Anna minulle rauha (Finnish Edition)

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  4. Risto Räppääjä ja pakastaja-Elvi by Sinikka Nopola

Names of the Months. Days of the Week, Numbers. Word Study Page More about numbers: abbreviated forms; ordinal numbers; multipli- cation ; fractions. Time and dates. The suffix -lla. Some automatic consonant changes. Verb stems type II, cont. Summary of com- ments, units It is suggested that the group spend not less than fifty minutes on each Section. Before you get the group together to work on this first unit, read carefully the following material up to the heading Useful Words and Phrases, on page 2.

When the group meets, read the material aloud to them or have some other member of the group do the reading. The students will follow the reading with their books open. Be sure that your Guide, or the phonograph and records, are ready before the Group meets for work on Section A. See that the Guide is supplied with a copy of the manual, Ohjeita Kielenopastajalle, which tells him just what he is to do and gives him the Finnish he is to speak to the group.

You should look through all of the sections of the unit, reading the directions carefully, so that you will have in mind the general plan of the work. Always get clearly in mind the directions for a section before you take that section up in group meeting. This unit gives you the most immediate and neces- first unit is considerably greater than that of any later sary expressions that you will need in meeting people, unit. The reason you are given such a large dose at the asking your way, buying things, and counting. You start is that this unit is a kind of "language first aid" will find that it is no easy matter to master all these which gives you enough useful expressions to enable words and phrases, but you will succeed if you really you to make your ordinary wants known and to carry concentrate and follow instructions carefully.

The on a simple conversation in Finnish from the very amount of learning and memorizing required for this start. Opposite is the Finnish. The Leader of the group will first read the English equivalent and pause for the Guide to speak the Finnish. Every member of the group then repeats after the Guide, imitating his pronunciation as closely as possible. The Guide will then say the Finnish a second time and everybody will repeat after him as before.

The Leader will then read the next English equivalent and the Guide and group will follow the procedure indicated. If no Guide is available, the phonograpn records provided for the course should be used. When the group is ready, the Leader will begin playing the appropriate record and the group will repeat right after the Finnish speaker during the silences in the record. The phonograph records can be used with profit even in cases in which a Guide is available.

They can be heard between meetings of the group, whenever it is convenient; they furnish additional practice in hearing Finnish; you may listen only to those portions which you have found difficult; and the records may be played as often as you wish. If the speaker on the records had a Finnish pronunciation different from that of your Guide, use the records only 2 [1-A] for listening and understanding, and not for imitating. Whether you are working with a Guide or only with the phonograph records, you must repeat each Finnish word and phrase in a loud, clear voice, trying at all times to imitate the pronunciation as closely as you can.

Keep constantly in mind the meaning of the Finnish you are about to hear. When you are hearing the Finnish, keep your eyes on the Finnish spelling. This will help you catch on to the pronunciation. But whenever the written form seems to you to differ from the spoken sound, follow the spoken sound always. Learning to understand and pronounce a language is not really hard.

Every one of us learned to do this as a child, and all over the world children learn to speak all kinds of languages without any trouble. The diffi- culty an adult faces in learning a foreign language, as you are now learning Finnish, is that the adult already has a set of habits for pronouncing his own language, and this makes it harder for him to learn new ones than for a child who is starting from scratch. That is why it is so important that you should not be afraid of mimicking, even when what you hear may sound strange to you.

Don't be afraid to let yourself go. You will never learn to speak a language if you don't plunge right in as soon as you can. Never mind if you do make mistakes at first. You will in any case. But the important thing is for you to try to say the words and phrases. Imitate your Guide with the same spirit and enthusiasm you use in mimicking a person whose speech sounds peculiar to you. You will find that if you do this your Guide will not think you are making fun of him; instead, he will probably smile because what you have said sounds to him like Finnish.

In the first five units do not attempt under any cir- cumstances to pronounce the Finnish before you have heard it. You will only make trouble for yourself if you try to guess the pronunciation by "reading" the spelling of the Finnish. Always wait until the Guide or phonograph record is ready before you begin your first work with the words and phrases. If you are working with a Guide who does not under- stand English, ask the Leader of your group to tell you what hand signals to use to let the Guide know when you want him to read more slowly or to repeat.

The procedure to be followed is to listen to and then repeat the words and phrases with your book open. Listen and imitate carefully, and always try to keep in mind the meaning of the Finnish you are hearing and pronouncing. You will learn fastest if, when your book is open, you follow these steps: 1. Keep your eyes on the spelling as you listen care- fully to the Finnish being spoken.

