The Realm of Dark and Light: Book One: The Source of Darkness
The experiential darkness-as-destiny gestalt is based on the conditions of Divine order and retribution, as decided upon by the Divine cf. Piper A modified version of the previously narrated conversations paraphrase the concept of "darkness" in the following ways as responses to YHWH's Divine order and retribution cf. Schmidt :. The first conceptualisation of Divine darkness as expression of human destinies in Job necessarily leads to the somewhat despondent second metaphorical construction in the brain-mind processes of the ancient Israelite and early Jewish sages.
Perhaps the second experiential gestalt - whereby the initial darkness-as-destiny schema is extended via the light-as-life construct and its darkness-as-death metaphorical conceptualisation - constitutes what biblical expositors found to be the most problematic and disturbing.http://legutel.com/includes
All about darkness ⇒ Kirno Sohochari
Moreover -and in contrast to the generally accepted Near Eastern perspective and Israelite-Judean conceptualisations of the light-as-life and darkness-as-death models - the Biblical Hebrew authors and scribal editors of Job rather metaphorically and problematically depict YHWH by means of his Divine presence and absence amidst cosmic darkness Himself, which ultimately led to Sheol as the final "domain of evildoers and demons,.
It is important to realise that both Job and his friends place themselves wholly under the doctrine of retribution, as some religious belief practised by God according to the retributive principle of moral order cf. Clines xxxix. That is why the friends reply to Job's suicidal motives with overwhelming perplexity. Eliphaz argues that Job must be struck with spiritual blindness and dark stupidity for wanting to regress to a state of cosmic chaos cf.
Bildad ensures Job in that the "emissaries of Death" and Darkness await him on account of his lack of repentance coram Deo cf. Additional counteracts of Job's "language of longing" and "complete helplessness in the face of reality" Clines provide sufficient source material in the conceptual and metaphorical expressions for warfare to substantiate the divine-darkness-as-human-death gestalt experiences in the brain-mind processes frames of historical post-exilic authors and their contemporary editors.
Lakoff's conceptual divine-darkness-as-human-death metaphor reminds us of cruel accusations, whereby people play "blame-games" with God and other authorial leaders in terms of the inferential semantic role of the Strict Father, and also constitutes the main reason, stated by Thomas , as to why ordinary people prefer another option, over and against the first darkness-as-death conceptual metaphor of sages who do not necessarily "go gentle into that good night":.
Though wise men at their end know dark is right,. Because their words had forked no lighting,. They do not go gentle into that good night. The complication for the various characters rests in the view of Job and his friends that God simultaneously acts as the creator, controller and possessor of both the light of life and the darkness of death cf. However, although God allows darkness to retain the dwelling and sphere of the wicked and evil, 12 it remains solely under the influences of demonic chaos, overshadowed by his sovereignty and prerogative. God may withdraw his Divine presence at any time in order to destroy human moral sinners on account of their lack of darkness of his absence and its dark consequences cf.
The most common detonator of the divine darkness is human death construct is personified by the central concepts and word-pair of "Sheol", the Subterranean Ocean or the "Underworld" and or the "shadow of death". According to Ryken et al. Pedersen Job admits that neither Sheol nor the Death-Shadow is beyond God's ken and control cf. Indeed, this constitutes his dilemma: God has plunged him into the world of darkness to such an extent that he would rather - like the evil and wicked - remain and live within a Godless world devoid of chaotic darkness cf.
If it were not for a third possible metaphorical conceptualisation or connection between "Divine darkness" and human suffering, there would virtually be no difference between the initial destructive ambitions of evil and wicked and Job's eventual death wishes cf.
The Realm of Dark and Light: Book One: The Source of Darkness
Following on the first two darkness-as-destiny and darkness-as-death schematisations, and due to their different views on suffering, as expressed in terms of Divinely ordained darkness, Job, Eliphaz, Bildad, Zophar, and Elihu ultimately reached the catastrophic stage of Kuhn's "incommensurability", 13 as the result and consequence of total communicative disintegration at the end of chapter 37, whereby they admit to being no longer able to neither translate nor understand the meaning of YHWH in their words and interpretations.
