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This information must, of course, be used in combination with hazard information and other relevant data. Chemicals Used in Largest Quantities The following list shows the 20 chemicals used in the highest quantities by facilities reporting under TURA in A limitation to the data presented here is that some facilities have claimed trade secret status for the data they have submitted. Three additional chemicals Butyraldehyde, Sodium Bisulfite, and Vinyl Acetate would appear in this top 20 list if these companies had not claimed trade secret status.
Chemical name CAS , quantity used in Styrene Monomer , ,, lbs Sodium Hydroxide , 71,, lbs Methanol , 66,, lbs Hydrochloric Acid , 59,, lbs Sulfuric Acid , 22,, lbs Sodium Hypochlorite , 22,, lbs Formaldehyde , 22,, lbs Toluene , 21,, lbs Potassium Hydroxide , 17,, lbs Ammonia , 14,, lbs Zinc Compounds , 13,, lbs Methyl Methacrylate , 12,, lbs Nitrate Compounds , 11,, lbs Chlorine , 11,, lbs Ethyl Acetate , 9,, lbs Methyl Ethyl Ketone , 9,, lbs Acetone , 8,, lbs Diisocyanates , 7,, lbs Toluene Diisocyanate , 6,, lbs Adipic Acid , 6,, lbs Largest quantities generated as byproduct The following list shows the chemicals that were generated as byproduct in the largest amounts in Two chemicals Ethyl Acetate and Sodium Bisulfite would appear in this list if trade secret data were included.
These subcategories were created based on primarily hazard, not use, information. This list is provided to industry as an informational resource, to help them make sound decisions when considering chemical substitutions.
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The list was originally developed using a modified Delphi method. These are chemicals that have been chosen by the TURA program for particular focus in allocation of program resources. These substances have a 1, pound reporting threshold or lower thresholds for those that are PBTs , and may be associated with additional regulatory requirements in the future. To date, the TURA program has designated cadmium, cadmium compounds, trichloroethylene, and perchloroethylene, as well as all listed PBTs, in this category. The authority to place chemicals on this list was created in amendments to TURA adopted in Additional chemicals are considered for addition to this list each year.
In addition, the TURA Science Advisory Board is currently evaluating selected substances of emerging concern for possible addition to the list. More information is available from TURI as needed. This chemical is hygroscopic and is used in the paving industry. The chemical has no PV method or validated method where it can easily be analyzed. Chemical manufacturers are not disclosing all the risks of the chemical. Aminoethylethanolamine AEEA. This is a teratogen and is used in paving additives.
Delete section d since it inhibits rather than protects workers. Section d mandates initial monitoring d 2 and then says that monitoring may be terminated d 4. The most worker exposure to EtO occurs in healthcare and medical device manufacture sterilization with EtO. Modern sterilizers, though generally well designed, like any complex equipment can and sometimes do fail and leaks do occur. If a workplace tests OK today, there is no guaranty that it will be tomorrow or in six months time.
Complying with section d , thus gives a false sensor of security and defeats the purpose of having more detailed requirements for carcinogenic gases and vapors such as EtO. At least periodic, and preferably continuous monitoring for EtO should be done in order for employers to comply with their duty to provide a safe work environment [OSH Act sec. Continuous monitors for EtO are readily available from several manufacturers.
In addition, I have two unreported cases and know of many more. ALOSH while studying this issue, has been underplaying the reality of the actual cases occurring which strongly suggest more personal monitoring is needed for welder safety. High cancer risk. Flavoring agent. Potential for significant exposures. No PEL. Peripheral neuropathy cases reported among workers. Widespread use as a degreaser; used in dry cleaning. Skin absorbable. Available in aerosol cans. CA Dept. Recommend 5 ppm PEL pending availability of cancer unit risk value. Exposures occur in the manufacture of phthalates, rubber hoses, and rubber gaskets; and in nail salons.
PEL is derived based on the critical study Lee et al. Insecticide and fumigant. Potential for high use and exposure. Cancer risk. Mechanics, bus drivers, toll booth operators, port workers, etc. Health basis for ppm PEL is not clear. High exposure potential. Widespread use as a solvent and high exposure potential. For more information on the derivation of the 0. Used as a degreaser, fumigant, solvent. Potential for high exposure. Will also help to prevent changes in lung function, increased prevalence of chronic bronchitis, and work-related respiratory and asthmatic symptoms ACGIH PEL is based on epidemiological studies.
