Norovirus: How to Stay Safe (Consumer Health Guides Book 2)
Norovirus infection causes acute gastroenteritis inflammation of the stomach and intestines. The most common symptoms are watery diarrhea, explosive projectile vomiting that shoots out , and stomach pain. Anyone can get norovirus, and can have the illness multiple times in their lifetime. The sources of norovirus are people specifically, the feces and vomit of infected individuals , as well as raw or undercooked shellfish. How serious is a norovirus illness? People with norovirus can feel extremely ill and experience vomiting or diarrhea many times a day.
Most people get better within 1 to 2 days. Dehydration can be a problem among some people, especially the very young, the elderly, and people with other illnesses. How contagious is norovirus? Norovirus illness is highly contagious. As few as 10 viral particles can cause infection; the average stool or vomit volume can contain over million particles.
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People with norovirus are contagious from the moment they begin feeling ill to anywhere from 3 days to 2 weeks after they have recovered. Norovirus can survive in the environment for long periods of time. Norovirus can spread rapidly in closed environments like dormitories, daycare centers, prisons, cruise ships, and nursing homes. How is norovirus spread? The virus is spread by contaminated individuals touching items or handling food, or through vomit or feces of infected individuals. The illness is spread when people: Eat food or drink liquids that are contaminated with norovirus.
Touch surfaces or objects that are contaminated with norovirus, and then place their hand in their mouth. Also, cases of contamination of distribution system reservoirs are reported.
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One event in Greece highlights the magnitude of the challenge posed by norovirus because of its persistence in water. Previous work has demonstrated a persistence that can be higher than 15 days Seitz et al. In this study causes and pathogens of WBOs have been critically evaluated. Limitations in this study are that outbreaks have only been evaluated if the cause of the event was indicated in the reference and if the event was present in the chosen databases.
In a recent review the responsible authorities and the water industry were directly contacted about recent WBOs in the Nordic countries Guzman Herrador et al. In total, outbreaks were identified which exceeds the number of outbreaks identified in our study. However, the number of cases of illnesses is of the same order of magnitude for Sweden, Finland and Denmark, if adjusted for the year — Miettinen et al. Consequently, this indicates that the identified causes for outbreaks in this review may not cover minor events that have only affected a small number of consumers.
This work has not addressed the differences between small and large WTPs. In countries like Finland where the number of affected consumers is below 0. The main objective for the water treatment systems is to deliver drinking water to consumers that is both aesthetically suitable and safe Zhang et al. With continuously changing raw water quality, variations in water demand and operational challenges at the WTP, risk assessment of the water treatment systems have become increasingly important. This has also been stressed by the World Health Organization.
Many tools are available for risk assessment of the water treatment systems. However, identifying possible risk scenarios proves challenging. We expect that this critical evaluation of the causes of WBOs will help the water industry in their work with WSP to identify risks that may lead to waterborne outbreaks. This paper clearly demonstrates the need for further research to reduce the risks of WBOs and the need for well-founded guidelines for identification of risks in the production of drinking water.
Additionally, it is suggested that experiences on WBOs are shared within and between water companies and researchers to improve risk analysis tools and risk reduction measures in order to provide safe drinking water. The importance of identifying and addressing the potential risks in the drinking water systems is of the foremost significance to prevent outbreaks and assure the deliverance of safe water to consumers.
The main causes of contamination identified in this review are as follows: Groundwater sources : intrusion of animal faeces or wastewater due to heavy rains. Surface water sources : discharge of wastewater into the water source and increased turbidity and colour of the water.
WTP : malfunctioning of the disinfection, increased turbidity, maintenance work, high or low demand of water and malfunctioning equipment e.
Distribution network : cross-connections, pipe breaks, wastewater intrusion into the pipe network, and contamination of reservoirs. The main pathogens causing the highest amount of affected consumers are Cryptosporidium , norovirus, Giardia , Campylobacter and rotavirus, but it is possible that survey bias had an impact on these results.
The highest number of affected consumers with gastrointestinal illness was for contamination events with a surface water source, while the highest number of events of WBOs occurred for the distribution network. Sign In or Create an Account. Advanced Search. Sign In. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article navigation. Volume 15, Issue 1. Previous Article Next Article.
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Research Article October 25 Safe drinking water and waterborne outbreaks N. Moreira N. This Site. Google Scholar. Bondelind M. E-mail: mia. J Water Health 15 1 : Article history Received:. Views Icon Views. Guest Access. List of outbreaks originated from raw water contamination surface water. Figure 1. View large Download slide. The number of events of WBOs and the number of cases of illnesses among the consumers. Figure 2. Figure 3.
Outbreak of acute gastroenteritis caused by contamination of drinking water in a factory, the Basque Country. Search ADS. Syndromic surveillance for local outbreak detection and awareness: evaluating outbreak signals of acute gastroenteritis in telephone triage, web-based queries and over-the-counter pharmacy sales. Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: review of worldwide breaks — an update — A waterborne outbreak of campylobacteriosis in the South Island of New Zealand due to a failure to implement a multi-barrier approach.
