Elementos Comunes y Privativos en las Comunidades de Propietarios (Spanish Edition)
Letting the music do the talking Across the globe Call: email: studio radiomix Una nueva imagen que ha sido destacada por su presidente Rafael Mena. In the previous moments, the new clothing that the young people will wear during the new exercise was also delivered. A new image that has been highlighted by its president Rafael Mena. Everyone took the floor to address the audience, showing the support of the government team to the CD Manilva Basket Base.
It should be noted that on this occasion there are 53 local businesses that have supported this new. They all agreed to highlight the work of the Club's board of directors, the relatives and, of course, the effort of the almost one hundred young people who are part of this great sporting family. This sports club, has teams in the prebenjamin, first and second year minibasket, cadet and junior. Together with Francisco Candiles, he will lead the reins of the preminibasket, first-year minibasket and second-year minibasket teams.
The event ended with a photocall of all the Club's staff that, surely, will give us many triumphs throughout the course of the season. Come and play netball? Training sessions are on Tuesdays from 6. All levels welcome.. For more info join our Facebook page. It's all about having fun, and meeting new people. The tidy tip will be situated at the La. Dehesilla Industrial Estate in Manilva and will cover a plot of 3, square metres with collection containers for wood, paper, cardboard, glass, oil, batteries, paint and solvents, aerosols, x-rays, among other waste items.
Ground floor apartment? Would be willing to take on existing animals if necessary. Conciertos: KP Nuts de The festival is in collaboration with all the. There will be live music and activities throughout the evening from 6 pm until midnight. There will be concerts by: KP Nuts from 6. Havana Thalia from 8 pm to 9 pm.
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Jens Malling Band from 9. Organised by the Ateneo Cultural Association and the Duquesa Charitable Society of St George in collaboration with Manilva Town Hall's Culture department and the local company Servygilancia Metropolitan, the awards are presented to local youngsters who have excelled in the arts including: Music, Painting and Drawing, Literature, Theatre, along with other members of the local community that have made a contribution to arts and culture in Manilva and an overall artist of the year.
New fashion accessories to enhance any outfit. Cuffs, headbands, scarves, cowl collars in all well known fabrics — cashmere, Harris Tweed, lace, etc. Authentic pieces of jewellery sourced from private collections. Engagement rings — a must because you love it! El precio por persona es de euros con un actividad extra opcional de ir en 4x4 por el desierto Las Tabernas de 30 euros.
This excursion is part of the third edition of the Venus on Mars program "Mujeres viajers". On the first day a visit is scheduled to enter the mini Hollywood with lunch included. For Sunday we will have the morning free. The price per person is euros with an optional extra activity of 4x4 driving through the Las Tabernas desert of 30 euros. Any person interested in the trip must make a deposit of 50 euros. The departure would be Saturday at 7am. Puede ser un comunero. O bien contactando con Denise Molony en el 42 89 98 para concertar una cita.
Estaremos encantados de estudiar su caso y explicarle como se aplica este proceso. When these damages are derived from the malfunction of community owned items or where there has been negligence in the care of community property. In general, community property could be any of the following; antennas and communication systems, elevators, roof terraces, roofing, heating installations, enclosures of common areas, buildings or urbanizations, foundations, pipes and ducts, corridors, locks, external coverings, structures, Article.
Communities of Owners must always maintain the guarantees and ensure that all common constructions and areas are in perfect condition. If damage to a person or to a dwelling occurs as a result of neglect to maintain the common installations, areas, or property in perfect condition, the Community of owners can be held civilly responsible, but the Community President or administrator could also be directly or indirectly responsible. They are required by law to take the appropriate measures to ensure that no harm can occur to a third party by ensuring any urgent repair works, or maintenance is carried out immediately when there is evidence that the lack of maintenance could cause harm to a third party or dwelling.