No animal model for asthma-causing substances. Glutaraldehyde HPV chemical M lbs. There is a high potential for occupational exposure due to many industrial uses cold sterilizer, biocide, tanning agent, preservative, etc. Identified occupational asthmagen in US and Germany see Quint et al. Workers exposed through use as curing agent in epoxy resin systems. Exposure during manufacture of polyisocyanate products used for various paint systems and release of free monomer from paints and coating systems. Identified occupational asthmagen see Quint et al.
Exposure during use in manufacture of polyurethane paints and varnishes and as an elastomer, and in release of monomer from paints and varnishes. Methylene chloride substitute. Significant use as a paint stripper, graffiti remover, electronics cleaner, and in other industries and products. Potential signicant exposure from use as chemical intermediate, deodorant, moth repellant, and in fuel exhaust. Natural Rubber Latex as inhalable allergenic proteins Identified occupational asthmagen see Quint et al. Widespread exposure across multiple industries.
Potential significant exposures in several industries. High potential for exposure. Potential for exposure during use as a fumigant to sterilize packaged foods, to pasteurize raw almonds, and as a chemical intermediate. Insulation material. Asbestos replacement. High risk for chronic health damage above endpoints at current PEL. Will protect against developmental toxicity. Potential for exposure during use as a curing agent for epoxy resins. High risk for cancer and asthma at current PEL. Potential for widespread and high exposures. No available unit risk value upon which to derive a PEL based on cancer.
NIOSH identifies wood dust as a carcinogen and asthmagen. Mercer s ORC Health, Safety and Environmental HSE Networks have for nearly 40 years specialized in providing a wide array of occupational safety and health and environmental consulting services to businesses operating in the U. Currently, more than large mostly Fortune employers in diverse industries are members of our HSE Networks.
The focus of these networks is to promote effective occupational safety and health and environmental programs and practices in business and to facilitate constructive communication between business and government agencies responsible for establishing national occupational safety and health and environmental policy. Our activities are based on the premise that providing safe and healthy working conditions is the mutual concern of employers, employees and government agencies. Mercer would first like to request considerably more time to provide OSHA with substantive input into the agency s deliberations about what chemical substances should be considered for the development of PELs and the important related issues of what processes and criteria should be used both for selecting appropriate candidates and establishing the limits themselves.
There are clearly no simple or obvious answers to any of these difficult problems providing a day period for stakeholder input is wholly inadequate and will ill-serve both OSHA and the workers it is attempting to protect. At the same time, Mercer is supportive of OSHA s desire to act with reasonable dispatch to collect data, information and views about how to begin the too-long stalled effort to provide improved protection to workers exposed to hazardous chemicals.
The agency faces a daunting challenge and making inroads into meeting the challenge will take long term commitment, the dedication of significant resources and the development and application of creative approaches. For purposes of these comments, Mercer would like to suggest some broad parameters for beginning to embark on a long-term effort to develop new PELs and keep them updated over time.
We believe strongly that none of these other supposed alternatives is an adequate substitute for, nor do most of them negate the need for, appropriate reference occupational exposure limits. At the same time, some of the suggested alternative approaches may have roles to play in the overall scheme of protecting workers from hazardous chemicals. For example, an employer is more likely to be successful in controlling the risk of ongoing exposure to a chemical to a level below a PEL if there is a safety and health management system or I2P2 in place that provides for periodic monitoring of risks and controls.
Second, OSHA needs to be clear about what it is trying to achieve. Clarity about its goals is essential both to OSHA s establishment of a viable process for setting new limits and to its determination of what chemicals to select for rulemaking. Mercer strongly believes that OSHA s basic goal, at least in the relatively short term, should be to establish updated PELs for a significant number of toxic substances that will result in enhanced health protection for significant numbers of workers in a reasonably expeditious manner.
To achieve this goal, it is Mercer s view that OSHA s focus should be to 1 establish a transparent and collaborative process, and criteria, for selecting chemicals around which a reasonable degree of consensus might be possible among affected stakeholders about the need to update an existing PEL or to set a new PEL where there is none , and then 2 endeavor to engage in a simplified and expedited rulemaking process for the establishment of the PELs for the selected chemicals.
