Tai Chi 18 Qigong
A week exercise program did result in improved physical function as measured by the CHAQ, but did not result in improved economy of locomotion or other measures. Children with juvenile inflammatory arthritis can adhere to a week aerobic training program without exacerbating symptom of their arthritis. Participants in the Qigong arm had higher adherence than those in aerobic arm. Questionnaire of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, salivary cortisol levels, heart rate, blood pressure, and reaction time.
Following intervention, Qigong participants had reduced resting heart rate values, but no effect on changes in subjective measures of depression, anxiety or stress or in objective measures of cortisol levels, blood pressure or reaction time. Although non-significant greater decreases in salivary cortisol levels were noted in Qigong in addition to the reduced heart rate, suggests Qigong exercises tended to reduce anxiety. Qigong participants had improvements in anaerobic power and CHAQ, with reduced fibromyalgia symptom severity, tender point counts, and pain, but no improvements in aerobic capacity.
Children with fibromyalgia may seem modest reductions in disease activity and can adhere to a week Qigong training program without exacerbating symptoms. Evaluated well-being at school, psychological distress Scale, self-image test, general stress along with open-ended questions for participants to reflect on experience. Following intervention, psychological distress was lower for the Qigong participants. Body fat and body composition, waist circumference. Habitual physical activity, dietary intake, and questionnaires on physical and emotion well-being.
No significant reduction with body fat, body composition, but Tai Chi group had decrease in waist circumference. High levels of dissatisfaction in the intervention may explain the poor attendance and adherence to study protocol. Correspondingly, those who reported satisfaction with the program had greater rates of attendance and felt physical better. Serological outcomes related to metabolic health e. Inflammatory markers decreased despite no significant weight loss or change in body composition or diet, suggesting activity Tai Chi or Kung Fu rather than lifestyle changes improved them.
Muscle strength and endurance improved significantly, peak cardiovascular fit-ness and muscle power did not change significantly over time in either group. Improvements in lean body mass through intervention aided yielded gains in muscle strength and endurance. Daytime sleepiness score did not change over time or between groups, nine self-perception domains, only perceived behavioral conduct improved over time, physical activity improved, significant relationship was seen between reduced perception of family support for physical activity and more health professional visits.
Thrice weekly martial arts pro-gram improved perceptions of behavioral conduct, physical activity change strategies, and physical activity environmental factors, regardless of kung fu or Tai Chi placebo allocation. Study developed own pre-post questionnaires for teachers, parents, and children. Parents documented medial complaints as visual analog scale VAS measure, and home behaviors of 7 days, while teachers documented school behavior.
Also included semi-structured, in-depth interviews with teachers. Children provided grades and quality of life via KINDL R , a health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire for Children and semi-structured interviews with teachers were also performed at the conclusion of the study. From the teacher interviews, they reported students noting their sleep habits improved and that students felt calmer. Qigong participants maintained appropriate behaviors and grades in the classroom, while those without had worsening behavior and grades.
Cardiovascular measures of heart rate, blood pressure, and number of days sick. Participant heart rate decreased and blood pressure was similar, and participants in the Tai Chi arm had had fewer sick days. Tai Chi may improve immunity and resistance to colds, and its effects on cardiovascular measures, relative to gymnastics, showed similar improvements. A notable positive exhibited by the included manuscripts was the use of appropriate outcome measures, with these manuscripts providing evidence regarding the validity and reliability of the primary outcome measures.
Of the manuscripts of low quality, several studies did not identify confounding factors that may have had an impact on participant outcomes through the intervention period, such as age of the child, gender or disease status. For example, Lozada et al.
Although a 1 year age or grade may appear a small difference, at the primary school level this 1-year, one-grade difference between participants can affect executive function, inhibitory control and behavior problem symptomatology Riggs et al. The requisite high levels of concentrations that Tai Chi and Qigong necessitate for the sustained focus, precision in movement and strictness of action may not appeal to youth as it does to adults, which may affect efficacy of the intervention.
Therefore, the aim of this review was to investigate studies of Tai Chi and Qigong in youth population as well as to synthesis outcomes and assess the methodological and reporting quality of these interventions. Overall, this systematic review showed that Tai Chi or Qigong may be an effective intervention to improve physical health and function, while there is insufficient evidence to evaluate its effect on psychological wellbeing and behavior.
