The Art of Digital Space Art 2
And this is not just a question of taste, fashion, finances and so on. It is fundamentally bound up with the structure of the gallery as an institution, in terms of its understanding of its role, its intentions and duties, and even its physical embodiment. It is far from coincidental that all these and others I have not mentioned are practices that emerged either in reaction against or in response to the increasing importance and ubiquity of information and communications technologies, such as telephony, television, computing, networking and so on. It is not, of course, that Tate is deliberately following a policy of exclusion in terms of the above.
Yet such work has a history that goes back to the Second World War. The War had necessitated a number of important technological developments, including digital computing and radar, as well as related discourses such as Cybernetics, Information Theory and General Systems Theory. In the decades that followed the War artistic responses to the possibilities that these technologies and ideas offered proliferated. These were often facilitated or inspired by the emigration of artists and designers connected to Kineticism and the Bauhaus to the United States after the War.
In the United States the s also saw some of the first electronic artworks, made by, among others, Ben Laposky and John Whitney Sr, as well as some of the first experiments in computer-generated music, by Max Mathews at Bell Labs. This work was accompanied and encouraged by the work of theorists such as Abraham Moles in France and Max Bense in Germany, both of whom wrote works in which information theory and cybernetics were applied to art. Bense was able to put his ideas into practice through his founding of the Stuttgart University Art Gallery. In Britain a generally pastoral and anti-technological attitude had prevailed in the arts since the nineteenth century, though there were exceptions such as the Vorticist movement in the early twentieth century.
Through shows and discussions at the ICA and elsewhere, advanced ideas about technology, media, information and communications theories and cybernetics were presented and debated. Along with other technological developments this produced an increased interest in the possibilities of such technology as a tool for art.
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In the late s the increasing sophistication and availability of technologies such as computers and video and the ideas of theorists such as Buckminster Fuller and Marshall McLuhan gave further impetus to the development of art practices involving both the technologies themselves and related concepts. Paik, whose work also involved other technologies such as tape, was also one of the first artists to take advantage of the development of portable video cameras, to produce some of the first video art, a practice taken up by other young artists of the time, including Les Levine and Bruce Nauman.
At the same time other technologies, such as electronics, lasers and light systems were exploited by artists such as Vladimir Bonacic, Otto Piene and Dan Flavin.
One of the most important developments of the period was that of large-scale multimedia environments. This type of work intersected with developments in psychedelic rock music and underground entertainment. Over the eponymous nine evenings a series of collaborative happenings were staged, involving both artists and engineers. Like Cybernetic Serendipity this show mixed the work of scientists, computer theorists and artists with little regard for any disciplinary demarcations.
Jack Burnham and Jasia Reichardt were also among those who produced critical works on the subject of art, science and technology. Burnham published his magnum opus Beyond Modern Sculpture in At around the same time Reichardt published a number of works, including a special issue of Studio International to accompany her exhibition, while Gene Youngblood published Expanded Cinema , an extraordinarily prescient vision of experimental video and multimedia. It is hard to recapture the utopian energy and belief embodied in these exhibitions and publications.
As far as Reichardt, Burnham, Davis and others were concerned the future of art was as a means of engaging with the concepts, technologies and systems through which society was increasingly organised. Yet the apogee of this thoroughly utopian project also represented the beginning of its demise, and the replacement of its idealism and techno-futurism with the irony and critique of Conceptual Art. To begin with at least, it was hard to distinguish between conceptual art and systems art. Indeed, for much of the time they were interchangeable and indistinguishable.
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But by the difference was beginning to come clear. Information may have sounded very systems-oriented, and showed some of the same people as Software , but it did not include the technologists and engineers who had also been included in the earlier show. Furthermore, the general attitude evinced by the artists towards technology was increasingly distanced and critical. Perhaps one of the last gasps of systems art was in , when Robert Morris , now considered a paradigmatic conceptual artist, had a show at the Tate. Though it did not involve technology per se the show was almost entirely concerned with interaction, feedback and process, with the visitors encouraged to climb on and manipulate the works on display.