The existing traditional statutory process under section 6 b 5 of the Act for establishing comprehensive standards dealing with toxic material will always be available for complex or controversial factual, scientific, policy or legal issues requiring a detailed review of data and information with respect to health effects, risk assessment and feasibility.
As history has shown, however, this traditional rulemaking approach will never get OSHA where it needs to be in terms of a addressing in a meaningful way the universe of toxic chemical exposures that confront workers. The most critical step is establishing a process and criteria for selecting candidate chemicals. As a threshold matter, Mercer strongly believes that the development of such a screening process and the selection criteria for the candidate chemicals should be transparent and collaborative.
Any hope for success in PEL-setting rests on early and continued public involvement and buy-in. Similar criteria could be adapted for a situation where there is no PEL currently in effect. Once the screening criteria are in place and a process for reviewing specific substances has been developed, OSHA could begin making candidate selections and initiate the rulemaking process. Mercer would be pleased to discuss its ideas for how such processes might proceed in subsequent comments.
Mercer appreciates OSHA taking this next step in its efforts to protect workers from the risks of exposure to toxic substances and looks forward to continuing to work with the agency in this important area. We again recommend that OSHA extend the time period for input and provide more focused guidance as to its objectives.
We are heartened by OSHA's recognizance of its past shortcomings in setting adequate permissible exposure limits PELs and its apparent eagerness to correct this problem. These chemicals are listed below. These recommendations are based on review of NIOSH criteria documents, though there are limitations on the applicability of this data. Because some criteria documents are several decades old, the number of workers exposed to these chemicals is likely outdated.
Nonetheless, we believe that in some cases the numbers may have increased over the years as industries and America's workforce have grown, and we therefore believe the potential for exposure and harm to employees is still great. Recognizing that the rulemaking process and limited resources will prevent OSHA from establishing an adequate PEL for every dangerous chemical, we also support suggestions offered by other commentators for OSHA to explore additional ways for OSHA to require employers to limit the chemical exposure of employees more quickly, such as through expanded use of the general duty clause or increased industrial hygiene standards.
The Alliance and its member organizations work to raise public awareness of salon worker health and safety issues, advocate for safer nail salon products, and push for greater regulatory and legislative protection of salon workers. OSHA s request for nominations of new or revised PELs for chemicals of concern is a timely one since the growing nail salon industry is replete with products containing toxic chemicals, such as phthalates, toluene, formaldehyde, and other chemicals that are linked to negative health outcomes such as cancer and developmental and reproductive harm.
According to the EPA, as many as , people work in the United States as manicurists and pedicurists. Nail salon workers often work more than 8 hours per day for 6 or 7 days per week, for an average of 8 years. Many of the products that nail salon workers use on a daily basis contain multiple chemicals that are either known to cause adverse health effects or have not been tested at all.
Small workplaces and inadequate ventilation exacerbate the effects of ongoing exposure to multiple toxic chemicals in nail salons. The little research available indicate that nail salon workers may be at increased risk of adverse health impacts such as decreased attention and processing skills or an increase in occupational asthma.
In addition, women of reproductive age or who are pregnant may be especially vulnerable to the chemicals used in nail salon products. Although we believe that the risk assessment process is incomplete and does not address many issues such as cumulative exposures and underlying health conditions, many existing PELs are out of date and do not protect against the chronic diseases like cancer and reproductive and developmental harm that are of concern to most workers, but are difficult to link to workplace exposures.
Published studies that have measured the level of air contaminants, such as toluene and dibutyl phthalate, in beauty salons suggest that even when exposures are well below current occupational exposure standards, workers still experience related health problems. Toluene is in many nail products including polishes, nail strengtheners, cuticle treatments, base coats, and top coats.
It evaporates as the nail polish dries, making inhalation the most common route of exposure for nail salon workers. Exposure to toluene can cause headaches, dizziness, and fatigue. Instead, they have to stay on the job, possibly risking their own health and the health of their pregnancies and babies. We recommend a toluene PEL that will protect workers from toluene-induced neurologic effects i. We support the application of an intraspecies uncertainty factor of at least 3 to account for a potentially wide variation in worker response to toluene exposure.