If the Community of Owners does not comply with the obligations established in the Article. If the affected party is a third party, i. Do not forget to contact Marbellasolicitors, with offices throughout the Costa del Sol and with more than 15 years of experience legal advice to clients. For further information, advice or assistance on this process, please do not hesitate to contact us by Tel or e-mail at mail manilvasolicitors.
We will be pleased to study your particular case and explain in detail how this process works. El precio por litro tanto natural como con gas es de 0. He showed Club members lots of different ideas for weaving and winding plant material. A great afternoon and the Club are looking forward to another wonderful afternoon in the company of this months demonstrator Caroline Jackson. Caroline, from the North Midlands, has been demonstrating since Caroline is also part of the Botanical Engineers, a different approach to flower arranging which she may share.
Caroline's demonstration is on Tuesday October 16 and will start promptly at 3 o'clock, at Agrojardin, Cancelada. Members fees are due for the new. Caroline is supporting the 'Wear it Pink' campaign in aid of Breast Cancer, and has asked that if possible people wear something pink for the demonstration. The flower Club will be donating a euro for every person who attends the demonstration. Demonstrations are an enjoyable afternoon of live entertainment where you can appreciate the beauty of flowers, pick up lots of hints and tips on all aspects of floral art, gardening and plant information.
For more information and photographs see the Clubs Facebook page, www.
- INTERNAL RULES OF THE HOUSE OWNERS' ASSOCIATION.
- Navegación de entradas;
- Croque-monsieur (French Edition).
Alternatively contact Janet on or send an e mail to esteponafloralartclub hotmail. Installed by the Italian company Ecozona, which has over 6 thousand such kiosks throughout Italy, this is the first permanent kiosk to be installed in Spain, although the company does. The kiosk takes water from the public water supply and passes it through a stringent filtration system before being delivered, nicely chilled at the vending point. The system is designed with public health at the forefront, all the tubes, and outlet nozzles are automatically sterilised, after The water is available either still or sparkling at the nominal cost of 5 cents for ml; 10 cents for a litre; and 15 cents for a litre and a half, you just have to provide the container.
From the Foreigners' delegation, information and requests to process said procedures may continue to be obtained. Georges charity shop, Sabinillas to boost funds or could be donated directly to those in need who would be identified via the appropriate organisations. Anyone with any knitting , sewing or crochet skills we need your expertise to help those of us who know nothing about these things! So whether you are a lady or a gent, can knit or not, everyone and anyone can come along and join in ,the more the merrier! Meetings are held at New Fathoms from 11 am. There is coffee, cake or tapas available to buy.
The intention is to start with one meeting every third week but this can be increased if we have enough enthusiastic response. Please can anyone, individuals or shop owners who have any balls of wool, or sewing materials that you would donate to this worthy cause, either bring them along on the day or drop off at the Saint George charity shop, Sabinillas. For more information contact Ali English or Spanish or Jennifer Mix - All the radio you will ever need Radio Mix FM continues to develop its programming and features with a brand new sports show, The Big Sports Mix, now going out live from the Mix studios every.
Friday from 6 pm to 8 pm. Performance Centre, who also covers the American sports scene. The team are joined by regular guests from the world of sport to discuss a wide variety of sporting news and events. Advertising on Mix There is no better way to reach your audience than by radio. Broadcasting from Gibraltar to Nerja on one frequency, Radio Mix is the common sense platform for your message. With spot ads,.
Contact gary radiomix For effective radio advertising From Gibraltar to Nerja Call: email: studio radiomix So look out for them over the coming weeks and don't forget, wear your Poppy with pride. Supporters of the Poppy Appeal,. Shop Donations The Age Concern shop in Calle Zaragoza, Estepona, needs a constant supply of clothes and bric-a-brac to help raise the funds needed to assist our volunteers working with older people in the community, Donations can be delivered to the. It may be possible to arrange a collection from you — call to find out.
