Aroma de vainilla (Spanish Edition)
Pollination is required to set the vanilla fruit from which the flavoring is derived.
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Hand-pollination allowed global cultivation of the plant. Three major species of vanilla currently are grown globally, all of which derive from a species originally found in Mesoamerica , including parts of modern-day Mexico. Combined, Madagascar and Indonesia produce two-thirds of the world's supply of vanilla. Vanilla is the second-most expensive spice after saffron   because growing the vanilla seed pods is labor-intensive. According to other popular belief, the Totonac Aztec-age people, who inhabit the east coast of Mexico in the present-day state of Veracruz , were among the first people to cultivate vanilla in the 15th century.
They named the fruit tlilxochitl , or "black flower", after the matured fruit, which shrivels and turns black shortly after it is picked. Until the midth century, Mexico was the chief producer of vanilla. After Edmond Albius discovered how to pollinate the flowers quickly by hand, the pods began to thrive.
The market price of vanilla rose dramatically in the late s after a tropical cyclone ravaged key croplands. Prices remained high through the early s despite the introduction of Indonesian vanilla. In the mids, the cartel that had controlled vanilla prices and distribution since its creation in disbanded. Madagascar especially the fertile Sava region accounts for much of the global production of vanilla. Spanish explorers arriving on the Gulf Coast of Mexico in the early 16th century gave vanilla its current name. Portuguese sailors and explorers brought vanilla into Africa and Asia later that century.
They called it vainilla , or "little pod". The main species harvested for vanilla is V. Although it is native to Mexico, it is now widely grown throughout the tropics.enter site
con aroma a vainilla - English Translation - Word Magic Spanish-English Dictionary
Indonesia and Madagascar are the world's largest producers. Additional sources include V. Vanilla grows as a vine, climbing up an existing tree also called a tutor , pole, or other support. It can be grown in a wood on trees , in a plantation on trees or poles , or in a "shader", in increasing orders of productivity. Its growth environment is referred to as its terroir , and includes not only the adjacent plants, but also the climate, geography, and local geology.
Left alone, it will grow as high as possible on the support, with few flowers. Every year, growers fold the higher parts of the plant downward so the plant stays at heights accessible by a standing human. This also greatly stimulates flowering. The distinctively flavored compounds are found in the fruit, which results from the pollination of the flower.
These seed pods are roughly a third of an inch by six inches, and brownish red to black when ripe. Inside of these pods is an oily liquid full of tiny seeds. However, self-pollination is blocked by a membrane which separates those organs. The flowers can be naturally pollinated by bees of genus Melipona abeja de monte or mountain bee , by bee genus Eulaema , or by hummingbirds. The first vanilla orchid to flower in Europe was in the London collection of the Honourable Charles Greville in Cuttings from that plant went to Netherlands and Paris, from which the French first transplanted the vines to their overseas colonies.
The vines grew, but would not fruit outside Mexico. Growers tried to bring this bee into other growing locales, to no avail. The only way to produce fruits without the bees is artificial pollination. Today, even in Mexico, hand pollination is used extensively. He watched their actions closely as they would land and work their way under a flap inside the flower, transferring pollen in the process.
Within hours, the flowers closed and several days later, Morren noticed vanilla pods beginning to form. Morren immediately began experimenting with hand pollination. Using a beveled sliver of bamboo ,  an agricultural worker lifts the membrane separating the anther and the stigma , then, using the thumb, transfers the pollinia from the anther to the stigma. The flower, self-pollinated, will then produce a fruit.
The vanilla flower lasts about one day, sometimes less, so growers have to inspect their plantations every day for open flowers, a labor-intensive task. The fruit , a seed capsule , if left on the plant, ripens and opens at the end; as it dries, the phenolic compounds crystallize , giving the fruits a diamond-dusted appearance, which the French call givre hoarfrost. It then releases the distinctive vanilla smell.
The fruit contains tiny, black seeds. In dishes prepared with whole natural vanilla, these seeds are recognizable as black specks. Both the pod and the seeds are used in cooking. Like other orchids' seeds, vanilla seeds will not germinate without the presence of certain mycorrhizal fungi.
Instead, growers reproduce the plant by cutting : they remove sections of the vine with six or more leaf nodes, a root opposite each leaf. The two lower leaves are removed, and this area is buried in loose soil at the base of a support. The remaining upper roots cling to the support, and often grow down into the soil. Growth is rapid under good conditions. The term French vanilla is often used to designate particular preparations with a strong vanilla aroma, containing vanilla grains and sometimes also containing eggs especially egg yolks.
