Peliculas clave del cine de animacion (Spanish Edition)
In addition, the new law obliged them to include a Catalan language option on every DVD distributed in the region. The film industry immediately retaliated by filing complaints against the Film Law in Spanish and European courts. In fact, very few adults ever see films in Basque in the Basque Country, and both the regional government and the film industry remain staunchly opposed to introducing a Catalonia-like quota.
Twenty-some commercial films, mostly addressed to young audiences, are dubbed into Basque and run to packed houses for an average of two weeks every year. In this vein, in October , the Basque government started sponsoring the audience-building scheme Zineuskara Gizartean , which has since allowed 40, schoolchildren aged 3—12 and their teachers—who have also been provided with film guides for use in the classroom—to attend a total of six family films in Basque during school hours.
However, this goal has not been met and is unlikely to be achieved in the near future. Nevertheless, following the controversial theatrical release of Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull Steven Spielberg, , which came out with no prints in Galician, the regional government announced that public support for theatrical film dubbing would be discontinued because of high costs 21 and noncommitment from distributors, with funds diverted to promote the use of Galician on television, mobile devices and the Internet.
The main reasons for such praise lie in precise lip synchronization 23 and careful voice casting that characterize most Spanish-dubbed films and series, effectively creating the illusion that Hollywood stars do speak Spanish—or at least the variety overabundant in calques from English that results from synch-dependent, increasingly rushed 24 and often politically skewed translations and adjustments of foreign dialogue tracks. On the one hand, it could be argued that the aim of normalization has placed regional language dubbing in a subordinate position by trying to replicate, regionally, the very tradition from which it originally arose.
On the other hand, it could also be argued that in a country where lip synch is synonymous with quality dubbing, 25 the very aim of normalization has been a major obstacle to social recognition of regional language dubbing.
In fact, more than a decade after Agost , 46 and Mayoral , 42—43 among others thought they were witnessing the early stages of a shift to subtitling, dubbing is still alive and well, as Zaro rightly predicted in It may save itself from the inconvenience of defending its trade as essential for normalization while questioning the usefulness of original versions for learning foreign languages—if only because many people have been learning Catalan, Galician and Basque as if they were foreign languages, whereas some others have come to regard Spanish, rather than English, as the foreign language from which dubbing must protect regional languages.
Be that as it may, it is well beyond the scope of this paper to determine whether dubbing or subtitling provides better protection against what hegemonic social groups deem as foreign influence. Well aware of the importance of dubbing, despite criticism from audiences and dubbing professionals alike, the regional governments of Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia created dependent pubcasters in the early s.
These pubcasters were empowered to carefully monitor the language used in film and television dubbing, and ensure its compliance with the linguistic, cultural and political standards the regional governments wished to promote. However, in spite of generous incentives and subsidies to distributors and exhibitors, a combination of audience habit, film industry interests and social perception has hindered its progress on the big screen, where 9 out of every 10 films are available only in Castilian Spanish.
Nevertheless, in the last few months, most distributors and exhibitors have continued to insist on the lack of demand for films in Catalan, especially in the suburban areas of Barcelona. Consell Audiovisual de Catalunya. Conclusiones, propuestas y recomendaciones. La dieta cultural dels catalans Pintura negra de los Goya. Audiencia general de medios en la CAE.
El doblatge. Agost R. Ballester A. Barambones J. Bernal M. Castro X. Chaves M. El doblaje. Comes L. Quaderns del CAC, , no. When a young new doctor comes to work as the prison's medical doctor, he requests Dr.
West's assistance. West discovers that this new doctor has something that Dr. West had left behind 14 years earlier. Torrente : el brazo tonto de la ley by Santiago Segura Visual 34 editions published between and in Spanish and English and held by 70 WorldCat member libraries worldwide Torrente is a Madrid cop. He is lazy, rude, sexist, racist, fascist and a drunkard. He attempts to crack a ring of drug traffickers to regain status in the police department.
When the fantasy realm begins to mix with his real life, the serious trouble begins. Se masca la tragedia"--Amazon. Torrente Visual 1 edition published in in Spanish and held by 42 WorldCat member libraries worldwide In his first hilarious misadventure, former cop Torrente hopes to win the attention of his sexy and beautiful neighbor by taking her nerdy cousin Rafi, on his nightly crime-fighting patrols. Audience Level. Related Identities. Associated Subjects. Da Silva, Sonny. Santiago Segura attore, autore, produttore e regista cinematografico spagnolo.
Firstly, art and animation will be defined in order to, secondly, use the corpus to exemplify the intertextual connections from other art forms. Lastly, the final quantitative and qualitative results will substantiate the conclusion that these productions by DreamWorks are an example of artistic cinematographic intertextuality. DreamWorks Official Website, , n.