But we also urge that the allowable toluene exposure level to workers be as protective as the standard for the general public under California s Prop We encourage OSHA to adopt a short term exposure limit for toluene - not just an 8-hour TWA and a ceiling level to better protect workers against exposures that are of shorter duration but of a higher and dangerous level.
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DBP is used in many consumer products, including nail care products. Studies on animal prenatal phthalate exposure indicate that prenatal exposure to dibutyl phthalate can adversely affect reproductive development, particularly male reproductive development. This value is based on the reproductive effects of DBP as observed in the study in rats by Lee et al.
OSHA should take a precautionary approach to protecting the reproductive health of nail salon and other workers by adopting a new dibutyl phthalate limit based on its developmental and reproductive toxicity and DBP s MADL of 8. Establish PEL for ethyl methacrylate based on asthma since it is widely used as a substitute for MMA and has a similar chemical structure. To conclude, the National Healthy Nail Salon Alliance and its member organizations urge OSHA to adopt new science-based, health protective PELs based on chronic illnesses such as asthma, cancer, and reproductive and developmental impacts and that take into account vulnerable workers such as nail salon workers.
Examples of how to do this can be found within and outside the United States. There are lists of specific substances, classes of chemicals, and chemicals of concern, as well as approaches to prevention of exposure for some of them. We believe that current PELs are out-of-date and inadequate. Examples of the desperate need for more effective ways to prevent chemical-related injuries, illnesses, diseases and deaths in the United States include: There are 85,plus chemicals used or produced in the U.
Little is known about the toxic effects of most of these substances, especially when they are combined in products or used simultaneously in the presence of other hazards e. For example, OSHA and others have collected hundreds of thousands of samples without follow-up action to reduce or eliminate exposures; The combination of what others call the: data gap e. They miss the bigger picture of the life cycle of chemicals, often ignore effective prevention and hazards, and, in practice, treat occupational health and workers as less important than environmental health concerns and practices.
We recommend OSHA look to the significant work that has been done within the United States and elsewhere to integrate occupational and environmental health in regulatory activities and workplace practices. These governments, researchers, health and safety practitioners and organizations use the principles of public health, precaution and informed substitution.
The results are solution-oriented, integrated and programmatic. Examples of alternative approaches for effective prevention of work-related illnesses, injuries, diseases and death include: control banding, which originated in the pharmaceutical industry; the approaches developed by several U. To accomplish these recommendations, we support OSHA increasing its co-ordination and collaboration with other agencies e. That will provide opportunities to better integrate their activities and approaches, and ensure that occupational health and safety is given the attention it requires to truly prevent and reduce job-related injuries, illnesses, diseases and deaths.
We hope these comments are helpful, and would like to follow up our brief response to this complex subject with further resources and detailed discussions. I have conducted full shift dosimetry of welding fume many times in construction, and manganese often is present in significant quantities. Reference: Bowler, Rosemarie, et al. And Env. Med, , Isocyanates: many isocyanates are in use and not regulated by OSHA.
Regulating these by the cumulative reactive isocyanate components, rather than individual chemicals may be advisable. Ammonia: I don't know any research on this, but I have been in 50ppm current PEL workplaces, and it is intolerably high exposure. Workers may be exposed to a hazardous drug at many points during its manufacture, transport, distribution, receipt, storage, preparation, and administration, as well as during waste handling and equipment maintenance and repair.
All workers involved in these activities have the potential for contact with uncontained drug. Early concerns regarding the safety of workers handling potentially hazardous drugs focused on antineoplastic drugs when reports of second cancers in patients treated with these agents were coupled with the discovery of these mutagenic compounds or their metabolites in nurses who handled these drugs and cared for treated patients. Anecdotal and case reports in the literature range from skin-related and ocular effects to flu-like symptoms and headache.
This estimate, which considered workplace contamination and worker contamination and excretion in combination with animal and patient studies, was based on a conservative exposure level. Connor et al. These later findings could add 7 50 additional cancer cases per year per million workers to Sessink s estimate. Subsequent studies 29,30 have confirmed substantial variation in surface contamination of antineoplastic drug vials, raising concerns about worker exposure.
