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  1. ) 1. Zunft - jiwopumo.tk
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Triple-coach trams were unsuccessfully tried. Single-coach trams were used on the Shibpur line until its closure in Earlier stock was of the SLT type. It was double-coach with three doors, four wheels under each coach and no wheels between coaches. SLT trams had no front iron net, but had a front-coach trolley pole. The both-end type had a front iron net and a rear-coach trolley pole. SLTs were the first double-coach trams, introduced only on the Kolkata side of the Hooghly River not on the Howrah side.

They were gradually replaced by articulated trams on all routes. Articulated trams were in use until It is sometimes called an 'elephant car' by the CTC; its cab and back side is narrow and slightly slanted forward, like the head of an elephant without the trunk. It was introduced as a higher-speed tram with an improved engine, designed to run on express routes such as Galiff Street, Baliganj, Tollyganj, Behala and Khidirpur. It was longer than an articulated tram, and was the first tram with a cab door.

Although now fewer in number, SLC trams are still running mainly on south Kolkata routes.


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One tram was modified with glass in front, and another with many lighted signs making it resemble a moving billboard. The only difference is that its front and back are straight, not slanted. It was also introduced as a higher-speed tram, with an improved engine, designed to run on express routes. Later, this type enjoyed more general use.

Three cars are still used as water cars. The only difference is that its front and back are overhanging, and narrow towards the ends. It also had an improved engine, but was suitable for local routes. Later, this type was also used on express routes. Some early cars were well-maintained, and these are also still in use. It is stronger, heavier and faster than earlier designs. A result of the decision around to continue tram service, it changed the image of Kolkata trams.

The improved stock began running throughout the city network on all routes. Some trams were partly modified with front glass; two were modified to resemble Melbourne's B-class trams, with fluorescent lights, back glass and double ends. These are the most common trams in Kolkata. Some trams were partly modified with front glass; one was modified with fluorescent lights, FM radio, digital advertising and route boards. These are the second-most-common tram in Kolkata.

Three years after its introduction, the closure of Kolkata's trams was again considered by the government, so no more modern stock had been introduced. These trams are claimed to be faster and more maneuverable than the current double-bogie trams with the carriage being longer than the carriages in the double bogie trams.

There are now plans to introduce more single-bogie trams across the city, including air-conditioned bogies, possibly replacing the double-bogie trams with the single-bogies and reopening some closed tram routes. Recently, two trams were completely renovated to world-class standards with front and back glass, fluorescent lights, FM radio, digital display boards, slanted seats and a fibreglass ceiling.

More renovated trams are planned; from to the Nonapukur workshop manufactured 19 new-look trams, of which four are in the final stages of completion. The rooftop is clear polycarbonate sheeting with a wide window space, comfortable seating and better visibility from inside and out. Currently-manufactured tram cars in the CTC workshop now compare favorably with those of other developed countries.

However, the AC tram received poor patronage when it was introduced, although there are plans for more AC trams in Kolkata. In addition to passenger cars, there are also rail-scrubber cars which polish the tracks using jets of water , flat cars for goods transportation some of which are modified from obsolete single-coach Howrah trams and a tower-inspection car for checking wires. Burn Standard Company in Howrah manufactured numbers to from In some were manufactured by Jessop.

As of , trams are operational with trams operating. Fuji is the most modern. Bagh, and Howrah Bridge; and one workshop at Nonapukur. Rajabazar and Tollygunge depots are the largest in terms of tracks and area, respectively. Kidderpur depot is the oldest, and Kalighat the smallest. The Esplanade terminus has the most tram routes. On all other streets, tram runs in the middle of the road. D Bagh and Tollygunge. Sealdah and Tala rail stations also have tram accessibility. Electric trams were the sole public transport until , when the public bus was introduced in Kolkata. However, tram service until the s was quite smooth and comfortable although most new lines and extensions were built in pre-independence India.