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Repeat immediately what you have heard, imitat- ing as closely as you can and saying it loud and clear. Keep in mind the meaning of what you are saying. Remember, it is not just a noise, but something that can be understood by some three and a half million people. Begin the words and phrases as soon as your Guide is ready or when the Leader of your groups is ready to play the first phonograph record. To the Group Leader: Give the members of the group a chance to ask questions about the instructions.

Make sure that every- one understands just what he is to do. Then have the stu- dents go through the list of Useful Words and Phrases once with books open, repeating in unison after the Guide. Now go through the list a second time, just as you did before. And, finally, go through it a third time, but let the students take turns repeating individually after the Guide — a sentence to each student. Indicate the order in which the repetitions are to go, who is first, who next, and so on. Continue this individual repetition for the whole minute period. Then, just before dismissing the group, read with them the paragraph headed Check Yourself on page 6.

Here are some hints that will help make the work of the group more effective: 1. Insist that everyone speak up. Don't allow any mumbling! Each member of the group must be able to hear what is being said at all times. Indicate to the Guide that he is to repeat whenever the pronunciation is bad and to keep on repeating until he gets a pronunciation that sounds like Finnish. Keep the work moving. Don't let it drag at any time. See that everyone is listening, not only to the Guide, but to himself and to the others as they repeat after the Guide.

Go through all the work yourself. Repeat with the others and take your turn at the individual repetitions. Remem- ber that you are a student, too. Speak right up with the rest of them. Note on the Records: The speaker on the records is Dr. Jutila, who is at present the Finnish Minister to the United States. Useful Words and Phrases.

Here is a list of useful words and phrases you will need in Finnish. You should learn these by heart. Pay special attention to the difference between single and double vowel sounds, and between single and double consonant sounds. Good day! Hyvad paivdd. Olkaa hyvd. Excuse me! It doesn't matter! Ei ansaitse! Hyvd on. I understand. Mind ymmdrrdn. Yes, I understand. Kylld, mind ymmdrrdn. I don't understand. En ymmdrrd. Mitd te sanotte? Olkaa hyvd, puhukaa hitaammin. Puhutteko te 1 englantia?

Herra Toivonen. Miss Miss Toivonen. After you have gone through the Useful Words and Phrases, go through them again with your book open, following the same procedure as before. Repeat each word and phrase in a loud voice, immediately after hearing it. Let yourself go and say the phrases right out. Go through the Useful Words and Phrases once more with your book open, but this time take turns letting each member of your group repeat individually until everybody has taken part.

Remember that this is your first solo performance, so keep on the alert. If the Guide asks you to repeat, do so with enthusiasm and try to mimic him as best you can until he is satisfied with your pronunciation. When you have satisfied him, you can be sure that you are speaking under- standable Finnish. Continue this individual repetition as long as time permits.

If you are using only the pho- nograph records, your Leader will see to it that you 6 [1-A] repeat and that everyone gets the most out of this individual preformance. Check Yourself Did you go through the Useful Words and Phrases at least twice in unison and at least once more individ- ually?

Did you repeat each word and phrase in a loud, clear voice immediately after hearing it? Did you follow the pronunciation you heard? Did you keep in mind the meaning of each word and phrase as you heard and spoke the Finnish? If you have failed at any point to carry out the instructions, go over the Useful Words and Phrases once again as soon as you can, being careful to follow every step in the procedure outlined.

Here are other useful words and phrases which you cedure you used with the Useful Words and Phrases will want to use immediately if you are in a country in Section A. After you have gone through the list where Finnish is spoken. These are being given to you once, repeating in unison, read the Hints on Pronuncia- as a "language first aid. Then go through the list a second In working with this material, follow the same pro- and a third time, as in Section A. Useful Words and Phrases Cont.

Record 3A, beginning hotel hotelli Where's the hotel? Miss d on hotelli? I'm looking for etsin some hotel hotellia I'm looking for the hotel. Mind etsin hotellia. Miss d on asema? Miss d on kdymald? Directions To the right. Se on oikealle. It's to the left. Se on vasemmalle. Suoraan eteenpdin. Designation this tdmd What's this? Mild tdmd on? Where's that? Missd se on? Kuinka te sanotte tamdn suomeksi? Mitd te haluatte? I want haluan some cigarettes savukkeita I want some cigarettes. Mind Hainan savukkeita.