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- Películas Clave Del Cine de Animación by Jordi Costa (2011, Paperback).
This company has produced more than twenty-five animated feature films in the last twenty years. This paper in centred on fourteen of these productions which deserve an analysis in depth due to the intertextual content they include. The following section will present the essential definitions which helped develop the descriptive analysis herein.
From a philosophical point of view, one single definition cannot comprise all the meanings of art. Its totality cannot be encompassed by a global view, and many have interpreted the definition of art in several manners. For explanatory reasons, a few definitions must be handled to understand the theoretical rationale used in this study. Hegel , p. Art, according to this philosopher, must make an idea accessible in order to be contemplated through the creation of images.
These images will be an expression of our freedom. Heidegger , p. This language captures what humans are surrounded by and then is interiorised. Therefore, art is absolutely crucial for the human being because it is the expression of the human spirit. Inspiration, influenced by the exterior and the historical context, is the interior voice which triggers the need to create. The surrounding reality also conditions the creation of art since the artist is affected by it. Reality enriches the artist with knowledge, experience and feelings. It is objective as opposed to the final artwork.
The combination of these three aspects, objectivity, subjectivity and poiesis results in the work of art. These creators have revisited other artworks, which are also part of reality, to create through the use of intertextuality each of the fourteen analysed narrations. It is a phenomenon which allows the introduction of texts, discourses, and even physical objects created in the past into a renewed present-time text, discourse, or physical object.
This frequently involves reinterpretation of the past meaning in the new production since there is a creative reason function for making use of intertextuality. Art is, as Benjamin , p. In other words, it is replayed. Intertextual phenomena are of the same nature. It is a game for those capable of establishing ties to previous productions, and where playing with texts is the objective to create new messages for the audience.
The above definitions of art also describe animated feature films, and this enables their analysis. In other words, by studying these feature films, one can discover how intertextual phenomena have been used in order to fulfil specific purposes. Cinema is an artistic form used to analyse reality, but By affirming that cinema is also a game Benjamin, , p.
It is a means of an art, one can deduce that entertainment as will be seen in the fourteen films animation is also an art form. However, this studied herein. By affirming that cinema is an art, one statement had been can deduce that animation is also an art form. However, unaccepted for a long time this statement had been unaccepted for a long time in in the past. Just as real action filming took time to the past.
Just as real action filming took time to be be considered art, considered art, animation also struggled in this animation also struggled in endeavour. An example of this effort can be read in this endeavor. In this same volume, Starr , p. This has been observed in the analysed films herein. Three more definitions of animation substantiate the development of this art, defined as a human production and technical challenge, continuously searching for new ways of expressing views.go here
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The general goals of animation can vary in real practice. It should help to promote progress towards peace and mutual understanding between all people. ASIFA, , n. Oittinen, , p. And, at the same time, animation can revitalise ChL, for example, by favouring the appearance of printed literature based on the plots and aesthetics created for the moving image. The technical approach to this art in terms of how it can be defined was proposed by Wells , p. Having defined animation, one can proceed to analyse from a theoretical point of view the intertextual phenomena included in the corpus in order to demonstrate the purposes of such usage.
According to the semiologist, Julia Kristeva, who pioneered the coining of this term, texts can be built on a mosaic of quotes. The notion of intertextuality replaces that of intersubjectivity, and poetic language is read as at least double …. To understand this text formed by many others, one must have knowledge about each of the texts it is composed of. Then, it must be all interpreted within the new one. However, it requires interpretation in order to understand the totality of the message transmitted in the text.
Peliculas Clave del Cine de Animacion
Intertextuality can be detected in animated feature films as seen in the results of this study. The artistic intertextual occurrences in these productions are plentiful. If cinema is art, so is animation. In fact, Genette chose this example to coin the term hyperfilmicity to name the cases of cinematographic intertextuality. Genette, , pp. This creative effect by which a present film re-enounces films produced in the past led to the labelling of the relation between films by Genette On the one hand, the hyperfilm, understood as the present film which includes references to other films, and on the other, the hypofilm, which are the set of texts that are re-enounced in the hyperfilm.
This cinematographic intertextuality is the result of a historical filmic trajectory originally developed from the realistic depiction of life in the 50s and early 60s; the intertextuality of the late 60s, 70s, 80s; to the representation of something by somebody, a cartoon, a model or its copy.