In there were around tram cars, which were regularly operated on many routes in Kolkata and Howrah. Single-car trams operated on the Shibpur line until its closure; all other lines had double cars. Due to the large number of tram cars, the trams ran frequently about a 5- to 7-minute wait between trams on all routes. This was possible due to less motor traffic on the roads than today.

Derailments were very rare because of careful maintenance. All checkups were done at night, the water car was used for track smoothing and the tower car for wire-checking. Each tram was washed in the depot daily. Breakdown vans and overhead-wire inspection vans were ready at many junctions for quick repairs.

Regular inspection of tracks, wires and so forth was done carefully. Tracks and track-bed gravel were replaced periodically for smoother service. Anti-tram sentiment began about , and spread around the world. Many countries both developed and developing began closing their tram systems, and India was no exception. Tram service closed in Kanpur in , Chennai in , Delhi in and Mumbai in Kolkata's network survived, but in a truncated form.

At the same time the automobile boom began, quickly spreading throughout India. Many streets were narrow which was acceptable for tram service , but now cars, buses and lorries also used those roads. The government considered closing the trams, as an alternative to controlling motor traffic. Some routes Bandhaghat, Shibpur and Nimtala were closed for that reason, although traffic jams have not been alleviated. Many streets in Kolkata which have no tram line experience daily gridlock.

Although most track beds have been converted from stone to concrete, earlier paving of Strand Road closed the High Court route. Construction of the subway line also destroyed an important north-south connection, from Lalbazar to Jatin Das Park via Esplanade and Birla Planetarium. The development of overpasses is another reason for the decline of Kolkata trams. The Sealdah, Gariahat and Taratala overpasses were the main cause for the closing of the Sealdah terminus, Gahriahat link and the Joka route which also made way for a national highway.

There were many closures between and , and many thought that it was the beginning of the end for trams in Kolkata, but the situation changed after At that time, many cities around the world began reevaluating tram service. Greater numbers of automobiles increased air pollution.

High prices of petrol and diesel fuel on the international market also made electric-powered street rail more attractive. Some political leaders and many environmentalists favored tram service. As a result the Kolkata tram survived, but not as robustly as it did before Tramways in Kolkata are now suffering, due to motor traffic and the outdated business model of its operators the CTC and the government of West Bengal , although there has been some conversion of trackbed from stone to concrete and renovation of rolling stock.

Trams were the brainchild of the then-Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon. His motives were to ensure better public transport for the native people, better passage of goods from ports and dockyards to their respective destinations, and rapid mobilisation of police contingents to sites of anti-British protests.

Thus, trams were the first mode of police transportation in Kolkata since police cars, vans, buses, lorries and armoured cars were not been introduced until The trams of Kolkata had played a major role in stopping Hindu-Muslim riots during the pre-independence era; in contrast, many trams were also burned by local people as an act of protest against colonial rule, since the tram was viewed by many Indians as a "British" import.

The Kolkata tramway has many vintage features. It still uses a trolley pole and foot gong after a failed experiment with electric horn during the late s , which is rare among international tram systems except heritage tramways and standard networks like Hong Kong and Toronto. It has tram cars with no front glass or destination board — instead, iron route-boards hang from the front iron net.

The last new rolling stock was manufactured in by Jessop India Ltd, and many trams from are still running. The recent de-reservation of tram tracks flies in the face of international trends.

) 1. Zunft - jiwopumo.tk

Only one new branch Bidhannagar and one extension the short-lived Joka were built after independence, and no extension of the network had been planned until With a mix of good and bad, however, the Kolkata tram is still running as Asia's oldest operating electric tram and the only tram in India. On 19 June, a freak accident was reported in which a ghost tram rammed into 10 cars. No fatalities or injuries were reported. Plans have been proposed to refurbish stock and wires, extend the system to more areas or tunnel under the Hooghly River.

