Les Gendarmes - Tome 13 - Gendarmes à feu ! (French Edition)
Hijgend en zwetend onder hun berenmuts bereiken de gendarmen de MAAS. Hier zijn echter alle bruggen vernield. De munitie van zijn geweer is op, maar hij blijft vuren met zijn pistool. Hij tracht het bloeden nog te stelpen met zijn zakdoek maar enkele ogenblikken later is hij doodgebloed. London, Aug 31 - A Reuter dispatch to Ostend says that a small party which has just returned from a visit to Liege describes the destruction wrought by the war as appalling. What a painful sight for those who knew the proud city, so typical of Walloon gayety, and now nothing but a mass of ruins, while many of the inhabitants lie all over the place, their chests riddled with bullets!
I was told here that the natives were put to work building roads for the invaders from Vise to Aix-la-Chapelle. These men have to submit to discipline Draconian in severity. The inhabitants stood at the thresholds of their homes, silent and anxious, but afraid to speak. The streets in the middle of the town wore a deplorable aspect.
Many houses had been abandoned. Their doors and windows were shattered and their contents had been removed. Croix de Guerre For achieving these goals towards their different publics local elected officials, population, schools , they develop and offer:. If the central office has been located in Paris since , the services are now highly decentralized. It is also in charge of studying the climate and its evolution CNRM, with 3 specialized units — snow, ocean, aviation.
Vigilance Vigilance was set up by Meteo-France to inform both the general public and the authorities about hazardous weather conditions in metropolitan France. It may be permanently consulted on this website. Its aim is to alert the public to any situation which might become dangerous over the next 24 hours.go here
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The map is updated twice a day, at 6 a. In the event of a significant change, it can be updated at any time. Level 1: Green: No need to take any special precautions Level 2: Yellow: Occasionally hazardous weather events which are nonetheless quite normal in this area e. When the map contains an orange or red area, a pictogram shows the type of event forecast; it is also accompanied by follow-up reports which are updated as often as necessary.
The reports specify the event's development, trajectory, severity and duration, as well as the possible consequences of the event and advice from the authorities about what one should do. The purpose of Vigilance is to keep the general public, as well as professionals, informed in a way which is clear and easy to use.
It is also aimed at the authorities whose job is to alert and mobilize the emergency services. It has replaced the alert system in operation since which was specifically designed for the emergency services. As concerns floods, their causes are not only atmospheric. Rainfalls are included in the meteorological vigilance, their duration and intensity are forecast. Its main researches cosncern: - The snow itself types of crystals, physical properties and its transformations; - The snow mechanics on a slope, the avalanches; - Development of tools for avalanche prediction: numerical models Crocus, Safran , seismic detection systems, 3D visualisation The measures are transmitted by the Meteosat satellite.
The Nivose net has applications in the field of research, but also for the avalanche hazard prevision. Its policy consists in. The DGPR leads the implementation of the risk prevention policy. Its global aim is the prevention and reduction of risks linked to human activity as well as to natural phenomena. It includes major natural risks prevention as well as industrial risks and nuisance prevention, air quality monitoring and fight against atmospheric pollution, waste disposal, limitation of noises linked to human activities.
In the natural risks field, its missions focus on taking them into account in territorial and urban planning. Under the authority of the prefect of region, the DREAL implements the environmental policies of the MEDDTL; it has in charge budget planning for the founds allocated to the knowledge of hazards, the preventive information and the major natural risks prevention. Concerning flood risks, the DREAL assumes more particularly expertise missions give its opinion on Risk Prevention Plans , knowledge follow-up of hazards atlas of areas liable to flooding , founds planning for protective works against floods.
Concerning other risks it follows up the statutory mapping. It implements actions extending those implemented at a regional scale about water and aquatic environment management. The general Council of the Environment and Sustainable Development aims at informing and advising the public authorities, as well as inspecting, auditing and evaluating the services and structures in charge of public services in the field of environment and sustainable development. It is under the authority of the Ministry of Ecology, who is its president.
English overview of the official website of the ministry. It is the national authority in charge of the protection of the population against disasters. Its duties: Govern the territory: - Represent and act on behalf of the State throughout the national territory. Guarantee the security of citizens and goods. These duties are carried out by the departments attached to the ministry, the general directorates, the specialised central ministerial government directorates incl. DDSC and throughout the territory by the prefectures and sub-prefectures, the national police and civil security.
