Champ libre (Déconstruction hypermoderne t. 3) (French Edition)

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  1. Here’s my response to Timothy Garton Ash that The Guardian refused to publish
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The late-Roman-era silverware collection is on display as part of a permanent exhibit introducing visitors to the rich cultural legacy of the Pannonian basin. Lawmakers will vote to elect the new ombudsman on Tuesday. Hungary is among 21 countries worldwide that managed to increase its economic growth while reducing carbon-dioxide emissions and energy consumption.

This weekend marks the th anniversary of the Capital Circus of Budapest. The milestone will be celebrated with a new book series and an exhibition. Works by Hungarian photographers Brassai and Andre Kertesz are also shown. The festival season began in Hungary yesterday with the 27th Volt Festival in Sopron, western Hungary. The popular event will run until Saturday evening. Hollywood star Scarlett Johansson is currently shooting a movie in Budapest.

The International Investment Bank has now relocated its headquarters to Budapest, becoming the first and only multilateral development bank with Headquarters in the CEE region. Hungarian police apprehended fifty migrants travelling in three separate groups in Csongrad County, in southern Hungary, on Wednesday morning.

The Hungarian Armed Forces will use the new helicopters in light support, search-and-rescue and multirole capacities. The Foreign Minister has said that Europe as a whole has a vested interest in North Macedonia and other Western Balkans countries joining the European Union as soon as possible.

The Hungarian government has expanded its program aimed at promoting Hungarian exports, including another ten companies as key partners. Hungarian banks have received a reprieve from Parliament, which extended the deadline for mandatory authentication of all private customer identities from the original June 26th to October 31st. The historic square was reconstructed using a million HUF 1.

For the Government of Hungary environmental protection and the fight against climate change are important. Besides support for families, Minister Varga highlighted education, healthcare, pensions, public sector wages, as well as defense and law enforcement as priority areas. The aim is for as many young people to participate in diaspora schemes as possible with a view to maintaining the diaspora, culture and language. Brits, Italians, Americans and Germans visited Hungary the most this year, with Budapest being the more popular destination.

Talks focused on the impacts of migration on Europe and Africa, and the persecution of Christians. Titled "On Earth as it is in Heaven", the volume offers indispensable advice for living life in accordance with traditional Christian values. The captain is being investigated for reckless endangerment of river traffic and causing a mass accident.

This grouping would respect nations, place primacy on Christianity and give proper weight to the interests central Europeans. Some 4, Hungarian troops and their NATO allies are holding a series of five military exercises in the Bakony mountain area, with the participation of special operation units, infantry, armored vehicles and the support of some 40 military helicopters. The upgrade of the Hungarian section of the Budapest-Belgrade railway line is to go ahead after the contract for planning and implementation has been signed.

Sources reveal that nothing has been found like this in the past 30 years and the company who discovered it could become the largest oil producer in the country, overtaking MOL. They should make sure that such acts are prevented in future, the Foreign Minister said. Heat alerts are issued when the medium temperature is 27 degrees Celsius or above for at least three consecutive days. A Hungarian high school student has discovered an environmentally-friendly method for tackling the growth of unwanted weeds. Four victims were trapped inside the wreck and have been removed from the vessel.

Another body has been identified as that of the only child on board at the time of the collision. The Hungarian football team faces Wales in the E-group Euro qualifiers at home tonight. Babos is the first Hungarian female tennis player to win two Grand Slam titles on the pro circuit. Hungarians usually spend the extended weekend relaxing, enjoying family dinners and events or visiting the open-air baths dotted around the country.

An angry, Romanian crowd broke into a WWI-era Austro-Hungarian military cemetery on Thursday, surging past a picket of praying, ethnic Hungarians and a massive police presence. Hungary beat the Austrian team in a thrilling match in Zalaegerszeg, western Hungary, on Wednesday. During their meeting, the pair discussed illegal migration and bilateral ties in the areas of the economy, education and culture. Official figures show the number of people apprehended each week along the Hungarian-Serbian border is currently two hundred, following an average of one hundred in the previous period.

The Hungarian Post has issued an alert to warn its customers that they could be in danger from phishing scams. The budget will increase central expenditure in a number of areas, with a focus on demographic policy and sustained economic growth. According to NVB, a total of 20, Hungarians had registered to vote abroad, of whom 17, showed up on election day. Of the citizens who voted abroad, 7, cast their votes for Fidesz. South Korean divers recovered the body of a year-old Asian male from the wreckage of the sightseeing boat and another body was recovered from further down the river.

Levente Magyar said the main purpose of his visit to Canada was to promote Hungarian food produce among Canadian suppliers with a view to significantly boosting current annual exports of 21 million euros. The FM noted that Hungary-Croatia bilateral trade exceeded 2.

Hungarian businesses had also recorded 4 billion euros worth of investments so far. Sources say human error is to blame for the accident as the search continues along the entire Hungarian stretch of the Danube for the 21 missing tourists. The PM and Professor Peterson discussed current political issues such as illegal immigration, which they both described as unnecessary and dangerous. Seven South Korean tourists died and some twenty are missing after a sightseeing boat crashed with a large river cruiser on the downtown Budapest stretch of the Danube.