However, there have been some proposals to replace the current double-bogie SLC type trams with the new single-bogie trams and extend the tram system to places like Rajarhat and Bantala and reopening some closed routes. There are also plans for a tram route across the riverfront of the Hooghly River while plans are continuing for a tram route to Salt Lake and Rajarhat. Bowbazar Street, in the 'Bow Bazar' neighborhood, is an east-west road in central Kolkata formerly 'Calcutta' , capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.

Many commuters use this road to reach the central business district of the city. The easternmost portion of the road is very congested due to the location of a vegetable wholesale market instead of using the bus. The street has since been renamed Bepin Behari Ganguly Street, however, the locality continues to be called Bow Bazar. Born in Breslau, Germany, John Gutmann studied to be a painter under Otto Mueller before turning to photography shortly before he emigrated to the United States, where he became known for his vivid images of popular culture.

He also took a notable series of New York City in the s. In Germany he worked as a photojournalist for Presse Photo before his arrival in the United States, when he worked as a photojournalist for Pix, Inc. Pier 24, a renovated 's warehouse uninhabited for over 30 years, along the "Embarcadero" bayfront is quite possibly the largest space in the world today dedicated to displaying the art of the photograph.

Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River approximately 75 kilometres 47 mi west of the border with Bangladesh, it is the principal commercial, cultural, and educational centre of East India, while the Port of Kolkata is India's oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port. The city is widely regarded as the "cultural capital" of India, and is also nicknamed the "City of Joy".

According to the Indian census, it is the seventh most populous city. In the late 17th century, the three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the Nawab of Bengal under Mughal suzerainty. After the Nawab granted the East India Company a trading licence in ,[15] the area was developed by the Company into an increasingly fortified trading post. In the East India company was strong enough to abolish Nizamat local rule , and assumed full sovereignty of the region. Under the company rule, and later under the British Raj, Calcutta served as the capital of British-held territories in India until , when its perceived geographical disadvantages, combined with growing nationalism in Bengal, led to a shift of the capital to New Delhi.

Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement; it remains a hotbed of contemporary state politics.


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  8. Following Indian independence in , Kolkata, which was once the centre of modern Indian education, science, culture, and politics, suffered several decades of economic stagnation. As a nucleus of the 19th- and early 20th-century Bengal Renaissance and a religiously and ethnically diverse centre of culture in Bengal and India, Kolkata has local traditions in drama, art, film, theatre, and literature. Many people from Kolkata—among them several Nobel laureates—have contributed to the arts, the sciences, and other areas. Kolkata culture features idiosyncrasies that include distinctively close-knit neighbourhoods paras and freestyle intellectual exchanges adda.

    West Bengal's share of the Bengali film industry is based in the city, which also hosts venerable cultural institutions of national importance, such as the Academy of Fine Arts, the Victoria Memorial, the Asiatic Society, the Indian Museum and the National Library of India. Though home to major cricketing venues and franchises, Kolkata differs from other Indian cities by giving importance to association football and other sports. The discovery and archaeological study of Chandraketugarh, 35 kilometres 22 mi north of Kolkata, provide evidence that the region in which the city stands has been inhabited for over two millennia.

    Job Charnock, an administrator who worked for the company, was formerly credited as the founder of the city;[23] In response to a public petition,[24] the Calcutta High Court ruled in that the city does not have a founder. Kalikata was a fishing village; Sutanuti was a riverside weavers' village. They were part of an estate belonging to the Mughal emperor; the jagirdari a land grant bestowed by a king on his noblemen taxation rights to the villages were held by the Sabarna Roy Choudhury family of landowners, or zamindars.

    These rights were transferred to the East India Company in In , the British completed the construction of Fort William, located on the east bank of the Hooghly River to protect their trading factory. The Nawab of Bengal, Siraj ud-Daulah, condemned the militarisation and tax evasion by the company. His warning went unheeded, and the Nawab attacked; he captured Fort William which led to the killings of several East India company officials in the Black Hole of Calcutta.