The Society has engaged in significant activities related to this topic, including authoring the ASHP Guidelines on Handling Hazardous Drugs and participating in the expert panel reviewing and recommending updates to the NIOSH list of hazardous drugs. In light of this experience, ASHP would welcome the opportunity to lend the expertise of the Society and its expert members to this activity.
References 1. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH alert: preventing occupational exposure to anti-neoplastic and other hazardous drugs in health care settings. Appendix A. Drugs considered hazardous. Harris CC. The carcinogenicity of anticancer drugs: a hazard in man. Mutagenicity in urine of nurses handling cytostatic drugs. Harrison BR. Risks of handling cytotoxic drugs. In: Perry MC, ed. The chemotherapy source book. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins; Precautionary measures in the preparation of antineoplastics.
Am J Hosp Pharm. Crudi CB. Adverse reactions to AMSA in medical personnel. Cancer Treat Rep. Handling of injectable antineoplastic agents. Br Med J. McFarlane A. Ophthalmic problems in staff handling cytotoxic drugs. Aust J Hosp Pharm. Ocular adverse reactions associated with adriamycin doxorubicin. Am J Ophthalmol. Corneal toxicity from vinblastine solution. Br J Ophthalmol.
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Antineoplastic drugs: handle with care. Association of antineoplastic drug handling with acute adverse effects in pharmacy personnel. Spontaneous abortions and malformations in the offspring of nurses exposed to anaesthetic gases, cytostatic drugs, and other potential hazards, based on registered information of outcome. J Epidemiol Community Health. A study of occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs and fetal loss in nurses. N Engl J Med.
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Occupational exposure to antineoplastic agents and self-reported infertility among nurses and pharmacists. J Occup Environ Med. Occupational exposure to antineoplastic agents: self-reported miscarriages and stillbirths among nurses and pharmacists. National Toxicology Program.
Report on carcinogens, 11th ed. International Agency for Research on Cancer. Monographs database on carcinogenic risks to humans. Risks for physicians handling antineoplastic drugs. Leukaemia and reproductive outcome among nurses handling antineoplastic drugs. Br J Ind Med. Cancer risk assessment for health care workers occupationally exposed to cyclophosphamide. Fitxa de doblatge. Comic Book Movies. Virgin Books, , p. ISBN Diario de Sevilla. Publicat el 24 de gener del Retrieved on Anime News Network. Anime News Network , THEM Anime. The New York Times , The Washington Post , The Village Voice , Variety , Los Angeles Times , Empire , The Guardian , Chicago Tribune , Hardcore Gaming , De Jay A.
Rereport from Spanish site www. TG Faily. The Advocate. Asia Pacific Arts, The Hollywood Reporter , The Hollywood Reporter. A caricature, more like. Ben Child. The Guardian. Caleb Goellner. Comics alliance. Domingo de cine. Rick Marshall. This remains PEL busy in operations even in the current crises of low demand in market. Customer Loyalty As PEL is a pioneer of electronic manufacturer in Pakistan and in the market since last 5 to 6 decades. As PEL is satisfying the needs of customers with economic and durable products, the loyalty of its customers is ever increasing.
PEL is penetrating the market by introducing the new home appliance like Split Air conditioners and Water Dispensers and always trying to get the maximum shares in the home appliance market. Strong Research and Development Department PEL has a strong research and development department that is continuously trying to develop new features for the products. That is another strong position of PEL. PEL always make efforts to satisfy the customers.
So every one who is interested in purchasing the shares of PEL he can purchase. It is also called public limited company. So people are more interested in buying the PEL products. If PEL overcome on these weaknesses then it can become a market leader in the home appliance. PEL loose some competitive edge in the following points:. Financial Problems Sometimes PEL faces the financial problems because its stocks are so much piled up in the stores that create the problem of cash flow because when the stocks are not sold and the production is in process for 24 hours a day than the company faces such problems.
Company sometimes sells their products on advance bases to the dealers and gives them high margin of profit. That is a customer demand and due to this it is the main weakness of company. Low Satisfaction Level of Employees The most useful and important assets for any company are its employees; if they are satisfied they will give their best performance and which will be fruitful for both employees as well as for the company.