Such views may necessarily contribute to the criticism and characterisation of God by contemporary scholars as a jealous Tyrant Williams , false Comforter Whedbee , and with disregard for his Divine speeches as either poor theology Williams , sublime irrelevance Good , beyond the absurd Cox or even tongue-in-cheek Robertson.
Only the Divine speeches of Job adequately address the concept of "darkness" from yet another perspective, enabling humanity to reach some form of consolation, comfort and peace regarding God's involvement in human suffering and darkness. This is exactly what happens when YHWH addresses the concept of 'darkness' from yet another perspective. Job metaphorically highlights the conceptual destiny and death schemas, and condemns Job as one whose council darkens YHWH's Divine plan "through words without knowledge".
However, in , God intimately and immanently panentheistically? Have you comprehended the vast expanses of the earth? Tell me, if you know all this. What is the way to the abode of light? And where does darkness reside? Can you take them to their places? Do you know the paths to their dwellings? Surely you know, for you were already born! You have lived so many years cf. Job NIV. These metaphorical expressions basically and deliberately reveal YHWH, not only as present within the confines of light and darkness cf.
Isaiah , 15 but also dissociates the Divine Creator as being above, beyond and transcendent to such dualistic realms cf. Clines aptly summarises the third conceptual divine darkness is human destiny metaphor over and against the other two divine-darkness-as-human-destiny-and-death constructs with the following remarks:. In Job's view God's powerful wisdom is hidden only because few had the opportunity to penetrate like Job to "the God beyond God", who make his deep wisdom visible for who have eyes to see, "by his chaos-creating acts in the world of humankind, his "deepness" is not in principle beyond human comprehension but -to Job at least - as clear as day, however unfamiliar to the mass of humanity.
On the whole, in the Hebrew Bible, it is light rather than darkness that is associated with God, but Job is not entirely alone in seeing God wrapped in darkness. Yahweh dwells in thick darkness. YHWH's transcended presence and immanent dwelling in Clines' "thick darkness" may, in fact, relate to the later post-exilic sections such as the Poem on Wisdom and Elihu speeches in Job 28 and The literary genre of Job 28 has been interpreted as part of the third missing response of Zophar Hartley , an anonymous poetic hymn Gordis , a meditation Dhorme, , as an interlude Andersen, Crenshaw , intermezzo Westermann , cadenza Hoffman , 16 or even as an introduction to the Elihu speeches Greenstein; Clines.
Holladay in and Proverbs in a similar fashion as him archaeologically excavating the cosmic Underworld in search of its mythic treasures during the primordial times. Finally, despite the conceptual divine darkness is human and death constructs, the post-exilic ancient Israelite sages and early Jewish scribes show us that Job and his adversaries realise via the YHWH speeches and their gestalt darkness-as-deliverance experiences that one "cannot hide [from] nor [try to] limit God" Alden Prior to his death, Hull wrote that his dark senses of pre-destined threat and deadly loss led him to a sense of hopeful deliverance:.
Living with an overwhelming sense of loss is about as it ever gets this side of hell. How could God possibly shed any light in that total eclipse of my hopes and dreams? He did it in two stages. The first was negative, clearing my thoughts of false assumptions. The second was positive, giving a whole new perspective on what was happening to me.
"The universe of the imagination knows no boundaries."
Olojede similarly concludes that Divine darkness attributed to human suffering not only characterises terror, horror, agony, oppression, pain, evil and wicked activities, but also serves as. Clines xxxvi-xlvii divides the narrative flow and outline of Job into three segments, namely exposition, complication and resolution, a statement that definitely concurs with the conceptual findings of this article:.
Clines xxxvii continues to show how YHWH's speech is less of a reply to the friends'. Job's theology mainly affirms "the truth about the moral universe" Clines xlvii. Finally, Clines xxxviii-xxxix concludes with two complementary, but provisional answers to the Joban concern pertaining to human darkness and suffering: a calm acceptance of the will of God, whereby the character of Job serves as a model of patience for sufferers in the divine darkness is human destiny and death models of and , and the model of an impatient Job, who makes no attempt to suppress his hostility toward God for what has happened to him.
This impatient Job "directs himself constantly toward God, whom he regards as the one who is responsible, both immediately and ultimately, for his suffering", and which eventually leads to Job's conceptual divine darkness is human DESTINY capitulation in Clines' xxxix "answer" to Job is:.