    In the early 19th century, the marshes surrounding the city were drained; the government area was laid out along the banks of the Hooghly River. Richard Wellesley, Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William between and , was largely responsible for the development of the city and its public architecture. The coalescence of British and Indian culture resulted in the emergence of a new babu class of urbane Indians, whose members were often bureaucrats, professionals, newspaper readers, and Anglophiles; they usually belonged to upper-caste Hindu communities.

    In , Calcutta was host to the first national conference of the Indian National Association, the first avowed nationalist organisation in India. Bengali billboards on Harrison Street. Calcutta was the largest commercial centre in British India. The partition of Bengal in along religious lines led to mass protests, making Calcutta a less hospitable place for the British. The city and its port were bombed several times by the Japanese between and , during World War II. During the s and s, severe power shortages, strikes, and a violent Marxist—Maoist movement by groups known as the Naxalites damaged much of the city's infrastructure, resulting in economic stagnation.

    In , prime minister Rajiv Gandhi dubbed Kolkata a "dying city" in light of its socio-political woes. It was the world's longest-serving democratically elected communist government, during which Kolkata was a key base for Indian communism.

    1724) 1. Zunft

    The city's economic recovery gathered momentum after the s, when India began to institute pro-market reforms. Since , the information technology IT services sector has revitalised Kolkata's stagnant economy. The city is also experiencing marked growth in its manufacturing base. Spread roughly north—south along the east bank of the Hooghly River, Kolkata sits within the lower Ganges Delta of eastern India approximately 75 km 47 mi west of the international border with Bangladesh; the city's elevation is 1. Kolkata is located over the "Bengal basin", a pericratonic tertiary basin. Kolkata is located atop the western part of the hinge zone which is about 25 km 16 mi wide at a depth of about 45, m , ft below the surface.

    Total thickness of sediment below Kolkata is nearly 7, m 24, ft above the crystalline basement; of these the top — m 1,—1, ft is Quaternary, followed by 4,—5, m 14,—18, ft of Tertiary sediments, — m 1,—2, ft trap wash of Cretaceous trap and — m 1,—2, ft Permian-Carboniferous Gondwana rocks. These sediments are sandwiched between two clay beds: the lower one at a depth of — m —2, ft ; the upper one 10—40 m 30— ft in thickness.

    The Kolkata metropolitan area is spread over 1, East Kolkata is also a section. North Kolkata is the oldest part of the city. In , the British completed the construction of Fort William, located on the east bank of the Hooghly River to protect their trading factory. Facing frequent skirmishes with French forces, the British began to upgrade their fortifications in The Nawab of Bengal, Siraj ud-Daulah, condemned the militarisation and tax evasion by the company. His warning went unheeded, and the Nawab attacked; he captured Fort William which led to the killings of several East India company officials in the Black Hole of Calcutta.

    A force of Company soldiers sepoys and British troops led by Robert Clive recaptured the city the following year. Per the Treaty of Allahabad following the battle of Buxar, East India company was appointed imperial tax collector of the Mughal emperor in the province of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, while Mughal-appointed Nawabs continued to rule the province.

    Declared a presidency city, Calcutta became the headquarters of the East India Company by In , ruling power of the Nawabs were abolished and East India company took complete control of the city and the province. In the early 19th century, the marshes surrounding the city were drained; the government area was laid out along the banks of the Hooghly River. Richard Wellesley, Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William between and , was largely responsible for the development of the city and its public architecture. Throughout the late 18th and 19th century, the city was a centre of the East India Company's opium trade.

    The city underwent rapid industrial growth starting in the early s, especially in the textile and jute industries; this encouraged British companies to massively invest in infrastructure projects, which included telegraph connections and Howrah railway station. The coalescence of British and Indian culture resulted in the emergence of a new babu class of urbane Indians, whose members were often bureaucrats, professionals, newspaper readers, and Anglophiles; they usually belonged to upper-caste Hindu communities. In the 19th century, the Bengal Renaissance brought about an increased sociocultural sophistication among city denizens.