Lastly, the included studies show moderate methodological quality in terms of assessing the effects of Tai Chi or Qigong in a youth population, with notable reporting in the included studies lacking to effectively address confounders or biases in the study, suitably use statistical methods and reporting outcomes, and appropriately provide completion rates. The implications of this work suggest that although there may be physical health benefits of Tai Chi or Qigong, there is a strong need to properly evaluate the effects of said intervention in a robust manner as well as to further evaluate if there are psychological wellbeing or behavior effects.
Supporters of Tai Chi and Qigong report that it enhances flexibility, increases strength and improves balance Taylor-Piliae et al. However, in youth populations, only strength has been fully evaluated, with studies suggest Tai Chi and Qigong can improve muscular strength Tsang et al. From the perspective of child and adolescent developmental is the idea of neural maturation, which is the age-appropriate ability to control force in a given task Kellis and Hatzitaki The ability to develop neural maturation through multi-joint movements, such as via Tai Chi or Qigong, may lead to greater efficiency in movement and greater likelihood of a healthy body weight trajectory Lopes et al.
As Tai Chi or Qigong practice involves controlled movements and changes of body position in different directions, it may be an appropriate intervention for improving the balance and coordination necessary for skill development in young children Cordo and Gurfinkel Gaining body awareness and motor control as well as improving and refining proprioception, which are constructs associated with motor proficiency, may yield higher physical activity levels and lower risk of obesity Wrotniak et al.
These results would suggest that improving these constructs e. With the assumption Tai Chi or Qigong has a benefit on physical health and function, the potential mechanisms of action may be important. In older adults, regular Tai chi and Qigong have been hypothesized improvements in balance are through gains in trunk strength and trunk mobility Wolf et al. With respect to youth population, there is no evidence regarding changes in core strength or mobility or in lower extremity mobility or peripheral sensation.
Future research could build from the understanding of studies in adult population to evaluate if there are changes in neuromuscular control, core strength and peripheral sensation that arise through Tai Chi or Qigong participation. Moreover, of the studies that evaluated the physical benefits of Tai Chi or Qigong, all but one Zhang evaluated it through a randomized controlled trial design, providing strong evidence of an effect, and were at least 12 weeks in duration.
However, the question of whether Tai Chi or Qigong is superior to other therapeutic exercise intervention is currently unanswered and is a topic for further investigation. Nonetheless, when included studies compared Tai Chi or Qigong to other physical activities that would generally deemed to more physically active i.
Understanding the effects of Tai Chi or Qigong on mental health and psychosocial wellbeing in youth is more challenging. In these areas of psychological wellbeing and behavior there were no consistent results across the studies, and at best, the results of the work appear that Tai Chi or Qigong may improve or may have no effect on this domain. In measuring behavior, none of the studies attempted to triangulate the results across the different perspectives, and only one study included two perspectives parent and teacher Witt et al.
Guidelines for measuring children and adolescent behavior and wellbeing have suggested children and the proxy e. Further, one study noted that with Tai Chi students perceived the practice to lead to a greater connection with peers and increased social circles Lozada et al. However, the mechanism by which these changes in behavior and movement from parental to peer support in adolescence through Tai Chi or Qigong need to be further investigated to determine if there is a true effect and the underpinnings of how they occur.
With respect to quality of life, despite guidelines that suggest studies should include both objective and subjective approaches to measuring quality of life Wallander et al. As such, future studies that include psychological wellbeing and behaviors should include similar instruments to the child or adolescent and a proxy, as well as include subjective and objective measures where possible.
First, the selection criteria excluded unpublished or non-peer reviewed material such as university thesis, protocols, guidelines, or grey literature. Further, the search strategy used was based on a computer search, which may omit some articles and limit the scope of the review Colville-Stewart To address this, hand searchers of the reference lists of the included manuscripts were evaluated to determine if other manuscripts were missed. Of the 16 included manuscripts, there were three studies of Tai Chi that were not included from the initial search keyword stage ; none of these studies met the inclusion criteria.
Further, although there was no language limits applied, the keyword search terms used were English language words. Nonetheless, the review did include a study written in Chinese, so it was possible to included non-English language studies. Searches in databases using keywords in other languages may yield different results.