The PM said this is the most important consultation regarding the future of the EU, and the primary question for now is whether or not Fidesz will remain in the EPP. The Hungarian government fundamentally believes that help must be taken where there is trouble, rather than bringing problems to Europe. In a first for Hungary, doctors at the Budapest Cardiology Institute invited members of the press to attend open-heart surgery.

The NBH has left the central bank base rate and overnight deposit rate unchanged at 0. The ruling parties of Hungary and Malta were the only two in the EU to get more than 50 percent of the votes at the European Parliament elections. The FM said Hungary continues to support border defense with a strong police mission on the Greek-North Macedonian border. The Hungarian and South Korean institutes for transport have signed a research cooperation agreement on vehicle industry and e-mobility.

Wizz Air has been plagued by a succession of incidents over the past few weeks which has shaken customer confidence in the airline. EP election updates live from the About Hungary team. Movie producer Anna Udvardy, the only Hungarian to have received an Academy Award in that capacity, has succumbed to cancer at the age of 70, her son announced on Facebook. Those who come to Europe will never return. The four-day EP electoral process begins today, in which some million citizens of the European Union will vote.

Here’s my response to Timothy Garton Ash that The Guardian refused to publish

Go for it! New statistics by KSH finds that in a far greater number of people returned to Hungary than the those moving away. According to the latest polls, the governing parties will receive more than half of the votes on Sunday. The 'Spitzenkandidaten process' is a procedure in which by voting in European elections, European citizens not only elect the Parliament itself, but also have a say over who would head the EU executive.

A new survey by the Szazadveg Institute found that the European people consider migration the biggest threat against peace and socio-economic prosperity. Officials signed a document as a declaration of intent to support the project of creating a Polish—Hungarian chamber and to forge a partnership between the two institutions. For the first time since , Hungarians will be able to support their national football team at the U World Cup this autumn. I think we have done a lot today in that sense. The House Speaker said Hungarian voters must send an unequivocal signal to Brussels that migration must be stopped.

The Government Information Centre states that it is shocking that while politicians preach about the importance of extradition in a two-faced manner, they attempt to prevent the lawful extradition of illegal immigrants to keep as many as possible in Europe. The Hungarian government is committed to launching the prenatal support scheme on July 1st, Hungary broke all previous records with relation to investment value last year: 98 major foreign investment projects arrived in Hungary at a total value of 1, billion HUF 4.

Leaders of the European Union have adopted the Sibiu Declaration, a document outlining the leaders' commitment to "one Europe KSH has announced that the rate of consumer price inflation in Hungary accelerated to 3. The Budapest School is an alternative school which has no classic curriculum, there are no grades and only three subjects are taught there.

Minister Varga said the stakes of the upcoming European elections are higher than ever as they will determine whether Europe will have pro-migration leaders or ones who want to defend Christian culture. The recently published Linguistics Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences list now includes Daenerys — or rather its Hungarian phonetic transcription, Denerisz. During an interview with Rmx. Following a mostly warm and dry March and April, Hungary has been hit by days of cold rains and snow in some parts. The Hungary Helps program is proving a highly successful government initiative to aid persecuted Christians around the world.

Hungarian wines have won three first prizes at the prestigious Monde Selection contest. The foreign minister said good ties embrace the opportunity for meaningful dialogue and a mutually beneficial Eurasian economic cooperation. For the past year and a half unemployment has been hovering between 3.

Pro-migration politicians must be voted out and anti-migration politicians must be brought to Brussels," the prime minister said. May Day, or Labor Day, is celebrated in most countries around the world and signals the start of spring as well as the celebration of workers. Trade turnover between Tunisia and Hungary has been growing steadily for five years, reaching billion USD last year, and economic cooperation is expected to gather further momentum. Hungary-Morocco ties are developing well in the areas of trade, the economy, tourism, education and culture.

Ties have also been boosted thanks to a new direct flight between the two countries. The Chameleon Smart Home is a heating regulator system based on artificial intelligence which learns the needs of the building all by itself. The new Avengers movie sold , tickets in a country of just under ten million, meaning that 3.

Hungary is second only to Malta in the percentage of citizens who remember having seen ads encouraging them to vote in the EP elections. According to Factsmaps. The finance minister said the Hungarian economy offers investors a growth rate three times above the EU average, an improving business environment and lower taxes.

Sziget Festival will continue to pay special attention to environmental protection and peace during the seven-day long event in August. Between mid-April and early June, the surface of the runway will be upgraded, a new navigation system installed, necessary repairs will be done and some of the lighting will be changed. The one-day Fila Graff Jam celebration of graffiti art is to be held in Budapest for the second time.

The foreign minister has said that the international community, including the United Nations and the European Union, should work on settling refugees back home, not promoting migration. The five-day festival will allow audiences who missed the films last year to watch them in cinemas. The prime minister stressed that the Hungarian government will continue to work for the development of Ukrainian-Hungarian relations.