    In , Calcutta was host to the first national conference of the Indian National Association, the first avowed nationalist organisation in India. The British moved the capital to New Delhi in Calcutta continued to be a centre for revolutionary organisations associated with the Indian independence movement.

    The city and its port were bombed several times by the Japanese between and , during World War II. Coinciding with the war, millions starved to death during the Bengal famine of due to a combination of military, administrative, and natural factors. Demands for the creation of a Muslim state led in to an episode of communal violence that killed over 4, The partition of India led to further clashes and a demographic shift - many Muslims left for East Pakistan present day Bangladesh , while hundreds of thousands of Hindus fled into the city.

    During the s and s, severe power shortages, strikes, and a violent Marxist—Maoist movement by groups known as the Naxalites damaged much of the city's infrastructure, resulting in economic stagnation. The Bangladesh Liberation War of led to a massive influx of thousands of refugees, many of them penniless, that strained Kolkata's infrastructure. During the mids, Mumbai then called Bombay overtook Kolkata as India's most populous city. In , prime minister Rajiv Gandhi dubbed Kolkata a "dying city" in light of its socio-political woes. It was the world's longest-serving democratically elected communist government, during which Kolkata was a key base for Indian communism.

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    The city's economic recovery gathered momentum after the s, when India began to institute pro-market reforms. Since , the information technology IT services sector has revitalised Kolkata's stagnant economy. The city is also experiencing marked growth in its manufacturing base. A resident of Kolkata is referred to via the demonym Calcuttan or Kolkatan. This represents a decline of 1. The sex ratio is females per males - lower than the national average. The ratio is depressed by the influx of working males from surrounding rural areas, from the rest of West Bengal, and from neighbouring states, mainly Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Orissa; these men commonly leave their families behind.

    Kolkata's literacy rate of The urban agglomeration had a population of 14,, in Bengali Hindus form the majority of Kolkata's population; Marwaris, Biharis and Muslims compose large minorities.

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    The Jewish population of Kolkata was 5, during World War II, but declined after Indian independence and the establishment of Israel; by , there were 25 Jews in the city. India's sole Chinatown is in eastern Kolkata; once home to 20, ethnic Chinese, its population dropped to around 2, as of as a result of multiple factors including repatriation and denial of Indian citizenship following the Sino-Indian War, and immigration to foreign countries for better economic opportunities.

    The Chinese community traditionally worked in the local tanning industry and ran Chinese restaurants. Bengali, the official state language, is the dominant language in Kolkata. English is also used, particularly by the white-collar workforce. Hindi and Urdu are spoken by a sizeable minority.

    According to the census, The remainder of the population includes Sikhs, Buddhists, and other religions which accounts for 0. Kolkata reported The Kolkata police district registered 15, Indian Penal Code cases in , the 8th-highest total in the country. In , the crime rate was As of , about one-third of the population, or 1. By virtue of their artistic productions these potters have moved from obscurity to prominence. This Kolkata neighbourhood, not only supplies clay idols of Hindu gods and goddesses to barowari pujas in Kolkata and its neighbourhoods, but a number of idols are exported.

    It is one of the seven wonders in Kolkata. The Company decided to build new settlement Fort William at the site of the Gobindapur village. Most of the existing population shifted to Sutanuti. While such neighbourhoods as Jorasanko and Pathuriaghata became the centres of the local rich, there were other areas that were developed simultaneously.

    Most of the artisans living in the north Kolkata neighbourhoods dwindled in numbers or even vanished, as they were pushed out of the area in the late nineteenth century by the invasion from Burrabazar. The potters of Kumortuli, who fashioned the clay from the river beside their home into pots to be sold at Sutanuti Bazar later Burrabazar , managed to survive in the area. Gradually they took to making the images of gods and goddesses, worshipped in large numbers in the mansions all around and later at community pujas in the city and beyond.

