Hexenprozesse in der Frühen Neuzeit (German Edition)

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European Review of History. Jahrhundert in Rothenburg ob der Tauber. Jahrbuch des Verein Alt-Rothenburg Witchcraft and Masculinities in Early Modern Europe. Palgrave Macmillan. Witchcraft Narratives in Germany Rothenburg, Manchester University Press. In: Stour.. Editors: Philo, R. Estuarine Press. Eine lutherische Reichsstadt ohne Hexenwahn — Rothenburg ob der Tauber von bis Editors: Hirte, M.

Konrad Theiss. Editors: Voltmer, R. Paulinus Verlag. Hexenprozesse gegen Kinder in Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Editors: Behringer, W. In: Hexenwahn in Franken. Editors: Mergenthaler, M. Witchcraft and gender in early modern Europe. Editors: Levack, BP. Oxford University Press,. Not 'the Usual Suspects'? Editors: Golden, RM. Rothenburg gegen Wuerzburg. Durchsetzung von Herrschaftsanspruechen im Hexenprozess der Margaretha Hoerber, In: Hexenverfolgung und Herrschaftspraxis. Spee Verlag. In: Staedte, Regionen, Vergleiche. Beitraege fuer Ludwig Schnurrer zum Editors: Borchardt, K.

Kommissionsverlag Ferdinand Schoeningh. Stereotypes and statistics: Old women and accusations of witchcraft in early modern Europe. In: Power and Poverty. Old Age in the Pre-Industrial Past. Editors: Ottaway, SR. Greenwood Press. Monstrous deception: midwifery, fraud and gender in early modern Rothenburg ob der Tauber.

Editors: Rublack, U. Cambridge University Press. In: Hexenprozesse und Gerichtspraxis. Editors: Eiden, H. The conditions of life for the masses, In: Early Modern Europe. An Oxford History.. Editors: Cameron, E. Oxford University Press. An aspect of family history in early modern Germany: bad marriages in Rothenburg ob der Tauber, c. In: Historia de la Mujer e Historia del Matrimonio.

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Looking for student or staff information? Staff Directory Student Directory. The first is the era of scholarship from the late nineteenth century and first few decades of the twentieth century which was in the midst of its vibrancy roughly one hundred years ago. Studies from these decades created multi-volume compilations of primary sources together in one place for the first time and created historical narratives based on modern methods of archival research and a methodology that prized the ideal of objectivity.

The projects from this era marked the beginning of a new stage in studies on the Jesuits in German lands prior to the suppression of the order. Since the first decades of the twentieth century, new studies have drawn from shared access to records that were not widely available before this era. Although they do not comprise a first generation of scholarship on the Jesuits, those monumental works from this era around the turn of the twentieth century constitute a foundational era in Jesuit scholarship.

Modern academic study of the Jesuits which has proliferated throughout the last century has been built on the base of this era. The second era that I will emphasize in the historiography of pre-suppression German Jesuits emerged about three decades ago. At the risk of oversimplification, one could say that about thirty years ago the history of the Jesuits became interesting to more people than it had been before. One of the most significant shifts in Jesuit studies was the expansion of scholars writing about Jesuits to include those besides Jesuits themselves.

Whereas mostly Jesuits wrote the history of Jesuits before the mid-twentieth century, the current era of Jesuit historiography includes robust contributions from scholars outside the Society. The broadening of contributors to the historiography of the Jesuits coincides with a broadening of questions posed to the historical records left by the Jesuits.

New scholars from outside the order as well as leading Jesuit historians have recently lent new perspectives to topics previously in the domain of church history. No longer an autonomous and unified subject of study in itself, the Society of Jesus in German lands has become an access point for countless places throughout the early modern world. The records created and preserved by German Jesuits from the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries offer one-of-a-kind perspectives on a host of subjects that scholars are seeking to uncover, including popular religious practice and beliefs, education, the arts, gender roles, activities of women, intercultural contact, globalization, and many more.