With respect to the manuscripts, the included studies varied in population, other than being in a youth population, and outcomes assessed. Due to this heterogeneity and nature of the study design, a statistically assessed meta-analysis would not have been appropriate Egger et al. Similarly, a formal assessment of publication bias was not conducted given the lack of a formal synthesis of results.
Nonetheless, the strength of this study was its inclusion to all studies of Tai Chi and Qigong in youth population. As such, this review provides a foundation for Tai Chi or Qigong interventions in youth populations, and it may assist in determining appropriate outcome measures and design characteristics for future studies. To build from these included studies and systematic review of the work, future trials of Tai Chi or Qigong in youth populations should adhere to accepted standards of trial methodology and trial reporting in order to more fully evaluate the effect of the applied intervention.
Studies should present a more detailed report of the Tai Chi or Qigong instructor, a clear explanation of the frequency and duration of the intervention, and adequate use statistical testing and reporting. Additionally, despite the challenges of blinding participant by treatment in physical activity intervention, assessor blinding and allocation concealment are important for reducing bias.
There are encouraging results suggesting Tai Chi or Qigong may be effective for improving physical health and function in for children and adolescents, while its effect on psychological health and behaviors needs further evaluation in order to understand if there is an effect. In this review, the main benefits noted with Tai Chi or Qigong were with respect to disease-specific symptoms and general health; however, these studies also had focused populations with specific physical health conditions. As such, the effect of Tai Chi or Qigong on physical health in the general population is unknown.
Similarly only one study noted a potential shift in participants developing their social circle through the Tai Chi practice, suggesting a greater perceived level of support from their peers, but these results should be evidenced by further studies. Moreover, owing to the number of eligible randomized controlled trials or controlled trials was the often poor quality and high likelihood of bias in the studies, suggesting As such, future studies should be more rigorous in their design and reporting.
Specific areas to address study design and reporting include a detail account of the Tai Chi or Qigong session, including a description of the instructor background, and identifying and accounting for confounding factors, such as differences in participant development stage or age if there is a range or participant bias to the activity to address placebo effect of the intervention.
In short, while there are few studies evaluating Tai Chi or Qigong in youth populations, there are known benefits for physical health in both general and disease-specific population, while its effects on psychological health and behavior effects as well as adolescent development need further research. The authors would like to thank Xinhua Shu, PhD for his assistance throughout the systematic review. JLR conceived of the study, and JLR and AR participated in its design and coordination and drafted the manuscript All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
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Master Tsu Tai Chi Chuan Academy - Ealing - West London - Tai Chi - Qigong
First Online: 14 September Selection Criteria for Inclusion As the relative number of Tai Chi or Qigong studies in children and adolescents was assumed to be small, the inclusion criteria were purposefully designed to be inclusive. Data Extraction From the included manuscripts, manuscripts were first reviewed to determine if they were of the same study population and collated as appropriate. Evaluation of Methodological Quality Methodological quality of each manuscript was assessed using the dichotomized scoring system developed by the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme CASP 0 for not reported, unclear or not appropriate, 1 for reported and appropriate and is fully reported Faggion Jr Data Synthesis As the outcomes were not known a priori, all outcomes of the manuscripts were reported and summarized as either showing an effect positive or negative or no effect based on the reported information in the manuscripts.
Open image in new window. Table 1 Study descriptions of Tai Chi and Qigong interventions for children and adolescents. Table 2 Descriptions of practice sessions. Study name Typical Tai Chi session Bao and Jin During sessions, the martial arts coach demonstrated the Tai Chi movements, and participants imitated motions and posture.
No further information regarding structure reported Chang et al.
They were then taught to perform slow turning and twisting movements of the arms and legs, shifting the body weight from one leg to the other, rotating from side-to-side and changing direction to the Tai Chi sequence form Lee et al. The Chen-style Tai Chi phase included body and truck rotation, hip and knee flexion, weight shifting and reciprocal arm movements and balance, with the participants Lozada et al.
During cooperative games children played games that required working together to achieve goals Singh-Grewal et al. Instructor student ratio was Sousa et al. Instructor student ratio was Terjestam et al. During the session, Chinese-style music played in the background Witt et al. Level 1 being 15 different exercises of the upper body repeated 20 times, and level 2 including upper and lower parts of the body with background music playing Zhang Not reported.
