education Siegel contains a similarly broad range of articles on among other things the epistemic and moral aims of education, liberal education and its imminent demise, thinking and reasoning, fallibilism and fallibility, indoctrination, authenticity, the development of rationality, Socratic teaching, educating the imagination, caring and empathy in moral education, the limits of moral education, the cultivation of character, values education, curriculum and the value of knowledge, education and democracy, art and education, science education and religious toleration, constructivism and scientific methods, multicultural education, prejudice, authority and the interests of children, and on pragmatist, feminist, and postmodernist approaches to philosophy of education.

Given this enormous range, there is no non-arbitrary way to select a small number of topics for further discussion, nor can the topics that are chosen be pursued in great depth. The issue of what should be taught to students at all levels of education—the issue of curriculum content—obviously is a fundamental one, and it is an extraordinarily difficult one with which to grapple.

In tackling it, care needs to be taken to distinguish between education and schooling—for although education can occur in schools, so can mis-education, and many other things can take place there that are educationally orthogonal such as the provision of free or subsidized lunches and the development of social networks ; and it also must be recognized that education can occur in the home, in libraries and museums, in churches and clubs, in solitary interaction with the public media, and the like. In developing a curriculum whether in a specific subject area, or more broadly as the whole range of offerings in an educational institution or system , a number of difficult decisions need to be made.

Issues such as the proper ordering or sequencing of topics in the chosen subject, the time to be allocated to each topic, the lab work or excursions or projects that are appropriate for particular topics, can all be regarded as technical issues best resolved either by educationists who have a depth of experience with the target age group or by experts in the psychology of learning and the like.

Is the justification that is given for teaching Economics in some schools coherent and convincing? The justifications offered for all such aims have been controversial, and alternative justifications of a single proposed aim can provoke philosophical controversy. Consider the aim of autonomy. These two formulations are related, for it is arguable that our educational institutions should aim to equip individuals to pursue this good life—although this is not obvious, both because it is not clear that there is one conception of the good or flourishing life that is the good or flourishing life for everyone, and it is not clear that this is a question that should be settled in advance rather than determined by students for themselves.

Thus, for example, if our view of human flourishing includes the capacity to think and act autonomously, then the case can be made that educational institutions—and their curricula—should aim to prepare, or help to prepare, autonomous individuals. A rival justification of the aim of autonomy, associated with Kant, champions the educational fostering of autonomy not on the basis of its contribution to human flourishing, but rather the obligation to treat students with respect as persons Scheffler []; Siegel It is also possible to reject the fostering of autonomy as an educational aim Hand Assuming that the aim can be justified, how students should be helped to become autonomous or develop a conception of the good life and pursue it is of course not immediately obvious, and much philosophical ink has been spilled on the general question of how best to determine curriculum content.

One influential line of argument was developed by Paul Hirst, who argued that knowledge is essential for developing and then pursuing a conception of the good life, and because logical analysis shows, he argued, that there are seven basic forms of knowledge, the case can be made that the function of the curriculum is to introduce students to each of these forms Hirst ; see Phillips ch. Scheffler [ —5]. In the closing decades of the twentieth century there were numerous discussions of curriculum theory, particularly from Marxist and postmodern perspectives, that offered the sobering analysis that in many educational systems, including those in Western democracies, the curriculum did indeed reflect and serve the interests of powerful cultural elites.

A closely related question is this: ought educational institutions be designed to further pre-determined social ends, or rather to enable students to competently evaluate all such ends? Scheffler argued that we should opt for the latter: we must. The function of education…is rather to liberate the mind, strengthen its critical powers, [and] inform it with knowledge and the capacity for independent inquiry. Scheffler [ ]. Third, should educational programs at the elementary and secondary levels be made up of a number of disparate offerings, so that individuals with different interests and abilities and affinities for learning can pursue curricula that are suitable?

Or should every student pursue the same curriculum as far as each is able? The thinking here can be explicated in terms of the analogy of an out-of-control virulent disease, for which there is only one type of medicine available; taking a large dose of this medicine is extremely beneficial, and the hope is that taking only a little—while less effective—is better than taking none at all.

Medically, this is dubious, while the educational version—forcing students to work, until they exit the system, on topics that do not interest them and for which they have no facility or motivation—has even less merit. For a critique of Adler and his Paideia Proposal , see Noddings Over time, as they moved up the educational ladder it would become obvious that some had reached the limit imposed upon them by nature, and they would be directed off into appropriate social roles in which they would find fulfillment, for their abilities would match the demands of these roles.

Those who continued on with their education would eventually become members of the ruling class of Guardians. The book spurred a period of ferment in political philosophy that included, among other things, new research on educationally fundamental themes. Fair equality of opportunity entailed that the distribution of education would not put the children of those who currently occupied coveted social positions at any competitive advantage over other, equally talented and motivated children seeking the qualifications for those positions Rawls 72— Its purpose was to prevent socio-economic differences from hardening into social castes that were perpetuated across generations.

Feminisms and Educational Research by Nicholas C. Burbules (ebook)

One obvious criticism of fair equality of opportunity is that it does not prohibit an educational distribution that lavished resources on the most talented children while offering minimal opportunities to others. So long as untalented students from wealthy families were assigned opportunities no better than those available to their untalented peers among the poor, no breach of the principle would occur. Even the most moderate egalitarians might find such a distributive regime to be intuitively repugnant.

All citizens must enjoy the same basic liberties, and equal liberty always has moral priority over equal opportunity: the former can never be compromised to advance the latter. Further, inequality in the distribution of income and wealth are permitted only to the degree that it serves the interests of the least advantaged group in society.