A total of 5, Hungarian citizens have so far registered to vote at a Hungarian mission in the European parliamentary elections next month. Joyful greetings from About Hungary. Renowned the world over as a country steeped in tradition, Hungary celebrates Easter weekend in style with delicious food and family gatherings. This year's Easter holidays in Hungary will take place over a four-day weekend, from April 19th to April 22nd.

Hungary Helps is aimed at aiding Christian communities experiencing persecution around the world and was set up in In , when the ruling Fidesz party came to power, one of their first measures was to significantly simplify the process of granting Hungarian citizenship. Budapest spas had a total , visitors in the first three months of the year, an increase of 67, compared with the same period in The foreign minister said that in the future Hungarian-Bulgarian economic relations will be centered around energy supply.

Hungarians remembered victims of the Holocaust up and down the country on April 16th, the day when occupying German forces began establishing ghettos in Hungary. Notre Dame is an important Christian and cultural symbol to all of us; it shows us who we are. Analysts predict that explosive growth in the construction industry may lead to yet another year of GDP growth in the five percent range.

The SilverChic Model Agency launched this month and has the same vision as large international agencies catering for the maturer model. During an interview on Kossuth Radio. The monetary fund sees the unemployment rate dropping to 3. The European Commission has yet to reimburse Hungary half of the costs it incurred in additional border defense spending since the migration crisis. Hungarian students were among the best students from over students from countries, beating students from prestigious universities such as Yale and Berkeley in the US, and King's College in London.

The most promising sectors for cooperation between Hungary and Henan province are agriculture, the food industry, water management, car manufacturing and the health industry.

Menace terroriste : pour une République juste mais plus ferme

A Hungarian organization looked at the actor's family tree and found that his ancestors were flour merchants from Tata. Hope in Hungary as abortions decline, marriages increase and families are valued. The Hungarian officers will help patrol the Greek-North Macedonian and the North Macedonian-Serbian border to prevent illegal migration on the Balkans route. The so-called electric rollers will help alleviate the problems caused by traffic jams, air pollution and parking difficulties.

Due to the dangerously low numbers of the rare pooches, breeders have engaged in widespread social engagement and urged nationwide cooperation to save the Kuvasz breed. According to data released by the Central Statistics Office, Hungary's central budget deficit was 2. The Hungarian parliament has approved a series of bills aimed at reversing Hungary's declining demographic trend. Nearly three-quarters of voters in Central Europe oppose migration, according to a recent poll.

Budapest hosted the III. Central European Fashion week over the weekend, a bi-annual event which is Hungary's strongest bid to become a regional fashion center. Hungary remains committed to peacekeeping and anti-terrorism missions around the world and the headcount boost is partially designed to alleviate the United Nations' staff shortage in peacekeeping missions. Did Brussels know that a Syrian terrorist leader had been given a migrant bank card?

The Central Bank has increased its inflation forecast from 2. During reconstruction of the square, builders stumbled across the unexploded device yesterday afternoon, the area was evacuated immediately and professionals arrived to defuse and remove the bomb within two hours. A Syrian man has been arrested in Budapest on suspicion of acts of terrorism and carrying out multiple executions in his homeland in Gross wages rose by Hungary is moving full steam ahead with building a km railway line connecting major cities in Hungary, Serbia and Romania.

According to Gallup's happiness report, Hungary has improved seven places to 62nd place, compared to 69th place in Last year, Hungary received 5, points, this year 5, points. Telekom Hungary is helping to bridge the generation gap in technology by teaching pensioners how to use the internet — with high school students as the teachers.

The Minister said that Fidesz will only be able to stay in the European People's Party if on Wednesday not only is it not expelled from the party grouping, but also if its membership is not suspended. The security advisor said that making the UN Global Compact for Migration mandatory represents the greatest danger to Europe to date. Lake Balaton property prices are fetching as high as 3, Euros per meter squared. Budapest will host the MCC Budapest Summit on Migration this weekend, organized by the Mathias Corvinus Collegium, attended by prestigious researchers, decision-makers and diplomats.

Taking place between July 3rd and the 7th, The Martinez Brothers will open the five-day festival in style. The flight operator has confirmed that while an upgrade to both the flight navigation system and surface of the runway takes place, air traffic will be handled by a single runway during the period. The casino hired a young Hungarian man, Gergely, three years ago to manage the complex and he wasted no time in adopting Hungarian culture and traditions into the interior design of the building.

He said that Fidesz wants to remain a member of the party family for as long as possible, and also stressed that Fidesz has always avoided personal attacks on other members of the party family it belongs to. The 12 points was a list of demands written by the leaders of the Hungarian Revolution of If you look anywhere on March 15th, you will see tricolor cockades on coats, jumpers and hats. Tourism accounts for On March 15th every year, Hungarians remember the outbreak of the revolution of On September 24th, , Gergely P.

Six out of ten Hungarians care about their daily fluid intake, while a tenth of respondents don't care. Wages are growing dynamically in one of the safest countries in Europe. A bout 84 percent of the spend on film productions last year was by foreign filmmakers.