Mind Hainan tulitikkuja. This is an error. I should like to buy I'd like to buy. I want some bread some meat some potatoes some milk some beer Do you want some coffee? I want some milk. Foods Mind haluan leipdd lihaa perunoita maitoa olutta Haluatteko te kahvia? Mind haluan maitoa. Record 3B, beginning expensive It's too expensive. Time time or watch What time is it? At what time?

Mihin aikaan? Idhtee Koska juna Idhtee? Three and five are eight. Kolme ja viisi on kahdeksan. Let different members of the group illustrate the proper sounds by reading the Finnish examples of sounds and groups of sounds. Take time to discuss these hints and make sure that everyone understands them. You will find each example on the phonograph records.

Between each set of examples "Practices" there is a clear space of record or spiral, so that you can play each set as often as necessary. This, of course, does not mean that you can use English sounds in Finnish words and ex- pect to be understood. But you will find that many of the sounds are sufficiently similar to your own so that you will have practically no difficulty with them.

However, there are some Finnish sounds that are different from anything in English. For that reason you must listen carefully and try hard to imitate your Guide. If you do this and follow the Hints on Pronun- ciation which will be given to you from time to time, you will be able to pronounce Finnish so that you can be readily understood. In Finnish writing one letter stands generally for one and only one sound. There are eight vowel letters, each of which has approximately the same value. Five of them are quite easy: Record 1A, beginning Letter Stands for a sound like a in father, but very short a sound like e in let a sound like i in pink a sound like o in note, but very short a sound like oo in cool, but very short PRACTICE 1 asema station te you mind I on is tuhat thousand The important thing to remember about these five vowels is this: be sure at all times to pronounce them quite short; if you fail to do this, you may be misun- derstood.

The reason for this is that in Finnish each of these vowels may occur long written by repeating the letter — aa, ee, ii, oo, uu , and when this happens, the word means something totally different. Thus, while te means 'you,' tee means 'tea'; maksa means 'liver,' maksaa means 'costs'; tuli means 'fire,' tuuli means 'wind. It actually stands for a sound you have in English hat; [1-B] 13 only, in pronouncing ft, you should open your mouth somewhat wider and lower the flat of your tongue slightly. Be careful not to substitute ordinary English sounds for these foreign sounds; in order to make the necessary distinctions between words, you must mas- ter the foreign sounds.

In Finnish there is a sound which is indicated in spelling by the letter y. To the English-speaking per- son, this sound seems to be somewhere between the 14 [1-B] sound c f ou as in group and of ee as in beet ; and, in fact, this r. Pronounce ee as in beet; now, without moving your tongue from the posi- tion which it is in while you say ee, round your lips and push them out far — and pronounce the Finnish y sound.

Practice this in the following words: PRACTICE 5 Record 1A, after fourth spiral kymmenen yksi ten one There is another sound in Finnish, represented by 6, which is pronounced somewhat in the same way as y; but your jaw should be more relaxed, your mouth more open, and the tip of your tongue farther down, away from the roof of your mouth and behind the bottom teeth. Put your tongue in position to make a sound like e of let; now, without moving your tongue from the position which it is in while you say e, round your lips.

With your tongue and lips in this position, you can make the Finnish o-sound. In Finnish, every word uttered in isolation is ac- cented en the first syllable. In a phrase or sentence some words have no accent at all, but the ones which do are always stressed on their first syllable. Before you leave this section, be sure you know how to pronounce the vowels here listed and explained. Of course, you will have plenty of opportunity to practice them as the course progresses, but if you are in doubt about any of them, ask for aid right now. Check Yourself Did you keep in mind the meaning of each word and phrase as you heard and spoke the Finnish?

Otherwise use them as independent study during a group meeting. Cover up the English. Read the Finnish aloud. Keep your voice down if you are working with the rest of the group. Follow your Guide's pronuncia- tion as nearly as you can remember, and test yourself to see if you can recall the meaning of each word and phrase. Check the expressions you are not sure about, and after you have gone through the whole list, un- cover the English and find their meaning. Repeat this procedure at least three times or until you are satisfied that you know every expression.

Your Guide has been directed in his manual to pay particular attention to the correct pronunciation of vowels. He may ask members of the group to repeat words or phrases a good many times in an effort to get a pronuncia- [1-C] 15 tion that is more nearly correct. See that they listen closely, that they repeat promptly and loud enough so that everyone can hear them, and that they imitate the Guide to the last detail.