A close examination of the field of scholarship on German Jesuits before reveals two key features of the field. On the one hand, there is a unifying influence caused by the long tradition of scholarship specifically about—and often produced by—Jesuits, including many of the standard works from roughly a century ago that remain the foundation of modern scholarship. On the other hand, there exists a fracturing influence stemming from a recent proliferation of methodological approaches to Jesuit records. This new diversity reflects the broadening of academic disciplines in which early modern Jesuits have become relevant.

Despite seemingly pushing the field separate directions, however, these two features are actually best understood as overlapping with each other. A contemporary study utilizing German Jesuit history to engage the most current research debates in a given field still makes use of the accrued scholarship on Jesuits from generations past. In this way, the scholarship of the past, including its focus on the very real religious characteristics of the pre-suppression German Jesuits, becomes relevant to new historical inquiries inspired by developments within various academic fields in the past few decades.

The structure of the essay reflects the diverse nature of the body of literature on pre-suppression Jesuits in German-speaking lands and is thus divided thematically. While it would be impossible to list all the archives and other institutions that house records of the Jesuits in Germany, in the text and footnotes below I attempt to guide the reader to relevant primary sources. The ever-growing amount of primary-source material from early modern German-speaking lands available online may someday create a single digital location for accessing German Jesuit sources, but for the time being these records remain scattered.

Jesuits arrived in German lands almost simultaneously with the founding of the Society of Jesus by Ignatius of Loyola c. On May 8 of that year, his twenty-second birthday, he joined the Society of Jesus in Mainz. Memorialized as the second apostle to Germany by those who celebrate his efforts to re-Catholicize regions drifting to the Protestant Reformation, Canisius was beatified in and canonized in Both dates correspond to important stages in the historiography of Canisius.

These themes have continued to inspire scholarship about Canisius in the last few decades. As the work of Hilmar M. The foundation for the secondary scholarship on Canisius in the past century or so is the monumental work of Otto Braunsberger, S. His final product consists of approximately eight thousand pages with over 2, letters and over 1, other documents. His extensive archival work included personal trips and collaborations via correspondence that involved gathering sources from three hundred different libraries and archives.

The number of archives that Braunsberger and his collaborators consulted also underscores the fractured nature of records about the early Jesuits in German lands. Friedrich Streicher, S. Canisius and the other early Jesuits in German-speaking lands established colleges in cities that would become centers of their activities over the next centuries. Of particular significance are the colleges founded in Cologne , Vienna , and Ingolstadt In the sixteenth century, these cities were vital to the first Jesuit provinces in German-speaking lands: the Upper and Lower German provinces founded in In the s, the Rhine province emerged from the Lower German province and an Austrian province had split from the Upper German province.

In the early s, the Austrian province was divided into the Austrian province and the Bohemian province centered in Prague. The Jesuits also carried out missions to northern regions of German lands, and expanded the Austrian province to the borders of Habsburg lands in the east.

Controversy plagued early modern German Jesuits and has continued to be a theme in accounts and scholarship about the order in Germany ever since. German lands were fraught with religious struggles between Protestants and those loyal to the Roman church. Confessional polemics and Jesuit efforts on behalf of the Counter-Reformation framed representations of the Jesuits from both sides of the conflict.

The Jesuits in Germany actively participated in and contributed to the polemical struggles of the day through in-person ministries as well as through printed records that remain to this day. The image of the Society of Jesus as a controversial organization was codified by the global suppression of the order in That event, while in itself immensely controversial, has ever since framed the memory of the pre-suppression order.

Controversies about the Jesuits in Germany may be longstanding, but they are in no way static. Treatments of individual points of controversy have been subject to historiographical trends. The Jesuits played an active and varied role in combating Protestantism throughout the German lands. On the one hand, Jesuit efforts at promoting the Roman Catholic Church against Protestant forms of Christianity have been seen as a missionary effort akin to that of overseas missions.