Waterborne outbreak of Norwalk-like virus gastroenteritis at a tourist resort, Italy. Restoring drinking water acceptance following a waterborne disease outbreak: the role of trust, risk perception, and communication. Outbreak of acute gastroenteritis due to a washwater-contaminated water supply, Switzerland, Surveillance for waterborne disease outbreaks associated with drinking water — United States, — A Norwalk-like virus waterborne community outbreak in a Swedish village during peak holiday season.
Waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis. Detection of Cryptosporidium species and sources of contamination with Cryptosporidium hominis during a waterborne outbreak in northwest Wales. Development of performance indicators for small Quebec drinking water utilities. Molecular characterization of isolates of waterborne Cryptosporidium spp. Impacts of climate change on surface water quality in relation to drinking water production.
Available from: www. Gastroenteritis associated with accidental contamination of drinking water with partially treated water.follow link
Norovirus in residential care facilities: Does prompt notification of outbreaks help?
Outbreaks of gastroenteritis due to infections with Norovirus in Switzerland, — A large multi-pathogen waterborne community outbreak linked to faecal contamination of a groundwater system, France, Investigation and control of a Norovirus outbreak of probable waterborne transmission through a municipal groundwater system. Three drinking water-associated Cryptosporidiosis outbreaks, Northern Ireland.
Guzman Herrador. Waterborne outbreaks in the Nordic countries, to Norovirus i vatten — en litteraturstudie Norovirus in rater — a literature review.
Chapter 8: Infection control
Detection and typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and analysis of indicator organisms in three waterborne outbreaks in Finland. Cryptosporidium oocysts in a water supply associated with a Cryptosporidiosis outbreak. Published case studies of waterborne disease outbreaks — evidence of a recurrent threat. A fatal waterborne disease epidemic in Walkerton, Ontario: comparison with other waterborne outbreaks in the developed world. Novel microbiological and spatial statistical methods to improve strength of epidemiological evidence in a community-wide waterborne outbreak.
Burden of norovirus in healthcare facilities and strategies for outbreak control. Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: a worldwide review of outbreaks and lessons learnt. An extensive gastroenteritis outbreak after drinking-water contamination by sewage effluent, Finland. Cryptosporidiosis decline after regulation, England and Wales, — Epidemiology and estimated costs of a large waterborne outbreak of norovirus infection in Sweden. Uncertainty modelling in multi-criteria analysis of water safety measures.
Large outbreak of viral gastroenteritis caused by contaminated drinking water in Apulia, Italy, May—October A Cryptosporidium hominis outbreak in North-West Wales associated with low oocyst counts in treated drinking water. Epidemiological investigation of two parallel gastroenteritis outbreaks in school settings. A large waterborne gastroenteritis outbreak in central Greece, March challenges for the investigation and management.
Here's What You Need to Know About Norovirus - Consumer Reports
A large community outbreak of waterborne giardiasis-delayed detection in a non-endemic urban area. A waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis with multiple etiologies among Resort Island Visitors and Residents: Ohio, A gastroenteritis outbreak due to Norovirus infection in Xanthi, Northern Greece: management and public health consequences.
A large outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in western Ireland linked to public water supply: a preliminary report. A community outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni infection from a chlorinated public water supply. Waterborne norovirus outbreak in a municipal drinking-water supply in Sweden.
Department of Public Health. An outbreak of viral gastroenteritis linked to municipal water supply, Lombardy, Italy, June Norovirus infectivity in humans and persistence in water. Value of syndromic surveillance in monitoring a focal waterborne outbreak due to an unusual Cryptosporidium genotype in Northamptonshire, United Kingdom, June—July Waterborne cryptosporidiosis outbreak, North Battleford, Saskatchewan, Spring Waterborne infections in the era of bioterrorism.
The application of new molecular methods in the investigation of a waterborne outbreak of Norovirus in Denmark, A gastroenteritis outbreak caused by Noroviruses in Greece. Outbreak of severe gastroenteritis with multiple aetiologies caused by contaminated drinking water in Denmark, January Large outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis infection transmitted through the public water supply, Sweden. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with drinking water and water not intended for drinking — United States, — Increased information on waterborne outbreaks through efficient notification system enforces actions towards safe drinking water.
An integrated performance assessment framework for water treatment plants. View Metrics. Cited by Web Of Science High serological response to Cryptosporidium -specific antigens in the Czech republic and its association with water supply. Estimated burden of disease from arsenic in drinking water supplied by domestic wells in the United States.
O'Reilly et al. Papadopoulos et al. Vantarakis et al. Moderate risk of groundwater contamination previously identified; UV treatment unit was commissioned. HPSC Riera-Montes et al. Giammanco et al.
Arias et al. Natural wildlife contamination, septic tanks and sewage treatment works; streaming and stratification in raw water lake ; UV system subsequently installed. Mason et al. Nichols et al. Yoder et al. Hewitt et al. Very wet winter contributed to contamination of lake probably due to run-off from land following slurry spreading. Pelly et al. Larsson et al.
Scarcella et al.