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The foreign minister said the government is supporting the investment, which will create jobs, with a 2. The average pay gap between men and women in all 28 member states stands at 16 percent, but luckily the situation is better in Hungary at Built at a cost of 9 billion HUF Matolcsy said that after its successful budgetary and monetary turn, the Hungarian economy now needs a marked improvement in competitiveness.

EPP parties say Fidesz' expulsion would weaken the positions of the group in the European Parliament and send a negative message to voters just weeks before the EP elections. It will be up to the Member States to choose between winter or summer time. In cases where there is no complete agreement between them, there should be no compulsion to accept a given policy. The prime minister said a new professional body under the authority of Schengen-zone interior ministers should take over the responsibility of migration. Western models of integration have led to the emergence of parallel societies, which the foreign minister said pose security risks because of cultural differences.

The liturgy will be held in Latin, songs will be sang in Hungarian, and Pope Francis will preach in Italian. Budapest's Semmelweis University is among the top in the world for Pharmacy education, according to a fresh ranking released by British company Quacquarelli Symonds QS. The foreign minister said the attacks from Brussels have no basis in reality, are politically motivated and triggered by the two countries' refusal to become migrant hosts.

The Hungarian government aims to assist Christian communities via its Hungary Helps humanitarian program. Gabko Chili from Nagymaros has been awarded the best in the world for their beer-mango-habanero sauce at the World Hot Sauce Awards. Hungary is now one of the leading tax havens in the world. The young had their own music, their own magazines, their own style. New forms of expression adapted to youth appeared.

This group was non-conformist and more sensitised than others to cultural phenomena coming from abroad music in particular. Young people pulled the whole society along in their wake, speeding up its openness to novelty and, in so doing, disputing the traditional values that still shaped it. These youths also represented a tremendous clientele for whole sectors of manufacturing and services. City life became a vector of what was modern, while the young and the not-as-young were susceptible to fear of the outdated, the backward, not only in the city, but also in the countryside, as E.

Morin notes in his study of a Breton village. As others have pointed out, this period was remarkable for the scope of change as much as for the fast pace with which change affected the fabric of everyday life. Why, at that particular moment, in a society for so long suspicious of industrial and economic modernisation? Why, in a society that clung to traditional values and whose centre of gravity lay in the permanence manifested by the rural world, that cornerstone of French identity?

At least three elements came together to make such transformation possible. Next, the will of many and the vision of a few: a collective desire to bring about change to regain moral standing, to overhaul the political system, to modernise production methods, to bring social justice and refresh the promises of the Revolution. Many, who witnessed the suffering, humiliation and powerlessness of the defeat and Occupation wanted to draw a line through the past and were ready to usher in a new beginning.

A new social discourse emerged: France would henceforth ride upon the shoulders of her workers. Many in this group were willing and eager to attain new horizons. A tremendous energy, directed towards change, was palpable at the end of the war. The great men of letters novelists and playwrights who represented the spiritual power of the s, were followed by philosophers during the period of existentialism, when Sartre and Camus could still insist on a way of being in the world, of feeling, and of appreciating life that links the adventure of individual experience to the historical nature of collective life.

Foucault, J. Lacan, R. Barthes, C. The result of these changes and the consequence that followed from them was the loss of key thinkers. The next generation of young men and women would discover little that was new, except occasionally Marcuse, perhaps, represented such an instance. Their way of thinking would have to be structured according to a new grammar required by new technologies.

But images and myths continuously invaded communal life and accompanied the beginnings of mass consumption. The arrangement of these objects, their amassing in an array or a collection, where each object called for another which completed it and would soon replace it, removed them from any concern of use or functionality. With one foot in the profane and the other in the sacred, they were tracked through the twists and turns of their most intimate dramas as they accomplished great heroic and erotic feats. They made up a world of consumable images that were the images of life itself: life was thus a consumable good.

The arrest of about student protesters at the Sorbonne triggered student demonstrations of solidarity, which grew not only in number, but also in scope when workers — and eventually their unions — joined Culture and identity in postwar France the students for marches, the like of which France had never seen before. Paving stones were torn up and barricades erected in the nineteenthcentury tradition of insurrection. A general strike brought France to a standstill. In the legislative elections of 17 and 30 June, Gaullist supporters won a stupefying majority. In April , a dispirited de Gaulle stepped down.

The Movement brought to the surface widespread and unvoiced anxieties about the scope of change and the speed at which France was losing the compass of its traditions and way of life. Familiar surroundings were being shaken in unfamiliar ways by labour migrations, the disappearance of rural communities, the dominance of consumerist and materialistic values, and a loss of meaning. The targets of the Movement were political: de Gaulle and his particular authoritarian style of government, censorship and other forms of control.