Alternatively call and speak to Tony. Coffee Mornings Age Concern hold a coffee morning from Come along to have a. You will be most welcome and we look forward to seeing you. Adviceline From September Lifeline was renamed Adviceline with the same telephone number — This will be manned from Better still email your query to ageconcernestepona gmail.
The Resident October by Manilva Media Workshop SLL - Issuu
Why the change? Many calls are now best dealt with by the normal agencies and as we are not an emergency service we should not handle them. We offer advice, information and support. Plastic Bags By Royal Decree single use plastic bags used in the shop have to be charged for at 5 cents a bag. In the use of plastic bags will be banned.
We have no choice but to. We are looking into moving to paper bags. The importance of this singular club is that it covers more than one area, Estepona, Casares, Manilva and San Roque. All four Mayors have confirmed their attendance at this historical event. Rotary International is an international service organisation whose stated purpose is to bring together business and professional leaders in order to provide a humanitarian service and to advance goodwill and peace around the world.
It is a non-political and non-sectarian organisation open to all people regardless of race, colour, creed, religion, gender, or political preference. There are 34,member clubs worldwide, and 1. Since then it has grown exponentially and more recently, has spread overseas, including Spain. Communication is mostly via telephone, free of charge. All listeners are trained volunteers who serve in rotas and are available 24 hours a day, days of the year. Samaritans listen to people who are either lonely, or feel themselves unable to express their feelings, concerns, or problems to those around them.
Volunteer listeners. After initial training all new listeners are supported with mentoring. It is not only those who face life traumas, bereavement, or those burdened with guilt, who contact Samaritans. Anyone who feels the need for emotional support, encouragement and lacking confidence will benefit by talking to a Samaritan. A call to the Samaritans could last a few minutes or much longer, since callers are never rushed.
The need for this type of help in the community is exemplified by the rapid expansion of Samaritans in Spain since its inception in September Increasingly, Samaritans in Spain not only require more volunteer listeners for its primary function, but also to. With branches in Madrid, Denia and shortly on the Costa del Sol, Samaritans in Spain will be able to provide this service to most of Spain's English speaking community.
Do you think you could be a Samaritan? Samaritans in Spain are looking for volunteers on the Costa del Sol. If you are interested and think this is something for you then contact Jilly Hodges by email at jillyrhodges gmail. In , Simon noticed changes in the way he was feeling. He had been struggling with depression. Worried about what people might be thinking of him, he avoided going out and meeting his friends. His GP diagnosed him with agoraphobia and referred him to a mental health team.
But he was still struggling to cope, Simon explains: As a man, it is still difficult to open up about the way you feel. The trouble is,. If you carry on bottling things up, overtime they will overwhelm you. I think this is part of the reason why I would feel suicidal. These thoughts and feelings lead me to attempt to take my own life on more than one occasion. He wanted me to walk to the branch to meet face to face.
The thought of this was so overwhelming - it took me everything just to leave the front door. I was. I no longer feel alone, with nobody to understand. The day I chose to get in touch with Samaritans, I took back some control. Just Call our Dedicated Line to Arrange. Eat Ice Cream for Charity On Sunday 14th October, Da Vinci's Ice Cream parlour will be hosting a charity event, in collaboration with the Saint George Charity, to celebrate the final day of their summer season before closing their doors for the Winter.
So what can be better than eating ice cream for charity? Open from 1 pm until finished! Food Bank The Saint George Charity runs a food bank initiative to help local people who are finding it difficult to make ends meet, and invites people to donate non-perishable goods, such as long life milk, pasta, rice, biscuits, tinned meat and fish, tinned vegetables, etc. The charity will supplement these items with fresh produce, and will distribute on a weekly basis to a number of individuals and families that have been identified as being in urgent need of this service.
Contacta con secretary dcso-stgeorge. Volunteers needed Too much time on your hands? Would you like to be part of a local charitable association? Please contact secretary dcsostgeorge. All are welcome, baptisms, marriage blessings and funerals by arrangement. Further details on www. La tienda de La Cancelada.