The first time, have the members of the group repeat individually after the Guide with books open. The second time, have them close their books. The Guide will give each Finnish expression twice, as before. Let the stu- dents take turns giving the English equivalent the first time they hear the Guide speak the Finnish and repeating the Finnish as usual the second time.

This will help them to check on the meaning of all Finnish expressions in Useful Words and Phrases. The first time you go through the list, take turns repeating the Finnish after the Guide. Keep your book open, and get all the help you can from the Hints on Pronunciation. Pay particular attention to what you have learned about the pronunciation of the vowels. Make every effort to satisfy your Guide with your pronunciation.

The second time you go through the list, check up on the meaning of the Finnish. Keep your books closed and take turns giving the English equivalent the first time you hear the Finnish expression and repeating the Finnish as usual the second time. If you have any trouble with the English, you should find time for more individual study of the Useful Words and Phrases, covering the English and checking up on the meaning when you read the Finnish. English equivalents are omitted from the Listening In material so that students can get practice in understanding spoken Finnish which uses the vocabulary they know.

Meaning, therefore, is to be emphasized. The first time you go through the conversations, have the Guide repeat a conversation, if necessary to help clear up meaning, before you go on to the next conversation. If you have no Guide, lift the needle of the phonograph at the end of each conversation and let the students discuss the meaning of any sentences that are not understood.

Go through the conversations a second time without stopping. Pay about equal attention to pronunciation and meaning. Finally, assign parts and have the students read the conversations. Give everyone a chance. Suggest that the actors actually take the parts, stand up and move around, sit at a table in the restaurant, stand behind the counter in the store, etc. Keep it moving. Get everyone to speak upl Take a part yourself.

If you have no Guide, you should use the phonograph records, repeating the Finnish immediately after you hear it.

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At the end of each conversation take time out to check up on the meaning of what you have heard and said. Ask someone in the group to give you the English equivalent of any expression you do not understand. If necessary, go back to the Useful Words and Phrases to find the meaning. Almost all the words and the expressions you have had in Useful Words and Phrases occur in the following conversations. Record 3B, after spiral I. Asking Information John Anteeksi, missd on ravintola?

Herra Toivonen Suoraan eteenpain. John Mind en ymmarra. Herra Toivonen Tama on asema. Hotelli on vasemmalle. Suoraan eteenpain on ravintola. John Kiitos, mind ymmdrrdn. Record 4A, beginning II. In the Restaurant Neiti Hyvdd iltaa. John Hyvdd iltaa. Mind haluaisin syddd. Olkaa hyvd, antakaa minulle vetta. Neiti Kylld.

Haluatteko te kahvia? Mita te tahdotte syodd? John Neiti Mind hahiaisin lihaa, pernnoita ja leipdd. Paljonko tdmd maksaa? Kymmenen markkaa ja viisi pennid. John Neiti John Mind hahiaisin ostaa savukkeita. Olkaa hyvd, antakaa minnlle tiditikkuja. Neiti Tdssd on. John Kiitos. Neiti, mihin aikaan elokuvat alkavat? Neiti Elokuvat alkavat viideltd. John Kello on neljd. Neiti Kiitos. John Ei ansaitse!

Wiktionary:Frequency lists/Finnish wordlist

Neiti Hyvdsti. John 2. Check Yoixrself Is there any expression in any of these conversations that you do not understand now? If there is, find the meaning of it or ask other members of your group before you proceed. If no one knows, refer to the Useful Words and Phrases. Go through the conversations once more, following the same plan as before. Imitate carefully and be sure to keep in mind the English equivalent of everything you are saying in Finnish. Finally, go through the conversations again, but this time take turns. The Leader will assign parts and the exercise is to continue at least until everyone has had a chance to speak one of the parts.

Keep this going as long as you have time. Remember that this is another solo performance and that you are to get the most out of it. When your turn comes, speak clearly and with enthusiasm. Put yourself in the situa- tion and let yourself go. If the Guide asks you to re- peat, do so until he is satisfied with your pronuncia- tion. Cover up the Finnish. Read the English silently and test yourself to see if you can speak the Finnish for each word and phrase. Check the expres- sions you are uncertain about and after you have gone through the whole list, uncover the Finnish and re- view them.

Go through the list once more and con- tinue for at least three times or until you can give the Finnish readily for all the expressions. To make sure of this, pick out expressions at random and see if you can speak out the Finnish quickly. Speak the Finnish aloud and try to imitate your Guide's pronunciation as well as you can remember it. Read to the group the English equivalent of the Finnish expressions. Call on different students not in any fixed order asking for the correct Finnish for the English.