National gendarmerie: www. The director of the DDSC, a senior defence official, steers and coordinates the departments in charge of :. He is supported by the defence security official, the information systems security official and the cipher and security office. On a daily basis, or to attenuate the effects of a disaster, the many directorate's departments reinforce the local action of emergency teams, essentially the , departmental fire workers and volunteer emergency workers. For any exceptional situation requiring appropriate civil defence measures public order, population protection, etc.
Irrespective of the nature and scale of the situation, all these teams remain, at a local level, under the responsibility of the prefect. The emergency service organisation and civilian-military cooperation subdivision prepares, steers and coordinates emergency actions pertaining to the security of persons and goods and those pertaining to protection against forest fires.
It takes part in environmental protection actions.
It implements civilian national resources and military civil security units. It coordinates the use of territorial operational civil security resources. Its vice director is the operational assistant of the emergency preparedness director. Within the scope of civilian-military cooperation, it implements specific resources and coordinates the civil defence policy.
It acts as an interface with the operational combined armed forces centre, the general directorate of the national police and the general directorate of the national gendarmerie.. More information in French. PGHM : Mountain specialized units of military officers. They take part to rescue actions as well as investigations or security commissions. They are divided in 20 units:. They depend on the Ministry of the Interior. They take part to rescue actions in mountain areas. It is a non—profit-making association, created in Its charge is to create and lead a federative pole for the players acting in teaching natural risks prevention and to initiate strategies for raising risk awareness among the population.
Its main actions are:. History The RTM service was born in , in order to face both soil erosion in mountain areas, which was huge in the middle of the 18th century, and a string of catastrophic floods in France engages a voluntary policy of erosion control.
Protection and restoration are organised around two axes:. If the state was originally the only financer and contracting authority, the local authorities have been step by step involved because of complementary protection works being carried out close to inhabited areas. More info: - www. It is under the direction of both:. Since , the common management of human, material an financial resources at the scale of the department enables a better repartition of the rescue means and a same level of security for everyone. This centralised organisation can regulate the running of the rescue means and actions for everyone, whatever their location and the richness of the municipality where they live.
This principle of organisation activates somehow new local solidarities. The SDIS have a mission of prevision rescue plans, studies and protective measures against risks… and a mission of prevention security commission in public buildings, risks analyses…. Its volunteers lead a research and promotion work on two main themes:. It is also in charge of alerting on the rise of water levels on these two rivers. There are 22 SPCs in France along the main rivers, where the State is responsible for a statutory mission of monitoring, forecasting and informing about the high water levels, according to the Environment Code, articles L.
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The aim is to inform the general public and the stakeholders involved in crisis management in case of high water level risks along the rivers the State is responsible for. The information leads the local authorities prefect, mayor to give the alert and organize the necessary means for emergency aid. Each concerned river is divided into trunks, each trunk affected by a color green, yellow, orange or red corresponding to the level of vigilance necessary for facing the possible coming danger.
The map is completed by a national information bulletin and local information bulletins. They describe the evolution of the rises in water levels and provide if possible precise forecasts. They indicate also possible consequences as well as advice on how to behave. In the same year, the Arc de Triomphe , begun in by Napoleon, was finally completed and dedicated.
Many old soldiers from the Napoleonic armies were in the crowd, and they called out "Vive l'Empereur", but Louis-Philippe was unperturbed. The ashes of Napoleon were returned to Paris from Saint Helena in , and were placed with great ceremony in a tomb designed by Louis Visconti beneath the church of Les Invalides.
Another Paris landmark, the July Column on the Place de la Bastille , was inaugurated on 28 July , on the anniversary of the July Revolution , and dedicated to those killed during the uprising. During the reign of Louis-Philippe a movement was launched to preserve and restore some of the earliest landmarks of Paris, many of which had been badly damaged during the Revolution. He also wrote the novella Carmen on which the opera of Bizet was based.
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Work also began in on the cathedral of Notre Dame , which had been stripped of the statues on its facade and of its spire. Much of the work was directed by the architect and historian Eugene Viollet-le-Duc who sometimes admitted that he was guided by his own scholarship of the "spirit" of medieval architecture, rather strict historical accuracy. Unfortunately, all the interiors were burned in by the Paris Commune. Rambuteau, during this fifteen years as Prefect of the Seine, made attempts to solve the blockage of traffic and the unhealthiness of the streets in the center, particularly after the cholera epidemic in the heart of the city.
The Pont d'Austerlitz , originally named for a Napoleonic military victory, the renamed the Pont du Jardin du Roi during the Bourbon Restoration , took back its Napoleonic name. The Quai de la Tournelle and the banks of the Seine at the Louvre and Quai des Grands-Augustins were walled with stone and planted with trees. At the beginning of the reign of Louis-Philippe, the old ramparts and bastions of Louis XIV were still visible in many places around the city, with a footpath running along the top.