A show further from the arid intellectualism that supposedly characterises Conceptual Art is hard to imagine. Thus the early s represented the apparent disappearance of systems art, and its supersession by other approaches. Its failure, if it can be so described, can be put down to a number of factors; the quality of much of the work itself; the failure of the exhibitions to work as intended; a rejection on the part of artists of the collaborations with industry necessary to realise projects and exhibitions; a suspicion of the technocratic pretensions of systems art and of cybernetics with its roots in the military-industrial-academic complex; and of technologies such as computers as the means of perpetuating an instrumental and scientistic view of the world, and particularly in light of their use in the Vietnam War and elsewhere; and finally, difficulties in collecting, conserving and commodifying such work.
The souring of the counter-culture in the early s and the economic crises of the same period did little to encourage any kind of technologically based utopianism. In the s and s Video art was gradually subsumed by the mainstream art world, but new media, electronic, computer, and cybernetic art was largely ignored.
Such art continued to be made and taught, but it was mostly shown in specialist and trade shows such as Siggraph, the annual conference organised by the Association of Computer Machinery for those with an interest in graphics. Some resemble video installations, particularly large scale works involving projections and live video capture. Others go even further and attempt to facilitate a complete immersion in virtual realms.
This type of installation is generally site-specific , scalable , and without fixed dimensionality , meaning it can be reconfigured to accommodate different presentation spaces. Noah Wardrip-Fruin 's "Screen" is an example of digital installation art which makes use of a Cave Automatic Virtual Environment to create an interactive experience. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Computer art. Main article: 3D computer graphics. Main article: Computer-generated imagery. See also: Computer animation. See also: interactive art. Digital Art , pp.
Digital Art. Langenscheidt: h. The soulless usurper: Reception and criticism of early computer art. Kahn Eds.
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Art of the Digital Age , pp. Retrieved June 10, Retrieved 2 June Digital Art , pp Fractal software. Digital art Graphics software Fractal art. Bryce Chaotica Maple Wolfram Mathematica. Ultra Fractal VisSim. Computer-generated imagery Fractal compression Fractal landscape Fractal flame Iterated function system Mathematical visualization Orbit trap. These kind of resources can often give more insight into art creation than tutorials or basic resources. GlennClovis has uploaded a huge x An excellent file to see the intricate workings of PS and of planetary creation.
Some of these brushes enables you to create whole nebulas and even galaxies with a simple click. The community One of the best ways to learn how to create space art is by interaction with other space artists. Deviantart is a great place to meet artists from all over the world.
Comment on other artists works and ask for inputs yourself. Join space themed clubs and join the official space art channel chat. Add a Comment:. Load All Images. Yay thank you so much for compiling this! I've always been curious about creating space art.
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Goonfella Featured By Owner Dec 1, Stumbled across this page by accident and was so pleased I did. Amazing selection of tutorials and resources to satisfy any space enthusiast. Immediately bookmarked and Thanks very much. This is the single most awesome page on DA. You like it? See it much more refined and with LOTS of more tutorials and resources here: [link]. If you like this, check this out: [link]. Paliodor Featured By Owner Jul 2, Great collection of tut's. I'm sure it will be a big help for every person who like making sci-fi or space related works. Thanks for sharing this with all of us.
Is there some way to fav this?
I have to keep this saved for future reference! Check this out instead [link] that tutorial includes all this and much more! An excellent Guide, many thanks for posting. You like this, check out: [link]. Many thanks. Guess that's my weekend taken care of as I work through it all Thanks for pointing me at it. Damn, talk about a tutorial. Great job in putting this together!
DIGITAL MEETS ART
Thanks for the article! Cannot imagine how long it took you to create this article! A lot of information to digest, as well as some nice pictures! I shudder to think the cost of space programs. At any rate, really good information and very appreciated! I never tryed out space art I must say i think it came out better as a thought. This is really an amazing article. I love space art. I'm terrible at it, but I love it anyway! Thanks for putting this together. Thanks for this! Really cool collection of tuts and resources you have come up with and way overdue I might add thank you. I have over 3d abstracts availble that could easily be incorporated into many space scenarios for anyone who wishes to use them help yourself.
I've always wondered and wanted to do space art!! Thank you for compiling this, it really helps. The best tutorials and resources all contained so close together; it's almost too much! Great selection of resources!