In this way, cinema has reconsidered its original obsession of depicting reality to be considered, per se, a text as such. Stam, Burgoyne and Flitterman-Lewis explained this cinematographic transition with the following words: Film theory thus gradually transformed itself from a meditation on the film object as the reproduction of pro-filmic phenomena into a critique of the very idea of mimetic reproduction. Film came to be seen as text, utterance, speech act, not the depiction of an event but rather an event in itself, one which participated in the production of a certain kind of subject.
Stam et al. It is noteworthy to highlight the fact that intertextuality has not only been used in cinema, but also has been a tool to help identify cinema as art: The abovementioned voracity of early cinema to take in elements originating from all cultural expressions which were relatively close has made it mandatory to stop short at that undeniable phenomenon of intertextuality through which the new media shaped into an independent art flourishing its own means of expression.
Among the cultural expressions in which cinema imbibed, the nineteenth century realist novel is without a doubt one of these as quoted by many scholars. But along with this, the important role of the feuilleton production carried out by the epigones of Romanticism must be mentioned as well as some theatrical shows such as melodrama and music-hall from late last century. One must not overlook the influence of paintings, another artistic style although dragged down by academic mores, previous to the impressionist revolution. This celebrity intertextuality was also observed in the corpus as explained below.
Regarding film intertextuality and animation, it has been affirmed that film intertextuality as a phenomenon did not appear much in animation targeted towards the general public and specifically to children and young adults. As Chaume , p. To end this theoretical section, it is of interest to note two fundamental characteristics regarding the use of intertextuality in animation; firstly, the awareness of a filmic production which interrelates artistic forms.
As Selby affirmed: In recent years historians of animation have established links between the art of animation and the main artistic movements, which have served to highlight all links of parallel concerns as well as to consolidate the view that animation has always been conditioned by the world it was surrounded by Selby, , p. It is the so-called research phase in which animators achieve to reunite a series of materials that can be contrasted with other reliable sources for the verification of facts and key dates.
It counts on the support of experts, who avoid the use of erroneous facts which can tarnish a script or a whole storyline. Selby, , p. This material reveals many of the intertextual relations, how these professionals were influenced by other arts, and, interestingly, the need to count on the opinions of psychologists, educators and even associations to suggest what content could be ideal for children and young adults. The Practical Analysis 2. These artistic works belong to other fields painting, literature, music hall to develop a theme or an animated plot.
The table below will show in detail which previously-created artistic content, introduced in a present-time work of art i. Yet, intertextuality in these occurrences has contributed to narrate DreamWorks stories. The final section will include the possible reasons why DreamWorks decided to have these artistic allusions in its productions. Materials and Methodology The study of artistic intertextuality in animated feature films requires the selection of a corpus which can be analysed and quantified. Among the extensive DreamWorks repertoire more than twenty-five animated feature films in its twenty-two years of history , fourteen films have been selected: Shrek ; Shrek 2 ; Shark Tale ; Madagascar ; Over the Hedge ; Shrek the Third ; Bee Movie ; Kung Fu Panda ; Madagascar 2: Escape to Africa ; Monsters vs.
These films were originally chosen based on their huge success audience-wise. These animated feature films have been box office hits. This fact shows that audiences worldwide have had access to these stories. As a local example of this success, it might be of interest to know that these films have had an excellent reception in Spain.
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This data reveals a major interest in animation among the Spanish audience. Moreover, these figures show how children are exposed to the media and to a specific content. This exposure to this type of animation rich in intertextual allusions most certainly has made an impact on viewers. These 14 films have been studied in their English original version with the aim of spotting the artistic intertextual references used in these films.
In order to spot the different cases of artistic intertextuality, each film was screened numerous times while data was being collected through transcription and classified into data sheets. In total 1, minutes more than 21 hours were analysed. Faced with innumerable existing paradigms and classifications of intertextual phenomena, only one theoretical framework had to be selected in order to carry out the analysis of the different types of intertextuality included in the films analysed in this study. This intertextual phenomenon has been observed in the 14 animated feature films by DreamWorks.
- Películas clave del cine de animación;
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Furthermore, the audiovisual allusions have been categorised based on this deductive, practical analysis. Special attention has been paid here to artistic allusions. These are defined as references to live show creations a play made into a film, a musical, and circus show , paintworks, sculptures, photographs including architectural productions and their authors, dance and its styles, comedians, designers, martial arts and even culinary ones. Many of these comments reveal important intertextual information which otherwise might be obscure for a researcher unaware of popular culture.
The creation of a data sheet for each occurrence helped organise the information extracted from the films thus favouring the quantitative and qualitative analyses, which have been later presented in the table and description below.
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This visual representation is useful to reveal how art has been included in these productions. Results 2. Quantitative Analysis The total number of compiled occurrences from the 14 DreamWorks animated feature films amounted to out of which 33 belong to the artistic category.