The appellation originates from the French style of making vanilla ice cream with a custard base, using vanilla pods, cream, and egg yolks. Inclusion of vanilla varietals from any of the former French dependencies or overseas France may be a part of the flavoring.
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Alternatively, French vanilla is taken to refer to a vanilla-custard flavor. Vanilla essence occurs in two forms. Real seedpod extract is a complex mixture of several hundred different compounds, including vanillin, acetaldehyde , acetic acid , furfural , hexanoic acid , 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde , eugenol , methyl cinnamate , and isobutyric acid. The chemical compound vanillin 4-hydroxymethoxybenzaldehyde is a major contributor to the characteristic flavor and aroma of real vanilla and is the main flavor component of cured vanilla beans.
In general, quality vanilla only comes from good vines and through careful production methods. Commercial vanilla production can be performed under open field and "greenhouse" operations. The two production systems share these similarities:. Soils for vanilla cultivation should be loose, with high organic matter content and loamy texture. They must be well drained, and a slight slope helps in this condition. Soil pH has not been well documented, but some researchers have indicated an optimum soil pH around 5. Vanilla requires organic matter, so three or four applications of mulch a year are adequate for the plant.
Dissemination of vanilla can be achieved either by stem cutting or by tissue culture. For stem cutting, a progeny garden needs to be established. Mulching the trenches with coconut husk and micro irrigation provide an ideal microclimate for vegetative growth. Planting material should always come from unflowered portions of the vine.
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Wilting of the cuttings before planting provides better conditions for root initiation and establishment. Before planting the cuttings, trees to support the vine must be planted at least three months before sowing the cuttings. An average of cuttings can be planted per hectare 2. Tissue culture was first used as a means of creating vanilla plants during the s at Tamil Nadu University. This was the part of the first project to grow V.
At that time, a shortage of vanilla planting stock was occurring in India. The approach was inspired by the work going on to tissue culture other flowering plants. Several methods have been proposed for vanilla tissue culture, but all of them begin from axillary buds of the vanilla vine. In the tropics, the ideal time for planting vanilla is from September to November, when the weather is neither too rainy nor too dry, but this recommendation varies with growing conditions. Cuttings take one to eight weeks to establish roots, and show initial signs of growth from one of the leaf axils.
A thick mulch of leaves should be provided immediately after planting as an additional source of organic matter. Three years are required for cuttings to grow enough to produce flowers and subsequent pods. As with most orchids, the blossoms grow along stems branching from the main vine. Flowering normally occurs every spring, and without pollination, the blossom wilts and falls, and no vanilla bean can grow. Each flower must be hand-pollinated within 12 hours of opening. In the wild, very few natural pollinators exist, with most pollination thought to be carried out by the shiny green Euglossa viridissima , some Eulaema spp.
Closely related Vanilla species are known to be pollinated by the euglossine bees. As a result, all vanilla grown today is pollinated by hand. A small splinter of wood or a grass stem is used to lift the rostellum or move the flap upward, so the overhanging anther can be pressed against the stigma and self-pollinate the vine. Generally, one flower per raceme opens per day, so the raceme may be in flower for over 20 days. A healthy vine should produce about 50 to beans per year, but growers are careful to pollinate only five or six flowers from the 20 on each raceme.
The first flowers that open per vine should be pollinated, so the beans are similar in age. These agronomic practices facilitate harvest and increases bean quality. The fruits require five to six weeks to develop, but around six months to mature. Over-pollination results in diseases and inferior bean quality. Most diseases come from the uncharacteristic growing conditions of vanilla.
Therefore, conditions such as excess water, insufficient drainage, heavy mulch, overpollination, and too much shade favor disease development. Vanilla is susceptible to many fungal and viral diseases. Fusarium , Sclerotium , Phytophthora , and Colletrotrichum species cause rots of root, stem, leaf, bean, and shoot apex. Biological control of the spread of such diseases can be managed by applying to the soil Trichoderma 0. Mosaic virus , leaf curl , and cymbidium mosaic potex virus are the common viral diseases. These diseases are transmitted through the sap, so affected plants must be destroyed.
The insect pests of vanilla include beetles and weevils that attack the flower, caterpillars, snakes, and slugs that damage the tender parts of shoot, flower buds, and immature fruit, and grasshoppers that affect cutting shoot tips. Most artificial vanilla products contain vanillin , which can be produced synthetically from lignin , a natural polymer found in wood.
Most synthetic vanillin is a byproduct from the pulp used in papermaking , in which the lignin is broken down using sulfites or sulfates. However, vanillin is only one of identified aromatic components of real vanilla fruits. The orchid species Leptotes bicolor is used as a natural vanilla replacement in Paraguay and southern Brazil. In the US Food and Drug Administration cautioned that some vanilla products sold in Mexico were made from the cheaper tonka bean which as well as vanillin also contains the toxin coumarin.
