Subjectivity in the Twenty-First Century (Culture and Psychology)
Hwang seems to argue for the near identity of culture and language, but his arguments for this conception of the relation between culture and language are unclear. For example, it seems that Prof. Hwang would need to clarify if he thinks that learning to speak Chinese will also make you a follower of Confucianism, and learning to speak English will make you some type of Christian or a Hindu? In contrast to Prof. A simple fact may answer Prof. Followers of those religions all speak Chinese. They may or may not identify themselves as followers of Confucianism.
Does this serve as a clarification? All these cultural heritages have been carried by Chinese language, but no one would say that any of them equates with Chinese language. In my debates with Prof. Allwood, I explained how I had constructed culture-inclusive theories by multiple philosophical paradigms Hwang, a and used them to conduct empirical researches in Chinese societies.
Findings of those researches had been published in my book , Foundations of Chinese Psychology: Confucian Social Relations Hwang, Regarding my research interests, Prof. Allwood argued that:. Apart from its language basis, Prof. Allwood , I agree that my research interests are highly selective. As Prof. Allwood might know, Confucianism and Taoism are the most important cultural heritages originated from ancient China.
Buddhism had been imported into China during Emperor Ming of the Han dynasty 1st century , it then mixed up with Confucianism and Taoism to become the Chinese folk religion of sanjiaoheyi Unification of three religions. As a consequence of rapid economic development since China adopted the Open and Reform Policy in , Christianity and Catholicism have been revived in recent years.
All those religions are important for us to understand contemporary Chinese people. But, Prof. Allwood seemed to disagree with this simple fact:. In the training seminar, Dr. Qimin He, a professor from College of Philosophy and Religion, Central Ethnic University, provided numerous empirical evidences to show that all foreign religious have been modified to a certain extent by local culture when they were implanted into China. Based on our long-term debate, I sense that Prof. Allwood might have got a wrong impression about my culture concept, as he stated in the very beginning of his article:.
From this, and other texts, it seems that Prof.
Affect and subjectivity
As a guest editor for this special volume of five articles, my contributions included:. The development of indigenous counseling in contemporary Confucian communities, and. It is very hard for me to imagine how anyone can argue that IP researchers attempted to develop those techniques of psychotherapies for helping themselves only.
In particular, special attention should be paid to the subtitle of that book for the consequence of Christian psychology in a world of many cultures. Michael Bond is a pioneer psychologist who has opened up the field of Chinese psychology by organizing psychologists from around the world. He published the first English book on Chinese psychology Bond, , followed by two volumes of Handbook of Chinese Psychology Bond, , , which successfully brought the term Chinese Psychology to the attention of the international psychological community.
The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Psychology contains 41 chapters by 87 authors who had intensively reviewed previous works on a variety of topics related to Chinese psychology. Was somewhat puzzled and bothered by the fact that the book does not have a clear structure … It is thus difficult for readers to learn quickly about what is included in the book and to identify the chapter on a specific topic unless they go through the whole table of contents carefully.
There is a general lack of theory in the whole handbook…The topic-oriented chapters have done a great job in reviewing and reporting extensively empirical findings in the field regarding the Chinese people However, very few chapters offer indigenous theories of Chinese psychology e. Moreover, most of the studies cited in the book simply dichotomized their findings as Chinese vs. Western, failing to capture the much more refined complexity of the world As an old friend of Michael Bond, he has always invited me to contribute a chapter when editing books on Chinese psychology.
And I did so either as an author or co-author of a chapter that offers indigenous theories of Chinese psychology. In contrast to the pan-cultural dimensional approach of Christian Psychology or WEIRD psychology, my culture system approach emphasizes the construction of culture-inclusive theories of psychology which provides a holistic picture for us to understand people in non-Western cultures Hwang, a.
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Bond also acknowledged the importance of initiatives outside the mainstream WEIRD nations in extending the disciplinary compass of Western psychology. The role of indigenous theorizing, then, is to enlarge our repertoire of constructs and theories in describing and explaining the human condition using scientific best practice. Non-mainstream cultural groups like the Chinese can enlarge our conceptual ambit, and ground psychology in the whole of human reality, not just their Western, usually American, versions The universal Mandala Model of Self Hwang, b as well as the Face and Favor model for social interaction Hwang, , can be applied to any non-Western culture for constructing culture-inclusive theories of psychology Hwang, a,b.
My approach represents efforts to preserve cultural identify and subjectivity for any non-Western culture. It advocates for a psychology of multiculturalism in the age of globalization. Perhaps as such, Prof. Allwood showed his sympathetic understanding to my approach after our long-term debate:. This may, as I have repeatedly argued in this debate, have the unfortunate consequence that the people who were planned to be helped by the IP research, and to whose society the research was planned to be applied, may be lost out of sight Allwood , Notwithstanding, I believe this concern may be unnecessary.
My approach enables them to preserve their cultural identity and subjectivity. Though most of them may be still at the under-developed stage. Although Prof.
Subjectivity in the Twenty-First Century - Google книги
The Chinese cultural heritage has been manifested by many aspects of Chinese people in their lifeworlds. Nevertheless, the I-Ching indicates that:. The successive movement of the yin and yan operations constitutes what is called the way Dao. That which ensues as the result of their movement is goodness; That which shows it in its completeness is the nature of men or things. The benevolent see it and call it benevolence.
The wise see it and call it wisdom. The common people, acting daily according to it, yet have no knowledge of it.
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Thus it is that the way Dao , as seen by the superior man juntze , is seen by few. The Great Treatise I. Because most people act daily according to the cultural heritage without any knowledge of it, and because it might be interpreted by different scholars in a variety of way, it is necessary for social scientists in non-Western countries to construct the scientific microworld of culture-inclusive theories for recognizing their cultural traditions in an objective way. It seems to me that the philosophy of science for constructing scientific microworlds is a product of Western civilization after European Renaissance.
Angela Ki Che Leung. Ronald Fischer. Kenneth D. Home Contact us Help Free delivery worldwide. Free delivery worldwide. Bestselling Series. Harry Potter. Popular Features. New Releases. Description What is it like to be a person today? To think, feel, and act as an individual in a time of accelerated social, cultural, technological, and political change? This question is inspired by the double meaning of subjectivity as both the 'first-personness' of consciousness being a subject of experience and the conditioning of that consciousness within society being subject to power, authority, or influence.
The contributors to this volume explore the perils and promise of the self in today's world. Their shared aim is to describe where we stand and what is at stake as we move ahead in the twenty-first century. They do so by interrogating the historical moment as a predicament of the subject. Their shared focus is on subjectivity as a dialectic of self and other, or individual and society, and how the defining tensions of subjectivity are reflected in contemporary forms of individualism, identity, autonomy, social connection, and political consciousness. Other books in this series.
Add to basket. Table of contents Introduction; 1.
Research and teaching
Subjectivity and strong relationality Frank C. Richardson and Robert L. Woolfolk; 2. A multi-voiced and dialogical self and the challenge of social power in a globalizing world Hubert J. Hermans; 3.
Technology and the tributaries of relational being Kenneth J. Gergen; 4. Melancholic subjectivity Stephen Frosh; 5. Plus ca change, plus c'est la meme chose: self-consciousness in the twenty-first century John Hewitt; 6.