In these studies, the Jesuits in German-speaking lands become part of a more diverse and complex early modern Catholicism. This shift happened not only because of the broadening of scholars interested in Jesuit history to include those not primarily focused on religion, but also because of developments within the field of religious history. The wide adoption of the confessionalization thesis in the s, largely developed in the work of Ernst Walter Zeeden, Wolfgang Reinhard, and Heinz Schilling, moved scholarship beyond framing Catholicism and Protestantism as two opposites.

The confessionalization thesis, at least in part, created an escape from having to choose whether the Jesuits were completely good or completely evil. More than just a moral verdict was at stake for historical interpretation. In the tradition of Jacob Burckhardt —97 and Max Weber — , along with being evil the Catholic side was medieval and anti-modern, again the complete opposite of how Protestants were portrayed. Such a framework precluded recognition of the intellectual and social contributions that Jesuits made to European society at the dawn of the modern age.

Forster has moved this scholarly conversation even further. With attention to early modern German Catholicism at the popular level, he has nuanced the narrative of a top-down implementation of confessionalization.

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  • His studies show a more dynamic interplay between the church reform promoted by Jesuits and medieval Catholicism in the early modern era. Certain ideas that people held regarding the Jesuits gave life to the accusations that they were malicious. One of these was that the Jesuits exerted influence over political decisions.

    Jesuits did have connections to powerful political figures in the polities where they had bases throughout the Holy Roman Empire. This idea has been convincingly challenged in recent studies that have highlighted the complexities of Jesuit political thought in this era and the plurality of views and political policies within the order. While often maligned, the Jesuits actually made key contributions to early modern political thought that was widely adopted if unacknowledged. Jesuits in various courts throughout German lands had local concerns and spiritual aims.

    The global suppression of the Society of Jesus in by Pope Clement XIV is the controversial event that had the most outstanding impact on the Jesuits. Recent studies have grappled with the question of why the suppression occurred. Jesuit missionaries had been removed from the Portuguese Empire in , France in , and the Spanish Empire in with suspicions about the political intentions of Jesuits being a factor. Because the overseas empires did not include German polities, German Jesuits do not always receive a great deal of mention in discussion of the global suppression.

    Many German Jesuits were directly affected by these developments, however, because the German provinces supplied a high percentage of the Jesuit missionaries in the eighteenth century who were removed from their overseas mission fields. One of the most fascinating pieces of this puzzle is the figure of Maria Theresa of Austria — One final controversial subject that is not usually mentioned by scholars in the same context as the other, more notorious, debates treated thus far is Jesuit involvement in witch trials.

    The European persecution of witches was particularly acute in German lands and especially Catholic regions. Bernhard Duhr addressed the legacy of Jesuit participation in these persecutions at four separate points in his history of the Jesuits in Germany, recording that Jesuits both favored and opposed the existing forms of violence against accused witches.

    Especially in German scholarship, Friedrich Spee, S. The scholarly and popular interest in Spee in German literature has not been matched in any large measure in English scholarship.

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    German Jesuits had a profound impact on education in Europe during the late Renaissance and Enlightenment. They shaped the institutions of learning in German lands and made vital contributions to the academic disciplines of mathematics, astronomy, and natural philosophy that set the course for progress in the so-called Scientific Revolution. Long excluded from a Burckhardtian narrative of European progress, Jesuit thinkers are now increasingly recognized as important actors in many of the multiple processes that increased knowledge of the world.

    This shift has coincided with historiographical trends in the field of history of science. Jesuit schools, colleges, and universities in German lands formed the foundation for the great influence the Jesuits had on European education from the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries. One of the brightest stars to emerge from the German Jesuit education system in the seventeenth century was the polymath Athanasius Kircher — Recent scholarship in the history of science has challenged such positivist narratives and has given attention to subjects such as early modern alchemy which has previously been seen as pseudo-science.

