Galileo

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While Galileo's application of mathematics to experimental physics was innovative, his mathematical methods were the standard ones of the day, including dozens of examples of an inverse proportion square root method passed down from Fibonacci and Archimedes. The analysis and proofs relied heavily on the Eudoxian theory of proportion , as set forth in the fifth book of Euclid's Elements. This theory had become available only a century before, thanks to accurate translations by Tartaglia and others; but by the end of Galileo's life, it was being superseded by the algebraic methods of Descartes.

The concept now named Galileo's paradox was not original with him. His proposed solution, that infinite numbers cannot be compared, is no longer considered useful. The Galileo affair was largely forgotten after Galileo's death, and the controversy subsided. The Inquisition's ban on reprinting Galileo's works was lifted in when permission was granted to publish an edition of his works excluding the condemned Dialogue in Florence. Interest in the Galileo affair was revived in the early 19th century, when Protestant polemicists used it and other events such as the Spanish Inquisition and the myth of the flat Earth to attack Roman Catholicism.

In , Pope Pius XII , in his first speech to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, within a few months of his election to the papacy, described Galileo as being among the "most audacious heroes of research He was energetic on this point and regretted that in the case of Galileo. On 15 February , in a speech delivered at the Sapienza University of Rome , [f] Cardinal Ratzinger later Pope Benedict XVI cited some current views on the Galileo affair as forming what he called "a symptomatic case that permits us to see how deep the self-doubt of the modern age, of science and technology goes today".

Her verdict against Galileo was rational and just and the revision of this verdict can be justified only on the grounds of what is politically opportune.

He did, however, say "It would be foolish to construct an impulsive apologetic on the basis of such views. On 31 October , Pope John Paul II expressed regret for how the Galileo affair was handled, and issued a declaration acknowledging the errors committed by the Catholic Church tribunal that judged the scientific positions of Galileo Galilei, as the result of a study conducted by the Pontifical Council for Culture. According to Stephen Hawking , Galileo probably bears more of the responsibility for the birth of modern science than anybody else, [] and Albert Einstein called him the father of modern science.

Galileo's astronomical discoveries and investigations into the Copernican theory have led to a lasting legacy which includes the categorisation of the four large moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo Io , Europa , Ganymede and Callisto as the Galilean moons. Other scientific endeavours and principles are named after Galileo including the Galileo spacecraft , [] the first spacecraft to enter orbit around Jupiter, the proposed Galileo global satellite navigation system , the transformation between inertial systems in classical mechanics denoted Galilean transformation and the Gal unit , sometimes known as the Galileo, which is a non- SI unit of acceleration.

Partly because was the fourth centenary of Galileo's first recorded astronomical observations with the telescope, the United Nations scheduled it to be the International Year of Astronomy. The International Year of Astronomy was intended to be a global celebration of astronomy and its contributions to society and culture, stimulating worldwide interest not only in astronomy but science in general, with a particular slant towards young people.

Asteroid Galilea is named in his honour. Galileo is mentioned several times in the "opera" section of the Queen song, " Bohemian Rhapsody ". Twentieth-century plays have been written on Galileo's life, including Life of Galileo by the German playwright Bertolt Brecht , with a film adaptation of it, and Lamp At Midnight by Barrie Stavis , [] as well as the play "Galileo Galilei".

Kim Stanley Robinson wrote a science fiction novel entitled Galileo's Dream , in which Galileo is brought into the future to help resolve a crisis of scientific philosophy; the story moves back and forth between Galileo's own time and a hypothetical distant future and contains a great deal of biographical information. This coin also commemorates the th anniversary of the invention of Galileo's telescope. The obverse shows a portion of his portrait and his telescope.

The background shows one of his first drawings of the surface of the moon. In , the Galileoscope was also released. Galileo's early works describing scientific instruments include the tract entitled The Little Balance La Billancetta describing an accurate balance to weigh objects in air or water [] and the printed manual Le Operazioni del Compasso Geometrico et Militare on the operation of a geometrical and military compass.