The BuddyUp group is coordinated by Marguerite Wilkins, and already has a number of members signed up. BuddyUp volunteers work in pairs and have access to a wide range of resources to call upon depending on the needs of those they are assisting. In Sabinillas one of the shops sells quality second hand clothing, shoes, hats and accessories; whilst the other sells a wide range of secondhand furniture, decorative items, household goods, books, cds,.
Our shop in La Cancelada sells the same full range of secondhand items as our Sabinillas shops and also stocks larger items of furniture and beds. Thanks to our generous donors there are new items in the shops daily, so visit regularly so as not to miss out on that fabulous bargain. As well as stocking some great quality items the St George Charity shops also rent out various items such as wheelchairs, walking aids, travel cots, etc. The shop management welcome donations of quality secondhand items, and can arrange collection if needed.
We are also looking for secondhand books, especially in languages other than English, to populate are extensive bookshelves. For enquiries in Sabinillas either drop into the shops, call or email secretary dcso-stgeorge. Shop Opening Hours Sabinillas - 10 am to 1. All consultations are free but CAB Spain is funded by donations, so if you feel that their advice has been valuable then please make a donation in the tin provided. Contact: info citizensadvice.
CIF G Jamie returns to cooking the food he loves the most, getting right to heart of the Italian kitchen in his ultimate go-to Italian cookbook. He shows you that truly authentic Italian cooking is simple, beautiful and achievable. Jamie fell in love with Italian food 25 years ago. Los Corales Junto a Mercadona. Ora por su hijo y por su nieto no es una beata. Es ahora una sombra llena de dolor. Recuerdos de la vida. Los pueblos respetan la verdad. Dejadla que ore, que ruegue en silencio, dejadla en el parque como un templo de viento.
Yo la he visto orar, la he visto llorar, la he sentido dentro. Sus manos apretadas descubren el misterio; chorrean desde ellas el enigma del Verbo. Y Dios. La noche cae y se levanta un suspiro. Piel casta y herida por el silencio de una roca. Escultura es, ciclos del cuerpo, en el pensamiento la cintura que hoy yace. Las noches remontan su oscuro detalle. La rapidez con que muerde sus dedos ante una plegaria. Al atardecer se marcha, no ha hablado con nadie. Al atardecer se marcha.
Hay animales en el hogar o desobediencia. Pues, de nuevo, en esto los animales no son menos. Sin embargo, una de las razones por las que un can disfruta tanto de los paseos al aire libre se oculta en su olfato: los olores disparan su mente. Five Great Ideas Against Pet Boredom Bored pets develop behaviour problems such as excessive vocalising or chewing the furniture, to get the attention of its owner and end his sadness for feeling abandoned Ronald Rosenfeld D. Sabinillas - Tel: Does your pet get bored? Although scientists point out that certain doses of boredom are good for people, as they stimulate creativity, no one likes to be bored all the time.
Given this concept, pets are no exception. Pets without stimuli can develop behavioural problems, such as destroying the furniture in the house or going for the rubbish bin, for the simple joy of getting to capture the attention of their owner. A bored pet that sleeps all day or spends too many hours alone lacks the necessary motivation for normal development. This explains why it is not surprising that a pet with a lack of stimuli may demonstrate its lack of entertainment with behavioural problems such as excessive vocalising, destruction at home or disobedience.
These behaviours are the only way the pet has to communicate to its master that it has a problem. However, its boredom can lead to even more serious disorders. So a pet that does not get the attention and care it requires can even develop health problems such as separation anxiety or some forms of depression if left alone at home. But avoiding boredom for a dog is possible.
Here are five great ideas to achieve this. How to choose their toys "Toys are not a luxury for dogs or cats , but a necessity," explain the vets from the Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. It has been found that toys help combat boredom when the pet is left alone at home. But they also provide for their well being helping to prevent the development of problematic and unhealthy behaviours.