Creative and critical effervescence in student-occupied Paris led to the invention of a number of slogans and expressions that captured in words the anxieties of a society ambivalent about its new identity and hesitant about its future. The student movement began on the Nanterre campus before spreading to the Sorbonne. Students lived there in isolation from a real urban centre and from each other, as no social and cultural space had been included in the plans. Between and , the number of high school and university students tripled. For decades afterwards, the educational system would register, with the sensitivity of a photographic plate, the hopes, anguish and dysfunction of an entire society and the permanent, sometimes bitter, struggle between the old and the new in France.

For the politicised youth of the s, the struggles for liberation in South America, Asia and Africa served as an immense reservoir of revolutionary images, episodes and faces from which the theory and practice of revolution emerged renewed. A universal and heroic actor, the Chinese, Cuban, South American or African partisan offered proof to the militant youth in the cities of the West that hope for a free and happy humanity, for work that was not alienating, for a classless society, was not lost.

The return of revolutionary discourse, the overload of references Culture and identity in postwar France to insurrections of the past century, led to the staging of revolution, which as a means of bringing down of the State, was already outdated in In particular, sexual behaviour, the relationship between the sexes and representations of the body became objects of the new questioning. The concerns of feminist and homosexual constituencies opened up new fronts of political struggle.

Cultural openings During the period we are examining, the spread of American models is more or less rapid and spectacular depending on the plane in which it occurs. Proceeding more slowly, but more deeply, the penetration of television into French households would be the engine of familiarisation with American lifestyles, values and ways of thinking.

Moreover, these media played a large part in turning politics into spectacle; the progressive disengagement of the French with regard to political parties and grassroots activism was accompanied by an episodic passion for large televised electoral contests. This view, long-held in France, dates from the sixteenth century, when the monarchy styled itself as the protector of arts and letters. New life was breathed into this old tradition during the period with which we are concerned. Cultural policy is a peculiarly French invention that has no counterpart elsewhere.

It recognises that the State has a political responsibility for the arts and creativity, which implies that these are not solely the province of a cultivated elite, but that they must be made available, through appropriate measures, to each and every individual. In the same way, it is generally a question of political policies that support cultural offerings: aid to creators, or even to the industries of production and distribution, up to and including the imposition of entry barriers to economic competition as, for example, with the single-price book law which required that a book be sold everywhere in France at the same set retail price.

Vectors of cultural change In the s, when Pierre Bourdieu and Jean-Claude Passeron analysed the functioning of the educational system, it was to bring to light the social conditions that made for unequal schooling. The results from all levels of schools and universities were proof of social inequality in access to degrees.

These sociologists thought that French schools played a conservative role in that they sanctioned, reinforced and renewed the social hierarchy by treating equally those who were, in fact, unequal. It remained to be seen what contributes to social inequality in academic success. Without ignoring the latter, success stems primarily from the cultural capital that accumulates in families over generations without their needing to make a conscious effort.

Familiarity with educational institutions, the knowledge that one is expected to have in certain career paths, the extent of the vocabulary used in the home, and contact from an early age with cultural works all combine 53 54 Gilles Bousquet and Alain Pessin with other factors, such as residence in an urban or rural setting, to determine early-on the odds for success in school and society.

The conditions for success are thus largely cultural. Have forty years of active cultural policy by public institutions — of their methodical attempt to make all works, past and present, available to everyone, to make culture egalitarian and democratic — really reduced cultural disparity? Since , the Ministry of Culture has been measuring the evolution of French cultural practices; the results of these investigations have been regularly published.

Their latest results show the following: strong tendencies, already present during the s and s, have been accentuated: the French continue to acquire more audio and video equipment, and to devote more time to its use. Most French homes already had television sets by , following which one observes the success of the VCR 72 per cent and the rising numbers of personal computers 23 per cent.

The French spend an average of forty-three hours per week watching television, using the VCR, and listening to the radio, CDs or cassettes — which exceeds the amount of time they spend at work. The use of electronic media has not come at the expense of reading. A decline in the readership of the daily press has been offset by an increase in the readership of magazines and journals. Even as the base of serious readers remains stable, the number of books read has generally fallen. Amateur artistic pursuits are slowly gaining popularity in the population as a whole, and more rapidly among young people.

Even if one observes a certain global infatuation with culture — having opened wide the notion of culture to those pursuits that may be simply hobbies — it cannot obscure the maintenance or reinforcement of discriminatory cultural practices and massive non-attendance at cultural venues. Increases in attendance at cultural venues between and were extremely modest. Aside from multi-media libraries whose subscriber numbers rose sharply from 23 to 31 per cent, patron attendance at amateur shows rose in the range 4 to 6 per cent, at museums by 3 per cent and at theatrical and dance performances by only 2 per cent.

What is most important about this trend is that it in no way represents a change in the make-up of the population concerned. Attendance Culture and identity in postwar France rates for university graduates, Parisians, senior executives and professionals, and, to a lesser degree, mid-level professionals remain distinctly higher than they do for other categories of the population. To better appreciate this reality, one must take into account that for some people cultural practices are cumulative in nature.

Thus, one can classify the French by cohorts to discern overall patronage at libraries, cinemas, performance halls, exhibition spaces and heritage sites: 24 per cent never go; 27 per cent rarely go, 28 per cent go from time-to-time; 12 per cent go often; and only 10 per cent attend regularly.