The former was based on Aristotelian—Archimedean fluid dynamics and held that the speed of gravitational fall in a fluid medium was proportional to the excess of a body's specific weight over that of the medium, whereby in a vacuum, bodies would fall with speeds in proportion to their specific weights. It also subscribed to the Philoponan impetus dynamics in which impetus is self-dissipating and free-fall in a vacuum would have an essential terminal speed according to specific weight after an initial period of acceleration.

Galileo's The Starry Messenger Sidereus Nuncius was the first scientific treatise to be published based on observations made through a telescope. It reported his discoveries of:. Galileo published a description of sunspots in entitled Letters on Sunspots [] suggesting the Sun and heavens are corruptible. The Letters on Sunspots also reported his telescopic observations of the full set of phases of Venus, and his discovery of the puzzling "appendages" of Saturn and their even more puzzling subsequent disappearance.

In , Galileo prepared a manuscript known as the " Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina " which was not published in printed form until This letter was a revised version of the Letter to Castelli , which was denounced by the Inquisition as an incursion upon theology by advocating Copernicanism both as physically true and as consistent with Scripture.

In , Galileo published The Assayer —Il Saggiatore , which attacked theories based on Aristotle's authority and promoted experimentation and the mathematical formulation of scientific ideas. The book was highly successful and even found support among the higher echelons of the Christian church. Despite taking care to adhere to the Inquisition's instructions, the claims in the book favouring Copernican theory and a non Geocentric model of the solar system led to Galileo being tried and banned on publication.

Despite the publication ban, Galileo published his Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Relating to Two New Sciences Discorsi e Dimostrazioni Matematiche, intorno a due nuove scienze in in Holland , outside the jurisdiction of the Inquisition. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Galileo disambiguation and Galileo Galilei disambiguation. Italian polymath Portrait of Galileo Galilei , by Justus Sustermans. Pisa , Duchy of Florence.

Arcetri , Grand Duchy of Tuscany , Italy. Kinematics Dynamics Telescopic observational astronomy Heliocentrism.


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University of Pisa — University of Padua — His father was the musician Vincenzo Galilei. Early universe. Subject history. Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation. Religious interpretations of the Big Bang theory. Main article: The Assayer. Main article: Galileo affair. See also: Equations for a falling body. Play media. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Astronomy portal Biography portal Catholicism portal History of science portal Italy portal.

Drake , p. He also considers that the demand for Galileo to include the Pope's argument in the Dialogue left him with no option but to put it in the mouth of Simplicio Drake, , p. Even Arthur Koestler , who is generally quite harsh on Galileo in The Sleepwalkers , after noting that Urban suspected Galileo of having intended Simplicio to be a caricature of him, says "this of course is untrue" , p.

Longomontanus's system could account for the apparent motions of sunspots just as well as the Copernican.

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According to Feyerabend himself, Ratzinger had also mentioned him "in support of" his own views in a speech in Parma around the same time Feyerabend, , p. The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar , which was then in force throughout Christendom.

In it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. Clarendon Press: Sterling Publishing. Preston King. Curiosities of Literature. Retrieved 21 May Renaissance and Reformation, — a.

Greenwood Publishing. The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. University of St Andrews , Scotland. Retrieved 24 July The Overlook Press, A History. London: Penguin. The Century Dictionary and Encyclopedia. New York: The Century Co. Retrieved 2 November Encyclopedia of Physical Science.

Galileo Galilei

Infobase Publishing. John Overlook Press. Retrieved on 14 January Soon after her thirteenth birthday, he placed her at the Convent of San Matteo in Arcetri. In Coyne, George V. Vatican City: Specola Vaticana. Bibcode : gamf. Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology.