Having a variety of toys can be useful to end their tedium. There are pets who prefer soft toys, others who are more pleased by the balls for them, while go mad with the dolls that make noise. Your preferences must be taken into account when choosing the most appropriate toys for them.
Prepare them special food Who does not enjoy a good meal with new flavours and maintained homemade recipes made with honey? Well, here again, our pets do not want to be left out. A diet based on food scraps is not healthy for them, but this does not mean that you cannot reward, them occasionally, with a little chicken boneless and lean , delicious homemade food for dogs or cats and cans of wet food.
In addition, "the lack of mental stimulation in dogs and cats can provoke many food problems as an inadequate diet. Therefore, eating disorders, such as coprofagia, compulsive eating and even obesity, which also are related to boredom and, according to psychologists, a lack of incentives," warns Tony Buffington, veterinary nutritionist with the American Animal Hospital Association. This can be achieved by the making of homemade cookies and trying various methods to fill a Kong or other toy with rich and tasty pet snacks.
Tasty Toys Provide tasty toys, interactive toys, to make eating for them more stimulating, are the latest trends. In addition, they are a fun and healthy way to stimulate their minds. The idea is to forget the bowls overflowing with food pellets and make them work a little for their food. Pellets hidden tubes think that the animal needs to get to with the help of its paws, and even feeding implements that are a bit of a puzzle to replace traditional bowls.
In this way the mind of the pet gets some mental exercise and is presented with a challenging exercise and fun for them with a healthy reward! Provide Aromas Provide pleasant pleasing aromas, it is common to underestimate how important the sense of smell is for our pets. Cleaning All common parts shall be kept clean and in good working order at all times. The Owners' Association shall monitor their cleanliness and correct use. Operators shall not use common parts galleries, pavements, passageways, etc.
If this occurs, the Owners' Association will proceed to remove them at the offender's expense. Authorised Activities In the interest of the smooth operation and general organisation of the Centre, in their units, Operators shall carry out only the activities for which they have been expressly authorised by virtue of their executed agreements and all other activities are excluded. Prohibited Activities The following activities are prohibited in common parts, unless expressly-reserved areas are set up for them: selling outside units, street trading, begging, distributing publicity through fliers or other means, public speeches, political protests, invasion of the pedestrian precinct and, in general, any type of action by persons or groups that are third-party to the Centre.
Appearance and signage Anything that might affect the appearance of the Centre will be subject to the provisions of the Owners' Association in that regard. In no event will Operators be permitted to put up adverts, including to sell or let their unit, posters, flags or lettering in their windows, on the unit front or in common parts unless they are pursuant to the aforementioned provisions and prior written authorisation has been obtained from the Owners' Association.
It is understood that nationally and internationally-registered signs may not be graphically modified by resolution of the Owners' Association, but either allowed or disallowed by the same. Publicity on common elements and means of diffusion In no event may the Operators of any units hand out leaflets or samples, hold auctions or engage in any other efforts to attract custom in common parts, except in the case of general, organised events to promote the Centre. Relations between Operators Operators will be liable to each other, the Owners' Association and all persons for the consequences of their own and their employees' actions and negligence and they shall abstain from engaging in dangerous, bothersome, harmful and unsanitary activities.
Common expenses Common expenses means expenses derived from the upkeep, repair and maintenance of common elements and parts of the Centre, its services, installations, supplies and any other common elements or parts that affect its good working order. Estimate of expenses The estimate for the Centre shall be drawn up and approved by the Owners' Association and will be for the term of 1 January to 31 December each year, except for the first term, which will be from Centre opening to 31 December of the year of opening, and the Owners' Association shall advise every Operator of the annual contribution allocated to them in respect of the estimated expenses.
Private expenses Expenses of any nature that concern the privately-owned parts of a unit and its use shall be borne by the Operator of the unit. However, if expenses originating from common parts have repercussions on privately-owned parts for instance, service breakdowns then these shall be borne by the Owners' Association. General Meeting Holding a General Meeting The general meeting will be validly held on first and only call when half plus one of the owners are present.