For instance, say to A, "Kuinka te sanotte taman suomeksi: Where's the restaurant? The Guide will indicate by a nega- tive sign whenever he hears a Finnish expression that is wrong, or, if there is no Guide, the other members of the group will indicate that they do not agree. Immediately ask some- one else to give the expression correctly. Any group member who has difficulty in giving the correct Finnish should be told to review the Useful Words and Phrases thoroughly before the next meeting of the group. Do not spend any time talking about the Why of the Finnish; stick to the How.

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There are two precautions which the Leader must observe in all exercises of this sort and in the conversation prac- tice throughout the course. Be sure that everyone under- stands them. They are as follows: 1. Every Finnish expression must be given smoothly and completely before the student's performance can be considered satisfactory. If there is an error in the first attempt, ask the student to give the expression over again in complete form. If he fumbles badly, turn to someone else.

Everyone must speak loud enough, so that all can hear. Check on this occasionally by pointing to the student who is listening to someone else's Finnish and asking "What did he say? In this section you are going to have your first chance to engage in conversation in Finnish. This, of course, is the most useful part of the entire unit and the part you should do with the greatest amount of pep and realism. Do it half-heartedly and you lose most of the value of the unit. Do it earnestly and enthusiastically and you will find that you can really say a great many things in Finnish, fluently and cor- rectly.

Read the instructions carefully, get everything you are to do straight in your mind, and then plunge in. In order to fix in your mind the expressions you will need in the conversation, check yourself on your ability to speak the Finnish you have learned. By now you should not have to grope for it. The Leader of the group will ask you to supply in turn the Finnish ex- pressions for the English equivalents which he reads from the Useful Words and Phrases. If you have done a thorough job of recalling the Finnish when you are looking only at the English equivalents, as suggested in Section E, you will have no difficulty in responding promptly and smoothly when you hear the English.

If you have no Guide, the mem- bers of the group should be ready to correct faulty expressions. Conversation To the Group Leader: Read the following directions with the class. Encourage the students to strike out for themselves. Spend all the time you can on free conversation practice in an effort to get to the point where students can speak easily and smoothly with a minimum of urns and ers.

The Leader will assign parts and will ask you to take turns in pairs, carrying on the following conver- sations. The two persons who are talking together should stand up and act out their parts, speaking as smoothly and naturally as possible. Make it real and get some fun out of it. The Guide will help you if your Finnish is wrong or if your pronunciation is bad.

The Leader will prompt you if you are not sure what comes next in your part. Getting Directions A approaches a stranger, B, and asks him for infor- 1. A apologizes for speaking to B and asks him where there is a a restaurant, b a railroad station or c a hotel. B gives A directions a to the right, b to the left or c straight ahead. A apologizes again, explains that he does not under- stand, and asks B if he will please speak slowly.

B repeats slowly and clearly. A says he understands. He adds he would like to buy cigarettes and matches. B again gives directions. A thanks B. B says that A is welcome. C says, thanks, he's well; he asks after D's health. D is also well and asks what C would like. C orders a meal — he wants meat and potatoes and bread. D asks if he wants coffee.

C says he wants beer. After eating, C asks for some water and asks how much it all costs. D says that it costs nine marks ten cents. C thanks D and says good-bye. At a Restaurant C sits down at a table in a restaurant and is waited on by D. D says a good morning, or b good day to C and asks how C is. If it is desired, particularly when the group is too large to give everybody a chance to participate in the conversation, the exercise may be continued for a generous length of time.

It is also a good practice to give people who are having difficulties a second trial. To the Group Leader: You can tell from the work that you did on conversation in Section E whether or not the group needs to spend more time in preparing for successful conversation. If necessary, spend the first part of this section in individual study, having members of the group say the Finnish of the Useful Words and Phrases when they have the English expressions covered.

Check up on their vocabulary as in Section E. Then continue the work with conversation which you started in Section E. If the work didn't go well in Section E, take time to go through the Useful Words and Phrases again with the English covered and to give the Finn- ish of the English expressions as your Leader asks for it. Put everything you can into the conversations. Act your part; don't hesitate to talk for fear of making a mistake.