They advised consumers to always check the ingredients label and avoid suspiciously cheap products. In the United States, castoreum , the exudate from the castor sacs of mature beavers , has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a food additive,  often referenced simply as a " natural flavoring " in the product's list of ingredients.
It is used in both food and beverages,  especially as vanilla and raspberry flavoring, with a total annual U. Harvesting vanilla fruits is as labor-intensive as pollinating the blossoms. Immature, dark green pods are not harvested. Pale yellow discoloration that commences at the distal end of the fruits is not a good indication of the maturity of pods. Each fruit ripens at its own time, requiring a daily harvest.
Yellowing at the blossom end, the current index, occurs before beans accumulate maximum glucovanillin concentrations. Beans left on the vine until they turn brown have higher glucovanillin concentrations but may split and have low quality. Judging bean maturity is difficult as they reach full size soon after pollination. Glucovanillin accumulates from 20 weeks, maximum about 40 weeks after pollination. To ensure the finest flavor from every fruit, each individual pod must be picked by hand just as it begins to split on the end. Overmatured fruits are likely to split, causing a reduction in market value.
Its commercial value is fixed based on the length and appearance of the pod. Each fruit contains thousands of tiny black vanilla seeds. Vanilla fruit yield depends on the care and management given to the hanging and fruiting vines. Any practice directed to stimulate aerial root production has a direct effect on vine productivity. A five-year-old vine can produce between 1. The harvested green fruit can be commercialized as such or cured to get a better market price. Several methods exist in the market for curing vanilla; nevertheless, all of them consist of four basic steps: killing, sweating, slow-drying, and conditioning of the beans.
The vegetative tissue of the vanilla pod is killed to stop the vegetative growth of the pods and disrupt the cells and tissue of the fruits, which initiates enzymatic reactions responsible for the aroma. The method of killing varies, but may be accomplished by heating in hot water, freezing, or scratching, or killing by heating in an oven or exposing the beans to direct sunlight.
The different methods give different profiles of enzymatic activity. Testing has shown mechanical disruption of fruit tissues can cause curing processes,  including the degeneration of glucovanillin to vanillin, so the reasoning goes that disrupting the tissues and cells of the fruit allow enzymes and enzyme substrates to interact. In scratch killing, fruits are scratched along their length.
Exposing the fruits to sunlight until they turn brown, a method originating in Mexico, was practiced by the Aztecs. Sweating is a hydrolytic and oxidative process. Traditionally, it consists of keeping fruits, for 7 to 10 days, densely stacked and insulated in wool or other cloth.
Daily exposure to the sun may also be used, or dipping the fruits in hot water. Fruits may be laid out in the sun during the mornings and returned to their boxes in the afternoons, or spread on a wooden rack in a room for three to four weeks, sometimes with periods of sun exposure. Drying is the most problematic of the curing stages; unevenness in the drying process can lead to the loss of vanillin content of some fruits by the time the others are cured.
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Conditioning is performed by storing the pods for five to six months in closed boxes, where the fragrance develops. The processed fruits are sorted, graded, bundled, and wrapped in paraffin paper and preserved for the development of desired bean qualities, especially flavor and aroma. The cured vanilla fruits contain an average of 2. Once fully cured, the vanilla fruits are sorted by quality and graded. Several vanilla fruit grading systems are in use. Each country which produces vanilla has its own grading system,  and individual vendors, in turn, sometimes use their own criteria for describing the quality of the fruits they offer for sale.
Higher-grade fruits command higher prices in the market. A simplified, alternative grading system has been proposed for classifying vanilla fruits suitable for use in cooking: . Under this scheme, vanilla extract is normally made from Grade B fruits. Due to drought , cyclones , and poor farming practices in Madagascar, there are concerns about the global supply and costs of vanilla in and Vanilla flavoring in food may be achieved by adding vanilla extract or by cooking vanilla pods in the liquid preparation.
A stronger aroma may be attained if the pods are split in two, exposing more of a pod's surface area to the liquid. In this case, the pods' seeds are mixed into the preparation. Natural vanilla gives a brown or yellow color to preparations, depending on the concentration. Good-quality vanilla has a strong, aromatic flavor, but food with small amounts of low-quality vanilla or artificial vanilla-like flavorings are far more common, since true vanilla is much more expensive. Regarded as the world's most popular aroma and flavor,  vanilla is a widely used aroma and flavor compound for foods, beverages and cosmetics, as indicated by its popularity as an ice cream flavor.
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