The unanimous vote of those present will be required to pass resolutions to approve or amend the rules set out in these Articles and Internal Regulations. Notice The General Meeting is to be called during the first 30 days of each year in order to approve the accounts of the previous financial year and the estimated expenses for the coming year.
General Meetings are to be called by the chairperson at least 5 days before they are held, except for extraordinary General Meetings, for which at least 48 hours' notice is required. These minutes are to be kept in the corresponding minutes book and the Chairperson and Secretary shall sign them. Chairperson The Chairperson shall chair the General Meeting, execute agreements and represent the Owners' Association in and out of court.
Secretary The Secretary shall look after the minutes book and all documents belonging to the Owners' Association. The Director may be appointed to this position. Director This is a paid position that lasts for an unlimited term, although the General Meeting may remove the Director from this position. The Director's Duties The Director shall perform the duties entrusted to [him or her] by the General Meeting through the Chairperson, notwithstanding the others set out in these Articles and Internal Regulations.
Source text ST Contextualisation 1. ST Selection When selecting a ST I looked for an authentic text similar to the type of texts on which I work as a freelance translator. My legal workload is mostly company-related documents such as contracts and articles of association, although I sometimes receive offers of work in the property genre.
Since I have less experience in the latter genre, I felt a property-related text would allow me to take greater advantage of this opportunity to interlink my professional and academic development. It is an authentic text given to me by a lawyer. He gave me express permission to use it for this project and stated that the text has never been translated. Santana, personal communication, 24 July a, see Appendix 1i. This document describes every legal unit in the property that can be independently owned or used ic-abogados. There is not always an obvious line between the scope of the Estatutos and that of the RRI; the two may form a joint document A.
Achieving this objective is the purpose of the ST. The ST title is deceptive since on closer analysis it is clearly a composite document, made up of internal regulations and articles of association. Santana, personal communication, 24 July , see Appendix 1ii. Comparison to the British legal system Great Britain does not have an exact equivalent of the ST document. Owners of commonhold properties have to form a commonhold association and incorporate it as a limited company DCA, b ; the commonhold has to be registered at the Land Registry Leasehold Advisory Service, Date not known and the association must have a Memorandum and Articles of Association Great Britain, The Commonhold Regulations , which are mainly concerned with governing the commonhold.
The CCS normally contains three types of provision: those prescribed by law, e. The third type is known as the Local Rules and may deal with issues such as use of common parts, services, etc. DCA, a. The Articles of Association, CCS and Local Rules are all broadly comparable to the ST, but they come from a different legal system and are the product of a different culture Cacchiani, and so they are not the same, e.
Since the ST does not clearly fit into any of the above categories, I decided to draw from a wide corpus of English parallel texts made up of all of these documents see Appendix 3 to assist in the translation.
Brief and Costing The client is a Spanish law firm working for a new shopping centre where all official documents are to be translated into English. The unit owners and tenants are international and may not be native English speakers. The skopos Vermeer, is to produce a faithful, natural rendition of the ST aimed at an international readership. A similar layout should be maintained. No glossary is available, but the drafter is available for consultation.
The ST is the authoritative document, but the TT may be the only means for some owners and tenants to access the ST contents and so the translation must be accurate in all respects. It is my professional experience that legal texts fetch higher rates due to their specialist nature. Pre-translation analysis The ST genre is Property Law; its domain is commonholds and its subdomain is commercial commonholds. Its mode is a printed or electronic document written in Spanish; its field is the rules and articles of a privately-owned Shopping Centre and its tenor is a lawyer writing for a target readership of laypeople and legal professionals.