You'll make plenty of mistakes at first, but the important thing is to practice talking. You can't correct an error until you have made it. Try out your Finnish whenever you get a chance. Don't wait for meetings of the group to practice what you have learned. Pair off between meetings and see what you can do with Finnish greetings and conversa- tion. When you are alone, run over the list of Finnish expressions you know. Review them in your mind. Try saying them. See how much you can improve your pronunciation and control of the language in whatever time you can find between meetings of the group.

Make this a regular practice throughout the course. Before each meeting of the group, be sure to read carefully and get clearly in mind the instructions covering those sections of a unit which you expect to take up in the group meeting. Before each group meeting, see that the Guide is available with his manual Ohjeita Kielenopastajalle or that phonograph and records are ready.

Have the members of the group read together the instructions that precede each piece of work they are to do before they try to do the work. Let one member of the group read these instructions aloud while the others follow the reading in their books. Take time, following the reading of all instructions, to make sure that everyone understands exactly what he is to do. Go through the Basic Sentences once with everyone repeating in unison after the Guide or phonograph record. Then take up the Hints on Pronunciation which follow.

Come back to the Basic Sentences and go through them once more, this time having the members of the group repeat individually in turn after the Guide or the record.

Pay particular attention to those items of pronunciation you have been working on. Finally, go through the Basic Sentences a third time with solo repetition. The Guide will call for as many repetitions as may be necessary to get a pronunciation that sounds to him like Finnish. Everyone should speak up. Keep the work moving right along. Begin this section by listening, in the manner already outlined in Section A of the preceding unit, to the Basic Sentences which follow.

Risto Räppääjä ja pakastaja-Elvi by Sinikka Nopola

Be sure to keep in mind the meaning of the Finnish by reading silently the English [2-A] 25 equivalent. Repeat each word loudly and clearly right after you hear it. As you pronounce the Finnish, do so as though you really meant what you are saying. Do not forget that these words and phrases convey a real meaning and it is up to you to say them as though you were actually using them. Go through the sentences in unison and with your book open. The Basic Sentences are set up as conversations so that you may hear and speak the Finnish as you would hear and speak it if you were talking with Finnish people.

Although numerous characters are introduced in these Basic Sentences, it is not important for you to try to keep in mind just who they are or their relationship to one another. You are concerned rather with what they say and how they say it. Hyvaa paivaa! Herra Toivonen How are you? Mita kuuluu? Herra Black only or just vain Thanks, I'm just fine.

Kiitos, hyvaa vain. Herra Toivonen Sure; Tietysti! I'm able to do for you What can I do for you? Herra Black tell Please tell me: sanokaa Olkaa hyvd, sanokaa minutte: how in Finland one addresses strange person how do you address a stranger in Finland? Herra Toivonen either using some word joko kdyttden sanaa [2-A] 27 or tat doctor tohtori manager johtaja Either by using the word 'Doctor,' 'Manager,' or Joko kdyttden sanaa 'tohtori, 1 'johtaja,' tai 'herra.

I'd like some cigarettes. How many do you want? Herra Toivonen Mind halnaisin savukkeita. Herra Black Kuinka monta te tahdotte? Herra Toivonen laatikon Mind haluaisin laatikon savukkeita. Herra Black amerikkalaisia Minulla on amerikkalaisia savukkeita. Herra Toivonen Thanks very much. Kiitoksia paljon. Haluaisitteko tulla kanssani paivalliselle? Herra Black gladly mielellani Thanks, I'll be glad to. Kiitos, mielellani. Esittdisitteko minut tyttarellenne?

Herra Toivonen It'll be a pleasure. At the Toivonen home Herra Black Hello! Black is a New Yorker. Herra Black hauska tutustua Hauska tutustua. I was once in the United States was in the United States once. Excuse me. Please speak more slowly. Herra Black Anteeksi. Mind en ymmdrra or en ymmarrd. Olkaa hyva, puhukaa hitaammin. What time does the movie start? Neiti Toivonen etta Sanoin, etta kdvin Yhdysvalloissa. Herra Black Niinkd? Mihin aikaan elokuvat alkavat? At seven. Herra Toivonen Kello seitseman. Miss Toivonen: would you come? I'll be glad to.

Hike from the movies like the movies. Herra Black Neiti Toivonen: tulisitteko elokuviin land iltana tulisitteko kanssani elokuviin tdnd iltana? Neiti Toivonen Kiitos! Hints on Pronunciation To the Group Leader: The explanations preceding each Practice should be read by the group and discussed before the Practice is attempted. The practice for Hints on Pronuncia- tion is in the Guide's Manual and on the phonograph records. Follow the same procedure in working with the practice material that you have followed with the Basic Sentences. Go through as many times as may be necessary to give each member of the group reasonable control of the item of pro- nunciation that is being taught.