But even with these qualifications, fair equality of opportunity is arguably less than really fair to anyone. But surely it is relevant, given that a principle of educational justice must be responsive to the full range of educationally important goods. Suppose we revise our account of the goods included in educational distribution so that aesthetic appreciation, say, and the necessary understanding and virtue for conscientious citizenship count for just as much as job-related skills. An interesting implication of doing so is that the rationale for requiring equality under any just distribution becomes decreasingly clear.

That is because job-related skills are positional whereas the other educational goods are not Hollis If you and I both aspire to a career in business management for which we are equally qualified, any increase in your job-related skills is a corresponding disadvantage to me unless I can catch up. Positional goods have a competitive structure by definition, though the ends of civic or aesthetic education do not fit that structure. If you and I aspire to be good citizens and are equal in civic understanding and virtue, an advance in your civic education is no disadvantage to me.

On the contrary, it is easier to be a good citizen the better other citizens learn to be. At the very least, so far as non-positional goods figure in our conception of what counts as a good education, the moral stakes of inequality are thereby lowered. In fact, an emerging alternative to fair equality of opportunity is a principle that stipulates some benchmark of adequacy in achievement or opportunity as the relevant standard of distribution. But it is misleading to represent this as a contrast between egalitarian and sufficientarian conceptions.

Philosophically serious interpretations of adequacy derive from the ideal of equal citizenship Satz ; Anderson This was arguably true in A Theory of Justice but it is certainly true in his later work Dworkin —; Rawls The debate between adherents of equal opportunity and those misnamed as sufficientarians is certainly not over e. Further progress will likely hinge on explicating the most compelling conception of the egalitarian foundation from which distributive principles are to be inferred. In his earlier book, the theory of justice had been presented as if it were universally valid.

But Rawls had come to think that any theory of justice presented as such was open to reasonable rejection. A more circumspect approach to justification would seek grounds for justice as fairness in an overlapping consensus between the many reasonable values and doctrines that thrive in a democratic political culture. Rawls argued that such a culture is informed by a shared ideal of free and equal citizenship that provided a new, distinctively democratic framework for justifying a conception of justice.

But the salience it gave to questions about citizenship in the fabric of liberal political theory had important educational implications. How was the ideal of free and equal citizenship to be instantiated in education in a way that accommodated the range of reasonable values and doctrines encompassed in an overlapping consensus? Political Liberalism has inspired a range of answers to that question cf.

Callan ; Clayton ; Bull Other philosophers besides Rawls in the s took up a cluster of questions about civic education, and not always from a liberal perspective. As a full-standing alternative to liberalism, communitarianism might have little to recommend it. But it was a spur for liberal philosophers to think about how communities could be built and sustained to support the more familiar projects of liberal politics e.

Furthermore, its arguments often converged with those advanced by feminist exponents of the ethic of care Noddings ; Gilligan One persistent controversy in citizenship theory has been about whether patriotism is correctly deemed a virtue, given our obligations to those who are not our fellow citizens in an increasingly interdependent world and the sordid history of xenophobia with which modern nation states are associated. The controversy is related to a deeper and more pervasive question about how morally or intellectually taxing the best conception of our citizenship should be.

The more taxing it is, the more constraining its derivative conception of civic education will be. Contemporary political philosophers offer divergent arguments about these matters. The need arises from the obligation of reciprocity which they like Rawls believe to be integral to citizenship. Because I must seek to cooperate with others politically on terms that make sense from their moral perspective as well as my own, I must be ready to enter that perspective imaginatively so as to grasp its distinctive content.

Many such perspectives prosper in liberal democracies, and so the task of reciprocal understanding is necessarily onerous. Still, our actions qua deliberative citizen must be grounded in such reciprocity if political cooperation on terms acceptable to us as diversely morally motivated citizens is to be possible at all. This is tantamount to an imperative to think autonomously inside the role of citizen because I cannot close-mindedly resist critical consideration of moral views alien to my own without flouting my responsibilities as a deliberative citizen.

Civic education does not exhaust the domain of moral education, even though the more robust conceptions of equal citizenship have far-reaching implications for just relations in civil society and the family. The study of moral education has traditionally taken its bearings from normative ethics rather than political philosophy, and this is largely true of work undertaken in recent decades. The major development here has been the revival of virtue ethics as an alternative to the deontological and consequentialist theories that dominated discussion for much of the twentieth century.

The defining idea of virtue ethics is that our criterion of moral right and wrong must derive from a conception of how the ideally virtuous agent would distinguish between the two. Virtue ethics is thus an alternative to both consequentialism and deontology which locate the relevant criterion in producing good consequences or meeting the requirements of moral duty respectively. The debate about the comparative merits of these theories is not resolved, but from an educational perspective that may be less important than it has sometimes seemed to antagonists in the debate.

To be sure, adjudicating between rival theories in normative ethics might shed light on how best to construe the process of moral education, and philosophical reflection on the process might help us to adjudicate between the theories. There has been extensive work on habituation and virtue, largely inspired by Aristotle Burnyeat ; Peters But whether this does anything to establish the superiority of virtue ethics over its competitors is far from obvious. Related to the issues concerning the aims and functions of education and schooling rehearsed above are those involving the specifically epistemic aims of education and attendant issues treated by social and virtue epistemologists.

The papers collected in Kotzee and Baehr highlight the current and growing interactions among social epistemologists, virtue epistemologists, and philosophers of education. There is, first, a lively debate concerning putative epistemic aims. Catherine Z.

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This cluster of views continues to engender ongoing discussion and debate. Its complex literature is collected in Carter and Kotzee , summarized in Siegel , and helpfully analyzed in Watson