It is a single text, although sections were removed from the end of the original text to achieve the required word count. It is a private document and will be governed by the jurisdiction of Spain once it has been registered in the Spanish Land Registry. The preamble sets out the circumstances surrounding the shopping centre at the time of drafting. However, much of the text provides for future and even hypothetical situations envisaged for when the centre is open. In terms of microstructure, the average number of words per sentence is By legal standards, this is fairly short Gotti, , p.
The ST has a dual communicative purpose Swales, , p. Common areas are dealt with before private areas, reflecting obligations from general to specific. Many lexicogrammatical items could also be found in contracts and there is a preamble. Part 5 contains typical lexicogrammatical realisations of this genre, such as references to minutes and general meetings. It is not surprising that terminology from this closely-related technical genre appears intermittently throughout the text, e.
Section 6. This wide range of sub-genres encompasses a broad lexical field, which represents a major terminological challenge for the translator. The ST maintains a formal, impersonal register throughout, which is appropriate to its genre; register markers include a legal lexicon and impersonal structures. Research and documentation I began my research by investigating extra-textual references in the ST, which led me to Spanish laws, related legal instruments and texts written by experts.
I then explored their equivalent English legal instruments. Next, I built up a corpus of parallel ST and TT documents to help me learn more about the ST and discover what sorts of English documents were available to provide terminological and syntactical support for the translation see extracts in Appendix 3. As a professional translator, I already had a collection of legal dictionaries, style guides and list of on-line resources.
I commenced the translation using these in combination with my corpus, and added to the corpus and undertook and documented specific research as new issues arose. I used my CAT tool, Trados , to do the translation, which allowed me to ensure internal lexical consistency and take advantage of my TM. I produced terminology entry forms for legal terms that I needed to learn more about see Appendix 3i — 3xii.
Discussion of translation problems, strategies and solutions 5. Drafter-related translation problems A number of ST inconsistencies had an important bearing on the translation at all textual levels. The types of issues encountered and the solutions employed are described below. ST Errors I consulted the drafter about suspected ST errors and made the appropriate changes in the TT in accordance with his instructions see Appendix 1 for personal communications and Appendix 2 for a list of errors found.
I sent the list of errors to the client on delivery to enable him to make corrections to the ST. One source of uncertainty was lexical inconsistency Adams, , p. This creates incohesion within the internal lexical reference network of the ST Baker, , p. A further source of uncertainty is polysemous terms Alcaraz and Hughes, , p. It is therefore translated by paraphrase Baker, , p.
Repetition is secondary to clarity Adams, , pp. IT would make sense for all drafters to employ only those usages that are most efficient… Such uniformity is the opposite of craft. So there are no drafting styles, only drafting that is clear and efficient and drafting that is less so Adams, , pp. A number of examples are given below where translation by omission Baker, , p.
I omitted this adverb in my translation TT l. Through Trados, I noticed that the same sentence is repeated in ST l. Care had to be taken with redundancies, since they may serve a purpose. However, the drafter has taken care to emphasise this point and for this reason the redundancy is left in. Inconsistent capitalisation Inconsistent capitalisation causes the reader to question whether there is a deliberate nuance in meaning that they have missed.
This tendency towards avoiding capitalisation can be observed in other general style guides e. Based on this research, capitalisation is used sparingly in the TT and a number of ordinary nouns that are capitalised in the ST appear in lowercase in the translation. See details and terminology entry forms in Appendix 3. This formula allowed me to maintain ST layout as per my skopos Vermeer, The Commonhold Regulations , Schedule 2 , but the two bodies are different, e.
Commonhold Associations are limited companies DCA Corporate Communications, b , and so using the English term as a translation would be misleading. This is a domesticating strategy Venuti, which was useful to help the reader gauge the approximate content of the Spanish law.
The translation was therefore a combination of domestication and foreignization strategies Venuti, These terms were used throughout the text for lexical consistency, which contributes to cohesion Baker, , p. This use of collocational equivalence is a domesticating strategy Venuti, , which ensures the translator remains invisible and the text reads as if it were originally written in English.