A great deal of cultural life depends on this 10 per cent from whose ranks are drawn over half the attendees at concerts and museums and 60 per cent of theatre patrons. During the last decades of the twentieth century, the cultural landscape of France found itself radically altered. A great many observers think a genuine revolution has taken place, whose effects are at least as important, if not more so, than those of the Revolution of It is, at any rate, a profound social and cultural shift that is displacing most of the fundamental problems familiar to French society.

First, we note that French centralism, the old multi-secular effort to unify France, is under attack from all sides by claims for local differences and the diversity of individual interests. The forms of individual participation in public life bear witness to this. At the same time as political organisations and unions have stagnated or regressed, one observes a spectacular proliferation of associations. Forty thousand were created in , yet only a few thousand were established during the postwar years.

New groups, new cohorts present society with issues that cannot be evaluated using the old political rhetoric, particularly not that of the historical clash between social classes. These are transversal issues that implicate individuals from all levels of the social hierarchy in the same quest for identity. Nonetheless, this in no way resolves the question of the balance of power 55 56 Gilles Bousquet and Alain Pessin between the sexes, but rather it complicates the experience of inequality.

Politics and culture are tightly interwoven through many seemingly disquieting aspects of end-of-the-century French society. Certain nationalist and populist pressures, the demands of ethnic groups, new manifestations of racism, urban violence, the reappearance of deep social schisms in the society of plenty, acute poverty, the evidence that large numbers of men and women bear all these social handicaps at once and are neglected in the sense that they can no longer live with a even minimal degree of autonomy — these, as Michel Wieviorka elaborates, present a good many challenges for democracy.

In this landscape, the concern of culture is again to effect transformation and broadening. In France, perhaps more than elsewhere, urban cultures, spawned by hip-hop, blend ethnic and artistic pretensions, and, according to Jean-Pierre Saez, demand admittance into the common culture. This is illustrated in the most recent research on non-traditional alternative environments.

It borrows freely from utopian concepts and effectively bears utopian aspirations. Nonetheless, it is characterised by a fairly clean break with the primary conceptual orientation of important socio-political utopian schemes from the Renaissance through to the nineteenth century.

What is in the making today is a collection of experiments, validated day-to-day, that we know and wish to be incomplete and ephemeral. These experiments take many shapes and concern themselves with all spheres of communal activity, work, health, food and nutrition, and culture.

They are based on mutual assistance and individual self-realisation. In this they are unlike classic Utopias which never relented in hunting down the individual, that is, the unpredictable. When asked what is the main advantage to European integration, the French respond that it is peace on the Continent. This sentiment shored up the support of the generation that lived through the last world war. But after thirtysome years of major policy initiatives, over the past decade a widespread sentiment has surfaced, particularly in France, that European integration has been led by political elites with the appearance of consent on the part of the people whose daily lives and futures are increasingly shaped by the European Union.

Voices have bemoaned the lack of a communal, democratic political space. Will the Euro serve as the instrument through which economic achievement and political, citizen-based integration coincide? Will it open new horizons for the dawning century? Will it awaken the French political imaginary16 and a belief in shared values? In , it was 37 per cent; in , 51 per cent; and in , 60 per cent.

Without doubt, along with Georges Balandier, we can classify the present-day experience of France and of all super-modern societies by this indication of uncertainty. It is in the realm of culture, the latter term being used in its broadest meaning, that the greatest changes of our age are occurring. This is the service sector. Culture and identity in postwar France 8. An expression of solidarity with Nanterre student leader and anarchist theorist Daniel Cohn-Bendit.

On 22 March , students at Nanterre, Cohn-Bendit among them, occupied the administration building. The anarchist student organisation took its name from these events. The Situationnistes were a revolutionary group that advocated the complete destruction of existing society in favour of a more humane, non-materialistic, non-hierarchic, individualistic and creative world. Professor of Philosophy at the University of Grenoble, Gilles Lipovetsky is a social philosopher and author of several critically acclaimed books on modern life.

See note 7. The symbolic and representational frame of reference that includes images, symbols and symbolic discourse. Baudrillard, J. James Benedict, London: Verso, Berstein, S. Rioux, The Pompidou Years, —, trans. Bourdieu, P. Bousquet, G. Capdevielle, J. Crozier, M. Donnat, O. Gildea, R. Hoffmann, S. Ross and S. Malzacher eds. Johnson, R. Lipovetsky, G. Don Smith, London: Sage, Monnet, J. Morin, E. Perec, G. David Bellos, Boston: D.

Godine, Pessin, A. Touraine, A. Leonard F. Mayhew, New York: Random House, Wihtol de Wenden, C. Winock, M. More than any other European country, French society set cultural standards which most creative people observed and the population respected. Since its origins under Henri IV — and Louis XIV — , this comprehensive culture had been associated with national unity and power, formal training, and the dominance of Paris within French society. Most French design was inspired from the late sixteenth century by an aesthetic derived from the Italian Renaissance, and given a clear national form from the seventeenth century by architects such as Mansart, Lemercier and Blondel.