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Rambuteau had them leveled in order to widen and straighten the Grands Boulevards. Only short sections of raised sidewalks on the Boulevard Saint-Martin and Boulevard de Bonne-Nouvelle showed how the ramparts formerly appeared and they still show this today. Rambuteau also began rebuilding the old central market of Les Halles, but the new buildings, heavy and old-fashioned, did not please the Parisians.
The project was later stopped by Napoleon III when he was still prince-president of France New glass and iron buildings were designed and built in their place by the architect Victor Baltard. At the beginning of the reign of Louis-Philippe, Paris sidewalks in the center of the city, if they existed at all, were very narrow, rarely wide enough for two persons to walk side by side. In , Rambuteau launched a project to build sidewalks in more neighborhoods and replace the old sidewalks made of lava stone with asphalt.
By the end of the reign of Louis-Philippe, a majority of Paris streets were paved. Rambuteau also addressed the absence of public urinals, which gave the side streets and parks a particular and unpleasant smell. The first public urinals had been installed during the Bourbon Restoration, just before the Revolution of July , but they were dismantled and used for barricades during the street fighting. In July , Rambuteau authorized the construction of a new circular type of urinal, ten to twelve feet high, made of masonry with a pointed roof and posters displayed on the outside.
The first ones were placed on the Boulevard Montmartre and the Boulevard des Italiens. By , there were urinals in place. They became known as vespasiennes after the Roman Emperor Vespasian , who was said to have installed public toilets in ancient Rome. They were all replaced during the Second Empire by a newer cast-iron design. The city walls of Paris had been demolished during the reign of Louis XIV, and in , the city was easily captured near the end of the War of the Sixth Coalition , since it had no fortifications.
Debates began in Paris as early as about the necessity of building a new wall. In , as the result of tensions between France, Britain and the German states, the discussion was renewed, and a plan was put forward by Adolphe Thiers , the President of the Council and the Minister of Foreign Affairs. The Thiers Wall , approved on 3 April , was 34 kilometers long and composed of a belt of ramparts and trenches meters wide. The highest rampart was ten meters high and three meters wide, and a road six meters wide ran the full length of the wall. It was forbidden to build any structure in a space meters wide in front of the wall.
The wall was reinforced at regular intervals with a series of bastions and 16 large forts around the city. In , the route of the wall marked the official city limits of Paris, and it remains so, with a few changes, today. A number of the bastions still exist, and vestiges of the wall can still be seen at the Porte d'Arcueil in the 14th arrondissement and the point at which the Canal Saint-Denis passed through the wall.
Rambuteau also made attempts to improve the social institutions of the city. Women prisoners were sent to the Enclos Saint-Lazare. In addition, he increased the number of savings banks for workers and middle-class Parisians. Primary education had previously been the responsibility of the Church, and many children remained illiterate. All of the primary schools, both Catholic and secular, were put under the authority of a central committee on education, with the Prefect as president. The canals that brought drinking water to Paris, begun by Napoleon, were extended, and Rambuteau increased the number of borne-fontaines , small water fountains 50 centimeters high with a simple spout, from in to 2, in The wealthiest Parisians had wells in their residences, usually in the basement.
Most Parisians obtained their drinking water in a traditional way by visiting the city's fountains, sending servants to the fountains, or buying water from the water porters, mostly men from Auvergne and Piedmont , who carried large buckets balanced on a pole on their shoulders. The Fontaine Louvois , designed by Louis Visconti The most important economic and social event of the reign of Louis-Philippe was the arrival in Paris of the railroad.
It became so successful that it was quickly replaced by a larger building on the Rue de Stockholm, and then an even larger structure, the beginning of the Gare Saint-Lazare , built between and It was quickly found to be too small and was rebuilt between and at the junction of the Rue de Rennes and Boulevard du Montparnasse , its present location. The banker James Mayer de Rothschild received the permission of the government to build the first railroad line from Paris to the Belgian border in , with branch lines to Calais and Dunkerque. It was replaced by a much grander station, the Gare du Nord , in The first station of the line to eastern France, the Gare de l'Est , was begun in , but not finished until Construction of a new station for the line to the south, from Paris to Montereau-Fault-Yonne began in and was finished in In , it was replaced by a new station, the first Gare de Lyon , on the same site.
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The Industrial Revolution steadily changed the economy and the appearance of Paris, as new factories were built along the Seine and in the outer neighborhoods of the city. The textile industry was in decline, but the chemical industry was expanding around the edges of the city, at Javel , Grenelle , Passy , Clichy , Belleville and Pantin.
