ARVO 2010 Abstracts - Retinal Cell Biology
Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The Eye’s First Line of Defense Against Macular Degeneration
A, and Hanlon R. Dark scene elements strongly influence cuttlefish camouflage responses in visually cluttered environments. Vision Research Liu Y. Morphological changes of the optic lobe from late embryonic to adult stages in oval squids Sepioteuthis lessoniana. Journal of Morphology Lin C. Female choice leads to a switch in oval squid male mating tactics.
Biological Bulletin Neural organization of the optic lobe changes steadily from late embryonic stage to adulthood in cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis. Frontiers in Physiology Mismatch between the eye and the optic lobe in the giant squid. Royal Society Open Science Quantitative analysis of dynamic body patterning reveals the grammar of visual signals during the reproductive behavior of the oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution Lin I. Visual equivalence and amodal completion in cuttlefish.
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Liu T. Mosaic organization of body pattern control in the optic lobe of squids. Journal of Neuroscience Lee M. Short-term alteration of developmental neural activity enhances neurite outgrowth of retinal explants. Chen Y. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience Reproductive behavior and embryonic development of the pharaoh cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis Cephalopoda: Sepiidae. Zoological Studies Yang T. Number sense and state-dependent valuation in cuttlefish.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B Aug 31; A novel retinal oscillation mechanism in an autosomal dominant photoreceptor degeneration mouse model. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience Cx36 expression in the AII-mediated rod pathway is activity dependent in the developing rabbit retina.
Developmental Neurobiology A review of visual perception mechanisms that regulate rapid adaptive camouflage in cuttlefish. Journal of Comparative Physiology A Chen, Y. Spatial distribution of excitatory synapses on the dendrites of ganglion cells in the mouse retina. Lee Y. Early visual experience of background contrast affects the expression of NMDA-like glutamate receptors in the optic lobe of cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis.
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology Chan Y. The distribution of the preferred directions of the ON-OFF direction selective ganglion cells in the rabbit retina requires refinement after eye opening. Physiological Reports 1:e Hwang Y. Hanlon R. A fish-eye view of cuttlefish camouflage using in-situ spectrometry.
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society Animal Camouflage. McGraw-Hill Yearbook pp. How visual edge features influence cuttlefish camouflage patterning. Huang K. Can cuttlefish learn by observing others? Animal Cognition Akkaynak D. Quantification of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis camouflage: A study of color and luminance using in situ spectrometry.
A method for analyzing the dimensions of preattentive visual sensitivity.
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Journal of Mathematical Psychology Neural responses evoked by electrical stimulation in solar cell based subretinal prosthesis. Journal of Neuroscience and Neuroengineering The effects of electrical stimulation on neurite outgrowth of goldfish retinal explants. Brain Research Effects of early visual experience on the background preference in juvenile cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis. Biology Letters Functional expression of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the rabbit retinal ganglion cells. Yang Y. Responses of rabbit retinal ganglion cells to subretinal electrical stimulation using a silicon-based microphotodiode array.
Buresch K. The use of background matching versus masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Rapid adaptive camouflage in cephalopods. In Animal Camouflage: mechanisms and functions , edited by Stevens M. Hyperspectral imaging of cuttlefish camouflage indicates good color match in the eyes of fish predators. Shashar N.
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Underwater linear polarization: physical limitations to biological functions. Response to Holes in the camouflage. Journal of Experimental Biology Briscoe A. Reply to Nozawa et al. Visual contrast modulates maturation of camouflage body patterning in cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis. Journal of Comparative Psychology Positive selection of a duplicated ultraviolet-sensitive visual pigment coincides with wing pigment evolution in Heliconius butterflies. Chang Y. The functional expression of NMDA receptors is independent of visual experience in the developing rabbit retina. Mottle camouflage patterns in cuttlefish: quantitative characterization and visual background stimuli that evoke them.
Jou M. Visualization of melatonin's multiple mitochondrial levels of protection against mitochondrial Ca-mediated permeability transition and beyond in rat brain astrocytes. Journal of Pineal Research Romney A. Functional computational model for optimal color coding. Visualization of the spatial and spectral signals of orb-weaving spiders, Nephila pilipes , through the eyes of a honeybee. Chang C. The structure and possible functions of the milkfish Chanos chanos adipose eyelid. Journal of Fish Biology Ontogenetic changes of color vision abilities of the milkfish Chanos chanos Forssk, Zoological Science The scaling effects of substrate texture on camouflage patterning in cuttlefish.
Although not powered to show significance, the results also suggested positive biological activity of iSONEP with reductions in CNV lesion size and decreases in central retinal thickness noted in some patients. Stoller G, et. Also noteworthy was a preclinical study evaluating the effect of the histone deacetylase HDAC inhibitors valporic acid VPA , 4-phenylbutyrate PBA and the VPA analog valpromide VPD on the survival and function of retinal pigment epithelium cells in response to oxidative stress and complement attack.
VPA and VPD both increased cell viability following challenge with the oxidative agent hydroquinone and protected against complement mediated cell death in vitro. VPA also protected against oxidative stress induced by intravitreal paraquat injection in mice, suggesting it may be a worthwhile agent for future clinical studies.