In reference to the plain English movement, Tiersma , p. The drafter does not overuse legalese in this text, perhaps in consideration of the lay element of the target audience. Despite this, legalese forms part of the ST and has a bearing on the translation process. Plain English alternatives, such as pronouns and demonstrative adjectives were therefore considered.
Using legalese in the TT would make an already complex sentence more complicated.
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I applied the same theory to similar constructions, e. Where collocational equivalents were available for Spanish legalese I felt the best translation decision was to use them, this is in accordance with the advice given by Alcaraz and Hughes , p. However, in order to achieve its skopos Vermeer, the translation needs to convey the binding nature of the ST to enable the target reader to identify the extent of their duties and liabilities pursuant to the authoritative text. A translation challenge related to modals was identifying when the Spanish future simple is binding and when it is simply giving future information, since the English future simple can only be used in the latter case.
Adams , p. Adams , pp. Gender-specific language Using the masculine pronoun to include the feminine, apart from being old-fashioned and potentially offensive, may also lead to uncertainty Tiersma, , p. I therefore endeavoured to avoid gender-specific language by two means. Firstly, by using terms that encompass both genders, e.
I felt this was a very clean way of avoiding the all-inclusive male pronoun without the extra words appearing redundant, e. One major feature of ST syntax was passive constructions. Taking these factors into account, on a number of occasions I changed ST passive sentences into TT active sentences to improve clarity.
INTERNAL RULES OF THE HOUSE OWNERS' ASSOCIATION
In this sentence, the actor is both obvious and irrelevant, and so there is no reason to suspect the drafter was deliberately trying to obscure it. One side effect of making passive sentences active is that it alters thematic order Halliday, , p. This is a form of translation loss Hervey et al. When making these types of changes, alterations to thematic order must be observed. This is because the rheme of one sentence is often linked by anaphoric reference to the sentence that follows.
The translator could therefore inadvertently create uncertainty in the TT by destroying the internal reference network. If this occurs, the Owners' Association will proceed to remove them at the offender's expense ST l. Conclusion The legal and terminology research elements of this dissertation enabled me to learn a lot about the genre of property law and its lexicon, which encompass a vast range of subgenres and sub-lexicons including contract law, company law, finance and architecture.
The wide variety and depth of legal translation issues that this dissertation has raised have made a practical contribution to both my academic and professional development as a translator and I will be able to immediately incorporate many elements discussed here into my daily work. A manual of style for contract drafting, second edition. Culture-specific items in translation. Alvarez and M. Vidal eds In Translation, power, subversion pp.
Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Alcaraz and Hughes. Legal translation explained. Cornwall UK : St. Unpublished internal document. Baker, M. In other words. Cacchiani, S. New Voices in Translation Studies 2: p. Rates and salaries survey for translators and interpreters [Electronic version]. DCA Corporate Communications. Commonhold: Non-statutory guidance on the commonhold regulations Date not known. European Commission Directorate-General for Translation. English Style Guide [electronic copy]. How many words do you usually translate per day?
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Centro de comercio y ocio en Lorca contrato de arrendamiento de finca urbana para uso distinto del de vivienda. Berman, A. Translation and the trials of the foreign trans. Venuti, ed. The translation studies reader pp. Bluewater, About us. BS Part 1: , section 3. Ley de agosto 3 Diario Oficial No. Companies House. Curiosity Media, Inc. Spanish Dict. Commonhold FAQs Guidance on the drafting of a commonhold community statement.
Libro de estilo interinstitucional. Guide for External translators [electronic copy]. Spanish housing rates and annual property taxes. The Free Dictionary. Gold Service. Carga Social. Companies Act Elizabeth I. Schedule 1 model articles for private companies limited by shares. The Commonhold Land Registration Rules Elizabeth II. Commonhold — what it is and how it works. Incorporation Services Ltd. General meetings. Iuris Tantum Consulting Group. Spanish horizontal property law. Jefatura de Gabinete de Ministros.
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