By all means let Job the patient be your model so long as that is possible for you; but when equanimity fails, let the grief and anger of Job the impatient direct itself and yourself towards God, for only in encounter with him will the tension of suffering be resolved. The article began with more negative perspectives on divine darkness in terms of the human destiny and death constructs, but ended with a more positive outcome by means of the post-exilic sages' experiential divine darkness-as-human-deliverance gestalt. We conclude by referring to the various human interpretations of human suffering in Conrad's Heart of Darkness.
On the last pages of the novel, Marlow recalls the following scene about the last moments of Kurtz's life:. One evening coming in with a candle I was startled to hear him say a little tremulously, "I am lying here in the dark waiting for death. I forced myself to murmur, "Oh, nonsense! Oh, I wasn't touched. I was fascinated. It was as though a veil had been rent. I saw on that ivory face the expression of sombre pride, of ruthless power, of craven terror - of an intense and hopeless despair.
Did he live his life again in every detail of desire, temptation, and surrender during that supreme moment of complete knowledge?
He cried in a whisper at some large image, at some vision - he cried out twice, a cry that was no more than a breath: "The horror! The horror! I could not tell her.
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It would have been too dark - too dark altogether In contrast to the cynical views of Conrad and Coppola, Saint John of the Cross provides the final theological summary of Job:. Even so likewise the preparation which God granted to Job in order that he might speak with Him consisted not in those delights and glories which Job himself reports he was wont to have in his God, but in leaving him naked upon a dung-hill, abandoned and even persecuted by his friends, filled with anguish and bitterness, and the earth covered with worms And then the Most High God, He that lifts up the poor man from the dunghill, was pleased to come down and speak with him there face to face, revealing to him the depths and heights of His wisdom, in a way that He had never done in the time of his prosperity.
Alden, R. L Harris, G. Waltke eds Theological wordbook of the Old Testament. Chicago: Moody Press , pp. Baldick, C. The Oxford dictionary of literary terms. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Blank, J. In: H. Tracy Paradigm change in theology. A symposium for the future. Brown, F. A Hebrew and English lexicon of the Old Testament. Oxford: Claredon. Clines, D. Job Dallas, Texas: Word Books. Elwolde ed. Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson. Conzelmann, H. In: G. Friedrich eds. Theological dictionary of the New Testament.
Bromiley Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans , pp. Coppola, F. Apocalypse now redux. Rosebank: Nu Metro. Dell, K. The book of Job as sceptical literature.
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An introduction to language. Boston: Heinle. Gordis, R. The Book of Job. Commentary, new translation and special studies. Greenstein, E. The poem on wisdom in Job 28 in its conceptual and literary contexts. In: E. Cognition in context Leiden: Brill , pp. Habel, N. The book of Job. London: SCM. Hahn, H. In: C. Brown The new international dictionary New Testament Theology. Hartley, J. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans. Hollday, W. A concise Hebrew and Aramaic lexicon of the Old Testament. Leiden: Brill. HULL ,W. Perspectives in Religious Studies 37 2 Janzen, J.
Joffe, P. In: J. Conrad Heart of darkness and typhoon Craighall: Donker , pp. Kittel, G. Eds Koehler, L. Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti Libros. A practical introduction. Kuhn, T. The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago, Illinois: University Press. Lakoff, G. The political mind. Why you can't understand 21" l -century politics with an 18 th -century brain. An ancient evil searches for the Source of Darkness, an elusive magic lost somewhere in the land. The truth, when finally revealed, leaves them thunderstruck. Action, adventure, mystery and romance fill the pages of this award-nominated novel.
The tremendous volume of magic wielded in front of Bystyn two years ago did not go unnoticed by some on Caldon Island. Intent on obtaining this power, the necromancer Suh weaves a spell to bring it to his domain. What he retrieves, however, is not what he expected. Undaunted, Suh searches for his elusive prey as the desperately seek a way back to Bystyn. Following a trail left by the magic, Danyl, Seven and the Herkah Takan embark upon a dangerous journey to rescue Ramira and Allad. Their path crosses with pirates and other travelers who aid in their quest. But everything has a price, and the three friends must overcome many dangers if they are to be successful.
Meanwhile, a shrewd wraith also inhabiting this territory follows a different course, one that leads to an ultimate confrontation leagues away from Caldon Island.