It was a system of harmonious proportions, enhanced by details associated with the ancient world. These traditional features had faded, however, by the late seventeenth century except in small towns and the countryside where tradition still dictated design. In the eighteenth century, symmetry, repetition, archaeological study of ancient remains, the classical orders, and precisely shaped masonry blocks, marked most new public buildings and the homes of the royalty and aristocracy.

In the nineteenth century French architecture was further regularised by the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, set up by the government in as the national centre for design training. Work followed training and half the architects in France practised in Paris by Church design, for its part, drew on mainly regional traditions expressive of faith and morality, leaning towards a Romanesque eclecticism.

Exhibition architecture, on the other hand, made little impression. The turning-point was the new Samaritaine department store building of which the modernising owner, Ernest Cognacq, had commissioned from Frantz Jourdain. On the removal of the canvas sheeting which had protected the decorators, the press and part of the city council declared the design to be an insult to the historic Seine frontage on which it stood.

Almost overnight, Art Nouveau was rejected by Paris, even for interior and commercial design. More strongly seated in the German-occupied provinces in the east, notably in Nancy and Metz, where it was linked to the more elegant German Jugendstil, the geometric version of Art Nouveau, it faded there also after French rule resumed in This fate was really no surprise, for the expressionistic and ugly features of French Art Nouveau, which clung to its Belgian origins above all, were as crude a challenge to French tradition as could be imagined.

The same was true of Art Nouveau interior decor and furniture, with their heavy polished wood treatments and Architecture, planning and design Figure 1. The other challenge to classicism came from the architecture developed to make use of concrete. French engineers were pioneers in the development of this material and from the s urban and church architects had started to use it. Between and , however, urban France saw a spate of new apartment blocks. They followed rich Parisians and foreign tourists to their favourite resorts including Nice, Deauville and Vichy. A generation of hotels for the rich grew up.

Natural forms, only remotely connected with the defunct Art Nouveau, acquired even a structural function. Rather as in London at the turn of the century, architecture and town planning represented imperial aspirations. The French tradition of practical, industrial architecture had been greatly reinforced during the nineteenth century, without securing critical recognition beyond the engineers. After , however, it was increasingly combined with a new modernism in which innovative French architects were prepared to look to the rest of Europe and America.

The launch of a programme of primary school building from had been linked to state encouragement for simple structures which recalled the concepts and methods of Viollet-le-Duc, and which extended to secondary schools. The First World War weakened the classical tradition in French architecture. After , more building was done in the public sector, while demand for luxurious apartment blocks and villas was reduced. Most interwar building, however, did not make a complete break with the nineteenth century, especially in its proportions and the quality of its execution.

Even the radical, Swiss-born modernist Le Corbusier, leader of the world-wide Modern Movement in architecture which had achieved consciousness since the war, honoured the French cultural tradition and took up French citizenship in After Le Corbusier took up a single-handed struggle against the traditional elements in the French architectural profession.

His coherent architectural system, fully articulated by the end of the s, led him to devote much of his effort to advocacy, presenting ideal schemes at exhibitions and entering for competitions which he was unlikely to win. These ideas had little impact until the Second World War but Le Corbusier developed a number of practical schemes for tall apartment blocks designed to house the masses without class distinction.

He also developed plans for high-speed urban roads. The schemes were dominated by the concept of the monumental tower. Perret suggested a great avenue of towers, while Henri Sauvage Architecture, planning and design put forward his ziggurat idea in grandiose form. Others suggested pairs of towers at some of the great crossroads. Concrete would have played a large part in the construction of most of these towers, and some resembled the tall, narrow church towers which were built in the period.

Nothing, however, came of these schemes before the war.

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The s saw a strong tendency towards neo-classical design, mainly in its stripped-classical variant, in public buildings. Neo-classicism made little impact on domestic and commercial building in the s, however, owing to the deep depression of the building industry. A combination of modernism and neo-classicism developed in commercial architecture, often using concrete, with simple columns holding up massive lintels, with rectangular openings and powerful glazing. Churches and cinemas, whose construction proved less vulnerable, had something in common with their big interior spaces and simple exteriors.

Economy was essential and brick was the main material used in the early s. Where the architects sought character, they did so by rustic features for which brick was suitable. Lods made some progress here in the industrialised techniques of which he was a leading advocate in France. The design of private housing was very varied in the s.

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Gradually a modernistic style for apartment houses emerged. The specialist apartment house architect and developer, Michel Roux-Spitz, did most to disseminate a new Parisian style with the dozens of apartment houses which he built in Paris from Broad, cavernous windows and vertical bays with angled lights, combined with a cladding in polished Hauteville stone, were almost always to be found in his work.

His formula was much emulated, in Paris and elsewhere, although Roux-Spitz himself turned towards neo-classicism from the later s. This style suggested clients and architects seeking a secure modernism at a time of uncertain economic circumstances. Industrial building pursued a separate evolution between the wars. Some industrial sectors, such as aircraft, railways and motors, were technically very advanced. Their architecture made widespread use of reinforced concrete on a scale not seen elsewhere in Europe.