    After the Nawab granted the East India Company a trading license in , the area was developed by the Company into an increasingly fortified mercantile base. Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah retook Kolkata in after the Company started evading taxes and due to increasing militarisation of the fort. The East India Company retook it in the following year and in abolished Nizamat local rule and assumed full sovereignty.

    Following Indian independence in , Kolkata - which was once the centre of modern Indian education, science, culture, and politics - witnessed several decades of economic stagnation. As a nucleus of the 19th- and early 20th-century Bengal Renaissance and a religiously and ethnically diverse centre of culture in Bengal and India, Kolkata has established local traditions in drama, art, film, theatre, and literature.

    Spread roughly north—south along the east bank of the Hooghly River, Kolkata sits within the lower Ganges Delta of eastern India; the city's elevation is 1. Much of the city was originally a wetland that was reclaimed over the decades to accommodate a burgeoning population. The remaining undeveloped areas, known as the East Kolkata Wetlands, were designated a "wetland of international importance" by the Ramsar Convention As with most of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, the soil and water are predominantly alluvial in origin.

    Kolkata is located over the "Bengal basin", a pericratonic tertiary basin. Kolkata is located atop the western part of the hinge zone which is about 25 km wide at a depth of about 45, m below the surface. The shelf and hinge zones have many faults, among them some are active. Total thickness of sediment below Kolkata is nearly 7, m above the crystalline basement; of these the top — m is quaternary, followed by 4,—5, m of tertiary sediments, — m trap wash of cretaceous trap and — m permian-carboniferous Gondwana rocks.

    The quaternary sediments consist of clay, silt, and several grades of sand and gravel. These sediments are sandwiched between two clay beds: the lower one at a depth of — m; the upper one 10—40 m in thickness. According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, on a scale ranging from I to V in order of increasing susceptibility to earthquakes, the city lies inside seismic zone III. The Kolkata metropolitan area is spread over 1, Suburban areas in the Kolkata metropolitan area incorporate parts of the following districts: North 24 Parganas, South 24 Parganas, Howrah, Hooghly, and Nadia.

    The east—west dimension of the city is comparatively narrow, stretching from the Hooghly River in the west to roughly the Eastern Metropolitan Bypass in the east - a span of 9—10 km. The north—south distance is greater, and its axis is used to section the city into North, Central, and South Kolkata. North Kolkata is the oldest part of the city. Characterised by 19th-century architecture and narrow alleyways, it includes areas such as Shyambazar, Shobhabazar, Chitpur, Cossipore, Sinthee, and Dum Dum.

    Central Kolkata hosts the central business district. It contains B. Bose Road. The Maidan is a large open field in the heart of the city that has been called the "lungs of Kolkata" and accommodates sporting events and public meetings. From south-west to south-east, outlying areas include Garden Reach, Behala, Thakurpukur, Kudghat, Ranikuthi, Bansdroni, Baghajatin, and Garia, along with the south sub urban areas like Narendrapur, Sonarpur, Baruipur, is within the city of Kolkata as metropolitan structure.

    Two planned townships in the greater Kolkata region are Bidhannagar, also known as Salt Lake City and located north-east of the city; and Rajarhat, also called New Town and sited east of Bidhannagar. In the s, Sector V in Bidhannagar developed into a business hub for information technology and telecommunication companies.

    Both Bidhannagar and New Town are situated outside the Kolkata Municipal Corporation limits, in their own municipalities. Fort William, on the western part of the city, houses the headquarters of the Eastern Command of the Indian Army; its premises are under the jurisdiction of the army. It is a major commercial and military port, and is the only city in eastern India to have an international airport.

    Once India's leading city, Kolkata experienced a steady economic decline in the decades following India's independence due to steep population increases and a rise in militant trade-unionism, which included frequent strikes that were backed by left-wing parties. From the s to the late s, several factories were closed and businesses relocated.