Have the group repeat after the Guide, first in unison, then individually. You will find that the Practice material is presented in sections on the phonograph record, with a narrow space of clear record between each section. This arrangement will make it possible for you to play each section of Practice as it is needed. Review of Vowel Sounds. Make sure you can pro- nounce accurately the Finnish vowel sounds, both short and double, which were discussed in the preced- ing unit.

If you are in doubt as to the sound of any vowel, remember it, listen for that vowel sound and make a special effort to imitate it well the next time you go through the Basic Sentences. Pay special atten- tion to these points : a. Pronounce single vowels short, double vowels long. Imitate carefully the sounds represented by d and y. Yhdysvalloisa in the United States c. Note the vowel u. This vowel sound is not exactly the same as the vowel sound you hear in Eng- lish cool shortened.

When you pronounce the Finnish u, your tongue becomes tense, is retracted further than in pronouncing the oo of cool, and is slightly lower down that is, further away from your palate. In Finnish, as you now know, there are eight vowels, which may also occur double. Moreover, there are a great many other vowel combinations possible.

You will find a detailed discussion of vowel combina- tions with practices in Unit 9, pages , and in Unit 10, pages Note in the following preliminary examples how your Guide or the records pronounce these groups of vowels. PRACTICE 10 Record 1A, after ninth spiral kdymdld toilet tietysti sure halnaisin I'd like neuvoanne kdyttaen seitsemdn for your advice using seven If you are uncertain about any of the points of pro- nunciation which have been discussed, ask your Guide to repeat the words and phrases with which you are having trouble, and try to correct your pronunciation.

Remember that the discussion and written examples are at best an imperfect representation of the sounds. They are only intended as an aid to you. When you are satisfied that you can pronounce correctly all the sounds, go through the Basic Sen- tences taking turns and with your book open. As you repeat after your Guide, keep your eyes on the spelling and note in particular the examples of the sounds dis- cussed.

Do not hesitate to ask your Guide to repeat if you are uncertain about any sound. Finally go through the Basic Sentences, again taking turns but with your book closed. Listen carefully to your Guide and make sure that your pronunciation satisfies him. Check Yourself Did you go through the Basic Sentences at least twice with your book open and then at least once more with your book closed?

Did you repeat each word and phrase immediately after hearing it in a loud, clear voice? Did you follow the pronunciation you heard even if it seemed different from that shown in your book? If your Guide asked you to repeat, did you do so eagerly and with plenty of pep as many times as neces- sary until he was satisfied with what you were saying? Are you satisfied that you can pronounce the eight Finnish vowels? If you have failed at any point to carry out the instructions, go over the Basic Sentences, being careful to follow every step in the procedure outlined.

Word Study Individual Study If your group has time for outside assignments, do the Word Stiidy between meetings of the group. Otherwise make it independent study in the group meeting. In this section we take up some of the words and expressions you have just learned and examine them to see how the language is built. First read the words and expressions in each list and make sure that you understand what they mean. Then read the comment which follows each list. This should make clear to you just how the words function and how they are put together.

If there are any points that are not clear to you, make note of them and ask about them at the next meeting of the group. Follow the same procedure with each list and each comment. Comment One — Vowel Harmony kymmenen 'ten' kdymdld 'toilet' neljdltd 'at four' kdyttden 'using' pdivdlliseUe 'for dinner' tyttdreni 'my daughter' 34 [2-B] ravintola 'restaurant' kahdeksan 'eight' huomenta 'morning' savukkeita 'some cigarettes' vasemmalle 'to the left' johtaja 'manager' These two columns contain half a dozen words each.

All are of several syllables, and were selected more or less at random from among those you know. Write down the vowels in these words: thus, yee, dad, edd, and so forth, in the lefthand column, and aioa, aeo, uoea, and so forth, in the righthand column. Study the two columns, and you will observe an interesting fact about Finnish words: certain vowels never occur in the same word with certain other vowels. The eight Finnish vowels fall into three groups: y, 6, d;u, o, a; and i, e. Let's call the first the y-group, the second the M-group; and the last two neutral vowels.

All but a handful of Finnish words contain more than one syllable. It is consequently important that you understand the following statements about vowel harmony : If the first syllable of a Finnish word contains a vowel of the y-group, the following syllables of the same word must have either vowels of the y-group or neutral vowels that is, y, 6, a, i, e. If the first. There is but one exception to the above three state- ments : a word belonging to the y-group and one of the M-group may be compounded into a single word that is, a sequence of syllables with a single stress.