Upadhyay SJ, et. Diabetic Retinopathy. Once again, there was also no shortage of exciting research on diabetic retinopathy presented this year. Much of this work focused on VEGF-inhibitors, which continue to show promising results both in monotherapy and in conjunction with laser photocoagulation. These results suggest that pegaptanib may provide an effective alternative treatment for patients for whom laser treatment is contraindicated.
Beck CJ, et al. Gupta AP, et. Further down the pipeline, another potential VEGF-inhibitor, erythropoietin, showed efficacy in a rat model of early diabetes. Eyes treated with intravitreal EPO had downregulated expression of VEGF and HIF-1alpha a transcription factor involved in the cellular response to hypoxia and exhibited total retinal thickness and cell numbers similar to those of the non-diabetic controls.
Zhang J, et. Dry Eye. Several presentations at the ARVO meeting represented the continuing endeavor to better understand the risk factors and pathophysiology of dry eye. Japan's Murat Dogru, MD, and colleagues demonstrated the role of dehydration in dry eye by comparing subjects drinking a controlled amount of alcohol n: 20 to those drinking green tea n: 7.
Twelve hours after alcohol intake, substantial detrimental changes were observed in tear-function metrics e. These results suggest substantial effects of alcohol on tear function. Dogru M, et al. Research efforts to enhance the understanding of the intricate relationship between visual function, blinking and dry eye were present in abundance across different groups of scientists and clinicians. Researchers from SUNY College of Optometry demonstrated increased symptomatology following computer use compared to that reported after hard-copy fixation in a study of 24 participants. While these findings correlated to ocular surface disease severity, there was no apparent correlation to decreased blink rate.
Chu CA , et al. IOVS ;ARVO E-abstract Our group presented results of its studies using customized video processing methodology to decipher blink patterns in dry-eye patients and normals, as well as to quantify the amount of corneal exposure which occurs between blinks in a new metric called the time-area Ocular Protection Index.
White R, et al. Clinical research models and results of clinical trials of developing therapies were also presented. Our group presented exciting data using the Enhanced Controlled Adverse Environment system, which has been used in a number of clinical trials in recent years, and represents the precision possible when using honed diagnostics and clinical trial design features. Ousler GW, et al.
Hsu H-C, et al. Komuro A, et al. Ketelson HA, et al. In addition, a few intriguing examples of preclinical research with potential clinical application in the future emerged. Lubricin—a glycoprotein found in the cartilage of the knee—demonstrated reduced friction and tissue wear when tested using biomechanical machinery and human corneas and eyelids, which may suggest an advantage as an ocular surface lubricant.
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Schmidt TA, et al. IOVS ;ARVO E-abstract One group of researchers presented intriguing results of a mouse study demonstrating the potential of both vitamin D and its active metabolite 1, OH 2D to improve corneal epithelial barrier function, which may suggest clinical applications with further research. Watsky MA, et al. Finally, prior to ARVO, expert clinical researchers, scientists, regulators, pharmaceutical executives, and venture capitalists interested in dry eye convened at the Dry Eye Summit, an event co-sponsored by our pharmaceutical consulting firm, Ora.
Topics presented ranged from the history of dry eye, to defining dry eye, to clinical regulatory and exit strategies. The summit imparted a business and regulatory spin to the discussion of innovations in dry-eye therapy. Ocular Infection. In a preclinical study, the combination of dexamethasone and povidone-iodine 0. FST reduced viral titers significantly more than placebo or Tobradex when all were applied q. Titer reductions with FST were comparable with those seen with twice daily cidofavir 0. Animals were also scored for symptoms such as conjunctival and eyelid inflammation, exudates, excessive tearing and corneal neovascularization.
The FST group had significantly lower scores i. Hill JM, et al. Besifloxacin was comparable to moxifloxacin and ciprofloxacin against H. Haas W, et al. As part of the body's natural defense against infection, granulocytes and monocytes produce NCT, a compound with anti-inflammatory and anti-infective activity. NovaBay scientists examined the chemical stability, anti-microbial and antiviral activity of NVC in the presence of artificial tears. Najafi KK, et al. Romanowski EG, et al.
Gordon YJ, et al. IOVS ;ARVO E-abstract While it wasn't as effective as the positive control cidofovir , it displayed little of the toxicity associated with currently available antiviral drugs, including cidofovir. Ocular Inflammation. Researchers reported interim results from a multicenter, open-label trial examining anti-TNF antibody adalimumab Humira, Abbott as a therapy for refractory uveitis. Treatment involved a 40 mg sc injection every two weeks and assessment of safety and efficacy over a week trial.
Inclusion in the study required diagnosis of noninfectious uveitis refractory to corticosteroids and at least one immunosuppressive. Endpoints included acuity improvement, de--creased intraocular inflammation and steroid tapering. Seventeen of 26 patients who completed the week trial responded positively to therapy, and 15 of these continued with treatment for 50 weeks.
One initial responder discontinued treatment due to a loss of efficacy, and the only significant adverse event was unrelated to adalimumab. Salom D, et al. Several other trials examined the use of monoclonal antibody mAb therapy targeting other immuno-modulators. Most of these agents were originally developed to treat systemic disorders but they have significant therapeutic potential in ocular inflammatory disease.