    The lack of capital and resources added to the depressed state of the city's economy and gave rise to an unwelcome sobriquet: the "dying city". The city's fortunes improved after the Indian economy was liberalised in the s and changes in economic policy were enacted by the West Bengal state government. As of , around 0. The s saw a surge of investments in the real estate, infrastructure, retail, and hospitality sectors; several large shopping malls and hotels were launched.

    As of , Kolkata, with an estimated gross domestic product GDP by purchasing power parity of billion dollars, ranked third among South Asian cities, after Mumbai and Delhi. Kolkata is home to many industrial units operated by large public- and private-sector corporations; major sectors include steel, heavy engineering, mining, minerals, cement, pharmaceuticals, food processing, agriculture, electronics, textiles, and jute. Adoption of the "Look East" policy by the Indian government; opening of Sikkim's Nathu La mountain pass, which is located on the border between India and China, to bi-directional international trade; and the interest shown by South-East Asian countries in expanding into Indian markets are factors that could benefit Kolkata.

    Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River approximately 75 kilometres 47 mi west of the border with Bangladesh, it is the principal commercial, cultural, and educational centre of East India, while the Port of Kolkata is India's oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port.

    The city is widely regarded as the "cultural capital" of India, and is also nicknamed the "City of Joy". According to the Indian census, it is the seventh most populous city. In the late 17th century, the three villages that predated Calcutta were ruled by the Nawab of Bengal under Mughal suzerainty. After the Nawab granted the East India Company a trading licence in ,[15] the area was developed by the Company into an increasingly fortified trading post.

    In the East India company was strong enough to abolish Nizamat local rule , and assumed full sovereignty of the region. Under the company rule, and later under the British Raj, Calcutta served as the capital of British-held territories in India until , when its perceived geographical disadvantages, combined with growing nationalism in Bengal, led to a shift of the capital to New Delhi. Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement; it remains a hotbed of contemporary state politics. Following Indian independence in , Kolkata, which was once the centre of modern Indian education, science, culture, and politics, suffered several decades of economic stagnation.

    Many people from Kolkata—among them several Nobel laureates—have contributed to the arts, the sciences, and other areas. The discovery and archaeological study of Chandraketugarh, 35 kilometres 22 mi north of Kolkata, provide evidence that the region in which the city stands has been inhabited for over two millennia. Job Charnock, an administrator who worked for the company, was formerly credited as the founder of the city;[23] In response to a public petition,[24] the Calcutta High Court ruled in that the city does not have a founder.

    Bengali billboards on Harrison Street. Calcutta was the largest commercial centre in British India. The partition of Bengal in along religious lines led to mass protests, making Calcutta a less hospitable place for the British. Spread roughly north—south along the east bank of the Hooghly River, Kolkata sits within the lower Ganges Delta of eastern India approximately 75 km 47 mi west of the international border with Bangladesh; the city's elevation is 1. Kolkata is located atop the western part of the hinge zone which is about 25 km 16 mi wide at a depth of about 45, m , ft below the surface.

    Total thickness of sediment below Kolkata is nearly 7, m 24, ft above the crystalline basement; of these the top — m 1,—1, ft is Quaternary, followed by 4,—5, m 14,—18, ft of Tertiary sediments, — m 1,—2, ft trap wash of Cretaceous trap and — m 1,—2, ft Permian-Carboniferous Gondwana rocks.

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    These sediments are sandwiched between two clay beds: the lower one at a depth of — m —2, ft ; the upper one 10—40 m 30— ft in thickness. East Kolkata is also a section. Characterised by 19th-century architecture, dilapidated buildings, overpopulated slums, crowded bazaars, and narrow alleyways, it includes areas such as Shyambazar, Hatibagan, Maniktala, Kankurgachi, Rajabazar, Shobhabazar, Shyampukur, Sonagachi, Kumortuli, Bagbazar, Jorasanko, Chitpur, Pathuriaghata, Cossipore, Kestopur, Sinthee, Belgachia, Jorabagan, and Dum Dum.