It is very big weakness of PEL that its employees are not satisfied and thus not giving their best performance. Middle and lower level of employees have not any sense of involvement in decision making for the company, as PEL has not given them empowerment to take their decisions for the company. That creates hurdle in selling the products and customers cannot know the changes, which are made in products by the company time to time.
Company is not in a position that it made advertising of all their products on a wide range because of its high cash requirement towards the production side. Due to this problem company always make efforts to develop strong relationships with dealers. System Variations It is also the main weakness of PEL that there are rapidly a change in polices of selling the products. So selling team sells the products sometimes on hard cash that will reduce the prices of products that gives the benefits to the dealers and creates problems for the management. The companies making progress in the world have excellent human resource management departments.
HR department was started before 3 years and it looks like a formality that company has HR department. Less Utilization of Resources Due to lack of finance a company cannot utilize all its resources on its full capacity.
It increases the cost of products per unit that decreases the profit margin of each consumer item. For the company it is also the main point of weakness. If PEL realize that opportunities then it will be more fruitful and profitable for the company.
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Even if company does not take advantage of these opportunities then it will loose its competitive position and high profit. Its competitors will give PEL tough time to pursuing the opportunities that are adopted by them. Following are the opportunities for the PEL. If company introduces their products in these areas then it can get a large amount of profit and increase its market shares.
Rising population Although rise in population is a problem for the country but where there is problem, there is an opportunity. So due to increase in population the demand will also increase in the market. So PEL can have more customers in future. Increase in Product Range It is the main opportunity for the PEL that it can increase its product range that will be a more profitable for the company. PEL can improve its product range in the power segment with the establishment of a new factory and can explore further growth opportunities in the Middle East and Eastern Europe, going forward.
If PEL does not take this opportunity then it will loose high margin of profit and market share. It will reduce the fixed cost and increase the efficiency of the employees. It will not only reduce the dependence on one market but also increase the market shares and profits. It will also help the company to spread the fixed cost on all of its production that will reduce the total cost and company will enjoy the high profit. Increase in Production Capacity Company can also increase its production capacity at the maximum level that will increase the efficiency of the employees and also will reduce the total cost.
Company should look the market conditions then it will produce their products. Increasing Investment in Power Sector Due to current power and energy crises in Pakistan, the government is increasing investment in power sector. So this is a great opportunity for PEL to focus on power division and take the steps to capture high demand of power products in the future. These threats are for the present situations and future. Company should make its policies and strategies according to these threats. So following are the main threats for the PEL:. Strong Competition There is very strong competition for the home appliance in the market.
So every company tries to come in the number 1 position for achieving the maximum shares in the market. Every company adopts different strategies for selling of the products. It reduces the profit margin of each company and increase the bargaining power of the buyers who will demand higher quality of products and lower cost.
That is the main threat for the PEL Company. China products stress the indigenous companies to lower the quality and prices that will not be profitable in the long run. This decrease in value of Rupee can severely affect the company as it will result into increase in the cost of raw material purchased from outside Pakistan.
Price war As there is a stiff competition in the home appliance market that will cause the price war. So every company reduces the prices of its products to increase the sales. It will not only reduce the profit margin of the company but also reduce the quality of products. So price war is the main threats for all the companies, which are operating in these products.
Decreasing Growth Rate in Pakistan There is also slow growth rate of home appliance in Pakistan that will increase the stocks of the company. It becomes the burden for the company that how to sell these stocks. Its main reason is that purchasing power of the buyer is very low and it has no income to buy the expensive home appliance. It is also becoming a main threat for all the companies. Instability of Government The rapid changes in governments will become threats for the companies because every government adopts its own policies for the industries.
So it increases the uncertainty for the investors who want to invest heavy amount in their new projects. Due to fear of politically instability companies will also not invest the heavy amounts. Tax Department Tax department is another major threat for the companies that will restrain the business expansion.
There is more complicated tax procedure for the companies,. Due to fear of heavy taxes companies would not like to invest the heavy amount. World Trade Organization World Trade organization gave the permission in to each company of home appliance to export their products after paying fewer duties or duty free products. That will increase the pressures for the indigenous companies to reduce the prices and increase the quality.
