Soldiers battled wildfires. And social workers raced to the homes of older people to prevent mass deaths. It is part of an unmistakable trend: The hottest summers in Europe in the last years have all come in the last 17 years.www.balterrainternacional.com/wp-content/2019-09-28/imagenes-de-bandera-gay.php
Europe Awaits Record-Smashing June Heat Wave
Several of those heat waves bear the fingerprints of human-caused climate change. It is also unsurprising. As rising greenhouse gas emissions warm the planet average global temperatures have gone up by around 1 degree Celsius, or 1. Worldwide, is on track to be among the hottest years on record, and Europe is on the front line. Its wealth and social safety net have kept it from being ravaged. Hospitals work. Paramedics respond. Farmers have crop insurance. In the Gard region of southern France, 60 fires on Friday burned 1, acres. In Paris, the Fire Department responded to 20 percent more emergency calls than usual.
Thousands of schools shut down. Critically, several nighttime minimum temperature records were also broken. A marine heatwave is defined a when seawater temperatures exceed a seasonally-varying threshold usually the 90th percentile for at least 5 consecutive days.
Successive heatwaves with gaps of 2 days or less are considered part of the same event. Hobday, A.
Summer marine heatwaves vs. Marine heatwaves can be caused by a whole range of factors, and not all factors are important for each event. The most common drivers of marine heatwaves include ocean currents which can build up areas of warm water and air-sea heat flux , or warming through the ocean surface from the atmosphere. How have marine heatwaves changed? The oceans are warming at an unprecedented rate. Sea surface temperatures have increased at a rate of nearly 0. This warming in turn increases the likelihood of marine heatwaves from occurring.
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In the Western Cape Province of South Africa , a heat wave can occur when a low pressure offshore and high pressure inland air combine to form a Bergwind. The highest official temperatures recorded in South Africa Global warming boosts the probability of extreme weather events, like heat waves, far more than it boosts more moderate events.
The heat index as shown in the table above is a measure of how hot it feels when relative humidity is factored with the actual air temperature. Hyperthermia , also known as heat stroke, becomes commonplace during periods of sustained high temperature and humidity. Older adults, very young children, and those who are sick or overweight are at a higher risk for heat-related illness. The chronically ill and elderly are often taking prescription medications e. Heat edema presents as a transient swelling of the hands, feet, and ankles and is generally secondary to increased aldosterone secretion , which enhances water retention.
When combined with peripheral vasodilation and venous stasis , the excess fluid accumulates in the dependent areas of the extremities. The heat edema usually resolves within several days after the patient becomes acclimated to the warmer environment. No treatment is required, although wearing support stockings and elevating the affected legs will help minimize the edema. Heat rash , also known as prickly heat, is a maculopapular rash accompanied by acute inflammation and blocked sweat ducts.
The sweat ducts may become dilated and may eventually rupture, producing small pruritic vesicles on an erythematous base. Heat rash affects areas of the body covered by tight clothing.
If this continues for a duration of time it can lead to the development of chronic dermatitis or a secondary bacterial infection. Prevention is the best therapy. It is also advised to wear loose-fitting clothing in the heat. However, once heat rash has developed, the initial treatment involves the application of chlorhexidine lotion to remove any desquamated skin. The associated itching may be treated with topical or systemic antihistamines.
If infection occurs a regimen of antibiotics is required. Heat cramps are painful, often severe, involuntary spasms of the large muscle groups used in strenuous exercise. Heat cramps tend to occur after intense exertion. They usually develop in people performing heavy exercise while sweating profusely and replenishing fluid loss with non-electrolyte containing water. This is believed to lead to hyponatremia that induces cramping in stressed muscles. Rehydration with salt-containing fluids provides rapid relief. Patients with mild cramps can be given oral.
How Much Do Heat Waves Cost Us?
The many sport drinks on the market are a good source of electrolytes and are readily accessible. Heat syncope is related to heat exposure that produces orthostatic hypotension. This hypotension can precipitate a near-syncopal episode. Heat syncope is believed to result from intense sweating, which leads to dehydration , followed by peripheral vasodilation and reduced venous blood return in the face of decreased vasomotor control.
Management of heat syncope consists of cooling and rehydration of the patient using oral rehydration therapy sport drinks or isotonic IV fluids. People who experience heat syncope should avoid standing in the heat for long periods of time. They should move to a cooler environment and lie down if they recognize the initial symptoms. Wearing support stockings and engaging in deep knee-bending movements can help promote venous blood return. Heat exhaustion is considered by experts to be the forerunner of heat stroke hyperthermia.
It may even resemble heat stroke, with the difference being that the neurologic function remains intact. Heat exhaustion is marked by excessive dehydration and electrolyte depletion. Symptoms may include diarrhea , headache , nausea and vomiting , dizziness , tachycardia , malaise , and myalgia.
Definitive therapy includes removing patients from the heat and replenishing their fluids. Most patients will require fluid replacement with IV isotonic fluids at first. The salt content is adjusted as necessary once the electrolyte levels are known. After discharge from the hospital, patients are instructed to rest, drink plenty of fluids for 2—3 hours, and avoid the heat for several days.
If this advice is not followed it may then lead to heat stroke. One public health measure taken during heat waves is the setting-up of air-conditioned public cooling centers. Heat waves are the most lethal type of weather phenomenon in the United States. Between and , deaths from excessive heat in the United States numbered 2,, compared with deaths from floods and from hurricanes.
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In his study of heat-wave behavior, focusing particularly on seniors in Philadelphia, Phoenix, Toronto, and Dayton, Ohio, he found that people over 65 "don't consider themselves seniors. According to the Agency for Health care Research and Quality, about 6, Americans are hospitalized each summer due to excessive heat, and those at highest risk are poor, uninsured or elderly.
Our concern now is focusing on predicting the future likelihood of heat waves and their severity. In addition, because in most of the world most of those suffering the impacts of a heat wave will be inside a building, and this will modify the temperatures they are exposed to, there is the need to link climate models to building models. This means producing example time series of future weather. The number of heat fatalities is likely highly underreported due to a lack of reports and misreports.
It has been observed that for some heat waves, there is a compensatory decrease in overall mortality during the subsequent weeks after a heat wave. Such compensatory reductions in mortality suggest that heat affects especially those so ill that they "would have died in the short term anyway". Another explanation for underreporting is the social attenuation in most contexts of heat waves as a health risk. As shown by the deadly French heat wave in , heat wave dangers result from the intricate association of natural and social factors.
In addition to physical stress , excessive heat causes psychological stress, to a degree which affects performance, and is also associated with an increase in violent crime. In every society, crime rates go up when temperatures go up, particularly violent crimes such as assault, murder, and rape. Furthermore, in politically unstable countries, high temperatures are an aggravating factor that lead toward civil wars. Additionally, high temperatures have a significant effect on income. A study of counties in the United States found that economic productivity of individual days declines by about 1.
Abnormally hot temperatures can cause electricity demand to increase during the peak summertime hours of 4 to 7 p. If a hot spell extends to three days or more, however, nighttime temperatures do not cool down, and the thermal mass in homes and buildings retains the heat from previous days.