It was joined by mills and factories that made steel, machines and tools, especially for the new railroad industry. Between and , twenty percent of all the steam engines produced in France were made in Paris. Napoleon's soldiers had brought the habit of smoking from Spain, and it had spread among all classes of Parisians. The government had a monopoly on the manufacture of tobacco products, and the government-owned factory opened in Despite the surge of industrialization, most Parisian workers were employed in small workshops and enterprises.
In , there were , workers in Paris employed in 65, businesses. Only seven thousand businesses employed more than ten workers. For example, in there were small workshops in Paris that made and sold umbrellas, employing a total of 1, workers. With the surge of industrialization, the importance of banking and finance in the Paris economy also grew. As Stendhal wrote at the time, the bankers were the new aristocracy of Paris. The banks provided the funding for the most important economic event of the reign of Louis-Philippe: the arrival of the railroads.
He gave loans to the royal government and played a key role in the construction of the French mining industry and railroad network. Chopin dedicated his Ballade No. In , Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres painted his wife's portrait. The reign of Louis-Philippe became known as "the reign of the boutique". During this period, Paris continued to be the marketplace of luxury goods for the wealthiest customers in Europe, and the leader in fashion.
In , he opened a larger shop at Rue de la Paix , which was also the first street in Paris to be lit with gaslight. The Passage des Panoramas and other covered shopping galleries were ancestors of the modern shopping center. The "Grand Colbert" in the Galerie Colbert on the Rue Vivienne was decorated and organized like an oriental bazaar ; it had large plate-glass windows and window displays, fixed prices and price tags, and sold a wide variety of products for women, from cashmere and lace to hosiery and hats. It was an ancestor of the first modern department stores, which appeared in Paris in the s.
Other novel marketing techniques were introduced in Paris at this time: the illuminated sign, and advertising goods in newspapers.
The arrival of the railroad made it possible for people from the provinces to come to Paris simply to shop. The first means of public transport, the omnibus , had been introduced in Paris in January , and it enjoyed great success. It used large horse-drawn coaches, was entered from the rear, and could carry between twelve and eighteen passengers. The fare was 25 centimes.
The omnibuses operated between seven in the morning and seven in the evening in most location, but operated until midnight on the Grands Boulevards.
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The other common means of transport was the fiacre , the taxicab of its day. It was a small box-like coach that carried as many as four passengers; it could be hired at designated stations around Paris. A single journey cost 30 sous, regardless of distance; or they could be hired at the rate of 45 sous for an hour. The drivers expected a tip, and, according to a guidebook of , became extremely unpleasant if they did not receive one.
The staples of the Parisian diet, unchanged since the 18th century, were bread, meat and wine. The meal was accompanied by wine, often diluted with water. They had their dinner at six or seven in the evening, with a larger number of dishes. For working-class Parisians, bread composed seven-eighths of their diet. They accompanied it with whatever fruit might be in season, some white cheese, and, in winter, some pieces of pork or bacon, along with stewed pears or roasted apples.
They usually had some sort of soup each night, and on Sunday traditionally ate a stew called pot-au-feu. The meals were always accompanied by wine, usually with water added. The economic difficulties for ordinary Parisians during the reign of Louis-Philippe can be illustrated by their meat consumption; between and , Parisians consistently ate about sixty kilograms of meat per year per person, but meat consumption between and fell to about fifty kilograms.
Only a small number of Parisians had indoor plumbing or bathtubs; for most, water for washing had to be carried from a fountain or purchased from a water-bearer and stored in a container, and was used sparingly. Paris had a number of bath houses, including some, such as the Chinese Baths on the Boulevard des Italiens , which catered to upper-class customers.
These were basins of river water surrounded by fences and usually by floating arcades of changing rooms. They were open day and night for an admission fee of four sous or twenty centimes. They had separate sections for men and women, and bathing costumes could be rented. They were often condemned by the church and in the press as an offense to public morality, but were always crowded with young working-class Parisians on hot summer days.
That changed dramatically on 1 July with the debut of La Presse , the first inexpensive daily newspaper in Paris. It soon inspired many imitators. Between and , the circulation of newspapers in Paris doubled; in , there were 25 newspapers in the city with a total circulation of , Despite official censorship, they played an increasing role in French politics and in the events that culminated in the Revolution of The press also began to play a novel role in commerce: Paris stores and shops began to advertise their products in the newspapers.
Illustrated newspapers, often with satirical cartoons, also became popular and influential. The journalist Charles Philipon started an illustrated weekly magazine called La Caricature in