    Similarly, the new scholarship on Kircher recognizes his work as an important part of the intellectual world which produced long celebrated advances and not just a historical dead end. Older narratives often depicted Jesuits, and Catholics as a whole, as traditional and retrospective during the advances of the Scientific Revolution. German Jesuits made key contributions to transformations within the field of natural philosophy, specifically the acceptance of a mathematical basis for explaining nature, that was a central factor in the landmark shift that eventually overthrew two thousand years of accepted knowledge about the world based on Aristotle.

    The Jesuits actively helped shape the course of this shift in academic disciplines and not just by resisting change. In the decades before the suppression of the order in at the height of the Enlightenment, the Jesuits in Germany came under siege intellectually from many different directions; even during these years, however, the Jesuits were hardly on the sidelines as the world passed them by.

    As a whole, scholarly recognition of Jesuit contributions to science—with central figures and institutions in German lands—has been a key theme in the major shifts within the field of the history of science. In the field of Jesuit studies, it has brought a burst of new energy and perspectives to topics that had been viewed more parochially in the past. Art, therefore, is yet another example of how the pastoral aims of Jesuits guided their activities in Germany. It did not take the scholarly trends of just the past decades, however, to spark research on the art of German Jesuits. Already in the era of monumental works on Jesuit history in the early twentieth century, scholars had taken up the topic of German Jesuit art.

    In , Joseph Braun, S. Jesuit theater was an expansive enterprise with rich details that have been analyzed in depth by scholars. The most famous individual figure in Jesuit theater is playwright Jacob Bidermann — Alexander J. An interest in understanding globalization has given rise to attention to the new connections that were forged throughout the world following extended contact between people from the eastern and western hemispheres after This interest is a component of the influential historiographical development in scholarship over the past twenty years sometimes called the global turn.

    This attention has reshaped perspectives on the unity and characteristics of the global Roman Catholic Church in the early modern era, especially in regards to the position of the Jesuits with Rome. The perspective of missionaries has added new textures to our understanding of global interactions in the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries. Narratives of imperial history have also been altered. One instance of this shift that is slowly unfolding is the inclusion of Germans as part of the history of global exploration and expansion by Europeans.

    Recent scholarly attention to German Jesuit missionaries overseas, then, sits at the intersection of several new trends in global histories. There are early studies that chronicle German Jesuit involvement in overseas missions, but they did not become part of the main narratives of imperialism.

    Another important result of this scholarship on German Jesuit connections overseas is what it has revealed about religious attitudes, beliefs, and practices of Jesuits in Germany. On a broader level, Jesuits contributed to and sometimes fell victim to the position of German lands as a center of printing in Europe. Many global information networks passed through German lands. On the other hand, critical and sometimes fantastical accounts of Jesuit activities abroad also swirled in print at levels that the Jesuits themselves could not keep pace.

    It is one prominent example of the German printed records by and about Jesuits that bear witness to the active role that Jesuits played in the formation of European ideas about the world and the information networks which shaped them. Studies of Jesuits in German-speaking lands are varied and cover a range of topics. They touched many aspects of society including politics, religion, and art and made records of nearly all their actions. The fractured state of scholarship about German Jesuits today is also a result of very well developed individual scholarly fields of research.

    Many specialized and detailed areas of study are illuminated by attention to Jesuit sources. This necessitates that proper analysis of the Jesuit source or historical figure in question satisfactorily address an existing body of specialized secondary literature. This takes expertise and space, in the form of pages, in a work. This fracturing has also been intensified in the past few decades by the expansion of topics seen as legitimate subjects for historical inquiry and new topics of interest such as globalization, print culture, and information networks.

    In these areas, the Jesuits have correctly been identified as being well-suited for study. Finally, this all becomes possible also as a result of the shift away from studies that were mostly by or against Jesuits. There is now a broader range of questions posed to the historical records left by the Jesuits. With such a fractured body of literature, is it even possible to speak of a single field of scholarship about pre-suppression German Jesuits today? Certainly, it is. The unity of scholarship on German Jesuit history is being preserved by projects such as Jesuit Historiography Online and the bibliographical projects mentioned above which employ great energy to systematize the proliferation of studies that examine Jesuits.