It will increase the competition among the foreign companies and indigenous companies. But our companies also run under uncertainty conditions. This will decrease the morale of indigenous companies. Rapid Technological Changes World is watching fast technological changes and there is a rapid change in designs and technologies in products. So it is very important to move with latest technologies which increase the cost of production. Black Economy in Pakistan Due to the black economy in Pakistan the marketers cannot make proper estimation of market demand.
The marketers acquire data from State Bank Economic Surveys which do not reflect the fair picture of the economy. It is a threat for company as it will not properly forecast and meet the market demand of Pakistan, which can cause customers to switch from PEL products to other companies products. These ratings denote a low expectation of credit risk emanating from a strong capacity for timely payments of financial commitments. Managing its financial risk at an acceptable level would remain crucial for the ratings. The alliance is expected to be completed with internationally renowned LG, in following three phrases:.
Choi was also present at the occasion. Choi emphasized the health care factor of the LG products. All doings and activities are checked by Mr. Rana Sameeullah Sr. BDE and Mr. Yousaf Sales Coordinator. A specific schedule is made for 30days, 60days,. It contains the name and code of the party and sales manager, city name and its code and also the opening and closing debit and credit balances of the consignees.
The following table illustrates it;. Balan C. Finance Department use to issue cheques in favor of installers, which are received by installer parties from Corporate Sales Department. This document contains the per unit rates of the required products by the customer. It includes organization name, date and amount of payment then checking of the collection edit list and verifying that each and every entry should be matched with the payment information forms.
Then it is handed over to Distribution and Credit Control Department. Randomly calling the sales coordinators in different cities in different areas of Pakistan and asking them how many payments are received and left also the status of sales. My internship experience has given me a realistic preview of practical life.
Now I feel that I am better prepared to enter the world of professional work. I have come to know and been appreciated by a number of professionals who are lending their services to the PEL for more than a decade. I feel honored that I have worked with such experienced professionals. I must admit that such interaction in this respectable professional community will help me in seeking out good job opportunities in the near future. Qasir Mehmood Sales Coordinator whatever I asked from him, he was so kind to guide me in detail.
So, my urge for learning in field of Sales Force Management and Marketing helped me a lot. I realize the importance of research work for any organization by seeing its application. Each task I performed was a different experience in itself. By the end of it, I must say I realize my potentials, I have realized that practical life is not so easy after all; it takes a lot of hard work and devotion, and not to forget time.
And I now know that if I want I can make things possible, and I also know how good it feels to having accomplished something and being appreciated for it. I definitely have learnt things, which will impact my career and my character. I am now capable of dealing with different sort of clients, and how to be patient while doing so. Besides this I also gained knowledge about documents which I previously lacked and many more products being offered by the PEL. So in a nutshell, this internship gave me the experience, which would no doubt boost my confidence to work in future.
It will boost their motivation and loyalty for the company. People are attracted towards products with unique features and something that would make the customers feel that they have got their moneys worth. There should be fair performance of employees and reward them according to their performance. Because in such economic conditions Marketing is considered the key department which creates more value in the minds of the customers.
They should use all the medium of advertising to be more successful in attracting customers. In Pakistan the brand image of Pak Elektron Limited is excellent in the minds of its customers. The company has good strengths and so it can make a rapid progress in local as well as foreign markets. In my views the management philosophy is the main hurdle in progress of the company.
No doubt PEL is making excellent products, but unfortunately PEL is not realizing creative advertising is also important part of their Marketing success. The current strategic alliance of PEL with LG will helpful for the company to expand its technical and production capacity and will also expand the target market. I see the future of PEL very bright as it is finding new opportunities and the company has the potential to compete with any challenge in the market as it is in the market since an era of above 50 years.
Read Free For 30 Days. Flag for inappropriate content. For Later. Related titles. Pak Elektron Ltd. Internship Report to Hr Dept. Jump to Page. The last portion of the report will describe the references, glossary and annexure. The PEL Group comprises two divisions 1. Appliances Division 2. The series are as follow 1. Xpression Series 2. Premier Series 3. Delux Series 5. Smart Series 6. Mini Series PEL has 28 different models in the above 6 series in different prices, which gives customers a wide range to select PEL refrigerator according to their needs.
Super quiet operation 2. Maximum dehumidification 3. Best after-sales service 4. Anti-rust cabinet 5. PEL presents 26 different models of ovens with different prices, models and capacities.