Early life and career

Retrieved 15 April The Composition of Kepler's Astronomia Nova. Princeton University Press, University of Toronto Press, The pseudonym was a slightly imperfect anagram of Oratio Grasio Savonensis, a Latinised version of his name and home town. Galileo, Bellarmine, and the Bible. West Chester University. Archived from the original on 30 September Retrieved 18 February Galileo Project. Galileo goes to jail and other myths about science and religion. Finocchiaro's translation of the Inquisition's judgement against Galileo is "available on-line". Retrieved 30 September The same verdict would have been possible even if the opinions had been subject to only the less serious censure of "erroneous in faith" Fantoli, , p.

See Galileo affair for further details. Retrieved 12 September In Herbermann, Charles ed. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Retrieved Accessed on line 27 May Quantifying Music: The Science of Music at. Yale University Press. Astronomy Now. Bibcode : AsNow..

Galileo is the European global satellite-based navigation system

Retrieved 20 February May Journal for the History of Astronomy. Bibcode : JHA Historical Background of Saturn's Rings. The Sun Recorded Through History. Chapter 2, p. Morandi subsequently forwarded a copy to Galileo. Notes and Records of the Royal Society. Retrieved 18 June In the Starry Messenger , written in Latin, Galileo had used the term "perspicillum".

The actual inventors of the telescope and microscope remain debatable. A general view on this can be found in the article Hans Lippershey last updated , — by Davidson, Michael W. Archived from the original PDF on 9 April Galileo Timeline last updated , The Galileo Project. See also Timeline of microscope technology. Maffioli Galileana V.

Retrieved 11 August Harvard University Press. At the time when Viviani asserts that the experiment took place, Galileo had not yet formulated the final version of his law of free fall.


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  • He had, however, formulated an earlier version which predicted that bodies of the same material falling through the same medium would fall at the same speed Drake, , p. July ". Ball, Phil 30 June The Hindu. Chennai, India. Last accessed 26 Dec Retrieved 30 June Dijksterhuis , ed.

    Oresme, however, regarded this discovery as a purely intellectual exercise having no relevance to the description of any natural phenomena, and consequently failed to recognise any connection with the motion of falling bodies Grant , , p. He did not, for instance, recognise, as Galileo did, that a body would fall with a strictly uniform acceleration only in a vacuum, and that it would otherwise eventually reach a uniform terminal velocity. The uncensored version of the Dialogue remained on the Index of prohibited books, however Heilbron , p.

    In fact, the Church's opposition had effectively ended in when a Catholic canon, Giuseppe Settele, was given permission to publish a work which treated heliocentrism as a physical fact rather than a mathematical fiction.

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    The edition of the Index was the first to be issued after that year. Sagt, Frankfurt , p. New Scientist Retrieved 9 August BBC News. Retrieved 16 January Retrieved 22 December Because Galileo realised this, and particularly because he drummed it into the scientific world, he is the father of modern physics—indeed, of modern science altogether. Retrieved 10 June Retrieved 20 August Lamp at Midnight.

    South Brunswick, New Jersey: A. Barnes, February Galileo's Dream. New York: Ballantine Books. The Galileo Project. Retrieved 17 July Archived from the original on 17 July Archived from the original on 24 October Archived from the original on 16 July Retrieved 4 December The unfinished mechanics of Giuseppe Moletti. Dialogo della musica antica et della moderna of Vincenzo Galilei: translation and commentary, Part 1.

    North Texas State University, Starry Messenger. Retrieved 13 January Coming of Age in the Milky Way. Source of the English translation. Archived 6 February at the Wayback Machine. Allan-Olney, Mary Boston: Nichols and Noyes. Altieri Biagi, Maria Galileo e la terminologia tecnico-scientifica. Florence: L.