But these exceptions are apparent rather than real, because compound words are easily broken into two by plac- ing a stress on the first syllable of the second part of the compound. Comment Two- paljonko tdmd maksaa? As you study the structure of a Finnish word, you will see that it is generally composed of two parts: a stem, and one or more suffixes. We will examine the stem more closely later, but for a while you must learn some suffixes. Now read the five sentences carefully and note what they have in common.

The first three sentences have this in common : the first word of each sentence ends in -ko paljon-ko, saan-ko and haluaisitte-ko. These endings -ko and -ko are suffixes ; moreover, -ko and -ko are one and the same suffix. It follows that it is unnecessary to refer to a suffix by both vowels, for, unless neutral, the other will always be possible. Thus, we can list -ko, -ko, simply as -ko.

We will always list suffixes, and refer to them in the Word-Study, by the form with the vowel of the M-group because it is easier to write. To return, then, to the -ko suffix. This suffix indi- cates that the sentence is a question also shown by a question mark after the last word. Still mother example: tulisitteko kanssani tana iltana ; would you come with me tonight' tulisitte 'you will come'. Then cover the English and see if you know the meaning of every item. Repeat the operation until you are sure that you know every expression.

As a final test, cover the Finnish and see if you can speak out the Finnish expressions by simply looking at the English. Skip about the test yourself thoroughly. Go through them as many times as you can, taking turns repeating the Finnish individually. Try it with books closed and see how you get along without the help of the Aids to Listening.

But always keep in mind the meaning of the Finnish you are hearing and speaking. As you go through the Basic Sentences be on the lookout for examples of the points in Word Study you have just covered.

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Review of Basic Sentences Cont. Review the second half of the Basic Sentences with your Guide or the phonograph record. For the de- tailed procedure to be followed read again the instruc- tions given above for the review of the first half of Basic Sentences. Covering the English of Basic Sentences Individual Study Here is your chance to find out just how well you 36 [2-C] have learned the meaning of the Finnish expressions you have had up to this point. Read the Finnish aloud and see whether you can supply the English equivalents of the words and phrases.

Mark those you are not sure about and after reading the list through, uncover the English and look up their mean- ing. Cover the English again and repeat the procedure until you can go through the entire list giving all the meanings without difficulty. When you are satisfied that you can go through the Basic Sentences, giving the meaning for any expression you say in Finnish, try the following exercise: 3.

What Would You Say? For each of the following situations two or more Finnish expressions are given. Read all the expressions aloud and check the one you think best fits each situa- tion. Be sure you know why the other choices are not suitable. At the next meeting of the group you will be asked to say what you have chosen and you will have a chance to test your answers. Do not write anything down. You meet a young lady before lunch and you say: a. Hyvad iltaa. Hyvad huomenta. Hyvad pdivdd. She asks about your health, saying: a.

Kuinka te voitte? Koska juna saapuu? Missd on kdymdld? You ask what you can do for her, saying: a. Sadunomainen keskiaika antaa puitteet monipolviselle tarinalle, jonka sisaltamat teemat ovat ajattomia. Ohdakemaan tarinat kuvaavat ulkoisten tapahtumien lisaksi ihmismielen moniulotteisia kokemuksia, ja kehittavat siten tehokkaasti lukijan mielitajua ja tunnealya. Elaydy siis mukaan ikiaikaiseen taisteluun hyvan ja pahan, rakkauden ja pelon valilla!

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Kun Vaeltaja kohtaa Ohdakemaan kruununprinsessan, kaynnistyy uusi tarina. Kuka on vihollinen, kuka ystava? Voittaako epatoivo vai luottamus siihen, etta olemassaolomme on ihme ja silla on tarkoitus? Ohdakemaan tarinat keskittyvat ulkoisten seikkailujen ohella kuvaamaan ihmismielen moniulotteisia kokemuksia, ja kehittavat siten tehokkaasti lukijan mielen teoriaa. Kun elaydyt kertojan vaihteleviin mielensisaltoihin, tunteisiin ja ajatuksiin, opit tiedostamaan yha paremmin myos sita, mita omassa ja toisten ihmisten mielissa tapahtuu, ja elat samalla itsekin ikiaikaista taistelua hyvan ja pahan, rakkauden ja pelon valilla.

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