Table 3 Outcome measures of included intervention studies. Table 4 Outcomes and conclusions of included studies. No change in happiness and satisfaction or physical appearance and attributes In youth population, Tai Chi showed similar psychological effects as those in older adult populations. All questionnaires were read aloud to participants As a single-subject design study, results are at the individual level.
Subscales of the CTRS showed improvements in all areas for all participants, except for the anxious-passive subscale 2 of 3 showed improvements pre- to post-intervention Of the three participants, one seemed to make strong improvements, while the other two did not. Research did not support use of Tai Chi with learning disabled and hyperactive children Chang et al. Participants also provided asthma symptomology questionnaire in the three conditions rest, exercise, and exercise with ice water Participants in Tai Chi arm and control arm noted in improvements in all PFT tests in all three conditions rest, exercise, exercise plus ice water.
After adjusting for BMI, some of the perceived gains were lost Similar to studies in middle age and older adults, Tai Chi can be an effective activity for youths with altered pulmonary function Hernandez-Reif et al. PSS may not be appropriate measure for evaluating changes in stress or effective of Tai Chi in youth population Lozada et al.
Participants in the Qigong arm had higher adherence than those in aerobic arm Sousa et al. Habitual physical activity, dietary intake, and questionnaires on physical and emotion well-being No significant reduction with body fat, body composition, but Tai Chi group had decrease in waist circumference High levels of dissatisfaction in the intervention may explain the poor attendance and adherence to study protocol. Correspondingly, those who reported satisfaction with the program had greater rates of attendance and felt physical better Tsang et al.
From the teacher interviews, they reported students noting their sleep habits improved and that students felt calmer Qigong participants maintained appropriate behaviors and grades in the classroom, while those without had worsening behavior and grades Zhang Cardiovascular measures of heart rate, blood pressure, and number of days sick Participant heart rate decreased and blood pressure was similar, and participants in the Tai Chi arm had had fewer sick days Tai Chi may improve immunity and resistance to colds, and its effects on cardiovascular measures, relative to gymnastics, showed similar improvements.
Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Xinhua Shu, PhD for his assistance throughout the systematic review. Author Contributions JLR conceived of the study, and JLR and AR participated in its design and coordination and drafted the manuscript All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
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Compliance with Ethical Standards Conflict of interest The authors report no conflicts of interest. Bao, X. The beneficial effect of Tai Chi on self-concept in adolescents. International Journal of Psychology, 50 2 , — CrossRef Google Scholar. Barnes, P. Google Scholar. Baron, L. The role of Tai Chi Chuan in reducing state anxiety and enhancing mood of children with special needs. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 9 2 , — Ben-Arye, E. Is a biopsychosocial—spiritual approach relevant to cancer treatment? A study of patients and oncology staff members on issues of complementary medicine and spirituality.
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Yoga-Tai Chi-Qi Gong at OMTAO, Cashew Resort - Koh Chang - Ranong - Andaman-Sea - Thailand
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Cancer , 9. Clarke, T. Trends in the use of complementary health approaches among adults: United States, — National Health Statistics Reports, 79 , 1. Like Qi Gong, Taiji brings the benefits of physical health and spiritual growth but is also powerful martial art. Even though the movements are slow, each movement has a meaning and application that derives from the martial aspect of the art. In the 18 movements of Qi Gong the movements are repeated several times however in the forms of Taiji Chuan each movement flows into the next and the whole form could be considered one movement performed in a very slow meditative way.
Qi Gong or Chi Gung, the art of cultivating energy, has a history of years in China and includes thousands of variations of postures. It is based on the Yang style. These 18 Qi Gong postures , without any steps, were introduced to support the learning of the Tai Chi 24 Form. Tai Chi is said to date back to the 13th century and was informed from Yoga from India, and Buddha. It was first developed as a martial art in the 17th century when Chen Wangting created the Chen style. A student of Chen style, Yang Luchan , developed the Yang style.
An aim was to recreate a standard core for Tai Chi practice, as the essence was being eroded. Today there is a shortage of authentic Tai Chi teachers in China and the world.