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    Biagioli, Mario Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Blackwell, Richard J. Behind the Scenes at Galileo's Trial. Brodrick, James, S. Galileo: the man, his work, his misfortunes. London: G. Chalmers, Alan Francis []. What is this thing called Science? University of Chicago Press. Nicole Oresme and the Medieval Geometry of Qualities and Motions; a treatise on the uniformity and difformity of intensities known as Tractatus de configurationibus qualitatum et motuum. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

    Clavelin, Maurice The Natural Philosophy of Galileo. MIT Press. Coffa, J. Physis Riv. Storia Sci. Consolmagno, Guy; Schaefer, Marta Englewood, NJ: Prentice-Hall. He served his sentence under house arrest and died at home after an illness. Galileo influenced scientists for decades to come, not least in his willingness to stand up to the church to defend his findings. His improvements to the telescope led to various strides in the field of astronomy.

    Sir Isaac Newton , the great physicist, later expanded on Galileo's work when coming up with his own theories. Galileo was born in Pisa , Tuscany , on February 15, , the oldest son of Vincenzo Galilei , a musician who made important contributions to the theory and practice of music and who may have performed some experiments with Galileo in —89 on the relationship between pitch and the tension of strings. The family moved to Florence in the early s, where the Galilei family had lived for generations.

    In his middle teens Galileo attended the monastery school at Vallombrosa , near Florence, and then in matriculated at the University of Pisa, where he was to study medicine. However, he became enamoured with mathematics and decided to make the mathematical subjects and philosophy his profession, against the protests of his father. Galileo then began to prepare himself to teach Aristotelian philosophy and mathematics, and several of his lectures have survived. In Galileo left the university without having obtained a degree, and for several years he gave private lessons in the mathematical subjects in Florence and Siena.

    He also began his studies on motion , which he pursued steadily for the next two decades. In Galileo applied for the chair of mathematics at the University of Bologna but was unsuccessful. He also found some ingenious theorems on centres of gravity again, circulated in manuscript that brought him recognition among mathematicians and the patronage of Guidobaldo del Monte — , a nobleman and author of several important works on mechanics.

    As a result, he obtained the chair of mathematics at the University of Pisa in There, according to his first biographer, Vincenzo Viviani — , Galileo demonstrated, by dropping bodies of different weights from the top of the famous Leaning Tower , that the speed of fall of a heavy object is not proportional to its weight, as Aristotle had claimed. The manuscript tract De motu On Motion , finished during this period, shows that Galileo was abandoning Aristotelian notions about motion and was instead taking an Archimedean approach to the problem.

    Galileo described his views on dynamics and statics in Dialog on the Two New Sciences, which emphasized mathematics over rhetorical arguments. Galileo was one of the earliest to propose abstract dynamical theories which were ideal and would not be observed under less than ideal circumstances. Galileo observed the supernova of and tried unsuccessfully to measure its parallax. According to Copernicus's theory, the Earth's motion must produce a parallax, but no such parallax was found until Bessel. Galileo grew interested in the heavens, and built his own a telescope in after the discovery of lenses was reported from Holland.

    Galileo used his 30 power telescope to discover craters on the Moon , sunspots which rotated with the Sun , the four largest satellites of Jupiter , and phases of Venus. This last observation demonstrated that the Copernican theory was correct, since phases would only be observed if Venus were always closer to the sun than to the Earth. For some famous quotes and diagrams from Siderius Nuncius, see MacRobert A complete translation is contained in van Helden Galileo also proposed Galilean relativity, which states that the same definitions of motion are valid everywhere.

    The resultant Galilean transformation is correct for low speeds, but must be replaced by the Lorentz transformation for relativistic speeds. Galileo also said that motion is continuous and can only be altered by the application of a force. Galileo enunciated the law of fall which states that distance traveled is proportional to the square of time and the time law which states that velocity is proportional to time. There is an apocryphal story that Galileo dropped two balls of different masses simultaneously from the leaning tower of Pisa to demonstrate that bodies fall at the same rate.

    Galileo lay down the chief elements of his mechanics in Dialog on the Two Chief Systems of the World , which was supposed to be an objective debate between the Copernican and Ptolemaic system. Unfortunately, Galileo put the Pope's favorite argument in the mouth of one of the characters, then proceeded to ridicule it.