Steel and glass, including transparent bricks, though by no means unique in Europe, were also used freely. In the later s Bernard Lafaille built a number of huge roundhouses for the railways in concrete and glass. As the work of engineers for the most part, it had limited links with the rest of French architecture. However, commercial buildings in Paris generally made use Architecture, planning and design of concrete frames and extensive glazing, though the building regulations of restricted the freedom of architects in terms of height and frontage treatment.

Church architecture largely pursued its own course after The Church did its best to ensure that the new suburbs were equipped with new churches, especially around Paris, and a number of peripheral churches, started before , were completed. Most church architects, though conventionally trained, specialised in church design from early on, and a big church could occupy their entire careers. They absorbed the aesthetic and philosophy of the Church insofar as it related to religious design.

The result was a unique architecture of geometrical, natural and historicist forms, often using industrial materials, which remains sadly neglected by architectural historians. The advance of modernism The years from to , dominated by the Vichy regime of —44, saw very little building in France. Architects, particularly student and junior architects, played a full part in government reconstruction competitions, as did many architects who languished in prisoner-of-war camps in Germany. However, the results veered well away from prewar trends in most cases.

He also incorporated more open space and smaller buildings, including the single-family houses favoured by some members of his team. Calais postwar reconstruction on neo-traditional lines. After Le Corbusier was acknowledged, along with the older Auguste Perret, as the leading French modernist architect and urban planner. In the design of housing areas and reconstruction sectors he saw no essential distinction between architecture and planning and the new generation of French architects took a similar view which affected their work on reconstruction areas and housing estates from the later s, helping to generate the controversial grands ensembles giant estates of public apartments at Sarcelles and elsewhere.

This block, with its striking row of dolmen-like pilotis heavy concrete supports , persuasive horizontal lines, and sculpted playground on the roof, applied the modernist aesthetic of the Villa Savoie and other houses for rich people to public housing.

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  • Neo-modern housing at La Villette, His new city of Chandigarh, capital of the Punjab, planned in , incorporated much of his Radiant City concept and several unique government buildings. He built for the Brazilian government in Rio de Janeiro. In France he built a suite of revolutionary churches, at Ronchamp —55 , the monastery of La Tourette —59 , and Firminy — Industrialised building, originating in the later s for public housing construction and using a multitude of identical panels, made matters worse.

    As these gloomy, boring buildings nevertheless represented modernisation and improving facilities to the bulk of the French people, their aesthetic was not questioned, and in design terms the country slipped back overall. Normally known as postmodernism, they drew on historicism, colour, asymmetrical forms and outright fantasy. Brick came into favour, even on very large buildings. At the same time, the 71 72 Anthony Sutcliffe demolition of older buildings slowed down and owners started to value the refurbishment of the urban past.

    In the s there was a return to more modernistic styles which nevertheless tended to conform in detail or general character to French tradition. Concrete and steel rods allowed exteriors and interiors to be merged, as often at new airport terminals and railway stations, with sweeping glass roofs and atria. The predominant grey colour of the visible metal recalled a naval dockyard on a rainy day but this did not disturb the French.

    Even the stranger designs of the s generally added to the urban environment, and the new architecture of the s was original and elegant for the most part. Like the cathedrals of medieval France, the grands projets of the Presidents of the Fifth Republic amazed, frightened and inspired. All were practical, most were very large and visually striking, and their architecture was modernistic. In most cases the designs were chosen through international competitions, and many of the winners came from abroad. Most of these huge projects challenged the existing, traditional aesthetic of Paris and a great deal of acrimonious controversy took place, some of it related more to party politics than to aesthetics or history.

    The lofty Tour Montparnasse, topped out in , was a commercial project, but government involvement and response to the resulting outcry foreshadowed the grands projets.

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    Later projects took care to show more respect for Parisian architectural traditions and many were a welcome stimulus to design in the capital. A new Paris of space, light and grandeur emerged from these schemes, thanks partly to foreign architects. Architects were more aware of their sites and designed for space much more than in the past. But what is a vacuum? Is it empty space? If a vacuum is indeed nothing, then how can it exist? In philosophy the notion of nothingness is very strongly linked with the notion of existence.

    Many eastern philosophers, Buddhists, Hindus, have contemplated the subject in depth. Also some famous European philosophers, such as Heidegger and Sartre, have written extensively about this. A human being is characterised by existence. In that sense a human being, just like a piece of art , is a blank canvas on which everything has to be created. She interprets the subject according to her own taste and emotions. And that brings us to psychology.

    Emptiness also evokes emotions such as fear. Fear of not being, or fear of being alone, maybe also fear of boredom. At the same time new digital technologies fill every available minute, every available second. Somehow the emptiness has gone. These digital technologies bring the whole world to our screen, but at the same time it creates a distance from reality and from other people. We have lost the art of doing nothing, of being bored, but with it also the time for reflection. Maybe this exhibition may help us in that reflection.