Sustainability Delivered: Designing Socially and Environmentally Responsible Supply Chains
Madeleine Pullman. If you are a supply chain manager, an executive, an entrepreneur, or a stakeholder in a sustainable business, this book will help you develop the awareness and skills needed to support sustainable supply chain management in your firm. The authors introduce the many ways that social and environmental responsibility can be integrated into supply chain management, from sustainable product and process design to programs and techniques that support product end-of-life management. The book begins with a discussion of sustainability and business strategy.
It then explores product and process design, sustainable purchasing and logistics, and product end-of-life management topics. Innovative SSC. These companies search for innovative solutions to tackle environmental problems and sustainable supply challenges by depending on more sustainable and clean technologies. Clean technologies can provide the opportunities for the organizations to reposition their internal skills and capabilities to gain benefits from future markets. Innovation and repositioning are the values that firms would propose to their shareholders through the implementation of this kind of environmental strategy [ 15 ].
Reputed SSC. These companies attempt to integrate different stakeholder's views into the business processes to provide reputation and legitimacy for the firm.
- Tied Up For Love (Mythological Messes Redux Book 5).
- The Scribe (The Lost Spells of Egypt).
- The Comprehensive Business Case for Sustainability;
- Love and Let Lust..
- Sustainable Supply Chains?
- Sustainable distribution.
- The Forbidden Pleasure: How to Stop Smoking Even If You Like It?.
Product stewardship, which involves the whole chain from raw materials to the disposal of generated waste, is a more integrated approach compared to pollution prevention. Some practices that organizations can consider to create sustainable value to their shareholders through this strategy are green marketing efforts relating customers' purchasing actions to sustainability conscious decisions; life cycle management considering the costs and benefits of products beyond the internal boundaries of the firms from the sources of materials to disposal of the ultimate waste by end-users ; and closing the supply chain loop by converting the wastes into new inputs and re-entering the used materials and products in the production cycle [ 14 , 15 ].
Sustainable distribution - Wikipedia
By implementing the product stewardship strategy, firms might gain the competitive advantage of being the first mover in future markets. This can be the result of acquiring limited resources for producing green products or establishing a set of new and tailored rules and regulations in interaction with influential stakeholders [ 14 ]. As can be seen from Figure 5 , the drivers from various stakeholders influence the companies' decisions for selecting the appropriate environmental strategy. The consequent values expected to be created by this strategy can be considered as a central theme for configuring the SSC.
These drivers can either be external or internal. Examples of external drivers are regulators, customers, suppliers, green associations, NGOs, and competitors that drive the company to implement green practices to meet their expectations [ 58 , 59 ]. Internal drivers [ 58 , 59 ] could be the firm's environmental mission and competitive strategy which motivate the company to seek for environmentally friendly solutions that not only meet the external stakeholders' requirements, but also improve the firm's competitiveness.
After selecting the dominant environmental strategy, the appropriate configuration of SSC practices, processes, and structures can be designed.
Firstly, the core practices should be determined by considering the central theme. Secondly, the processes and structures should be designed to implement these practices while simultaneously following the central theme. Table 4 shows the recommended matching of processes and networks with the appropriate SSC practices. Table 6 briefly describes how these processes and networks should be designed to configure each of the three above-mentioned configurations. These recommendations for core practices, processes, and networks are based on the central theme and philosophy of each kind of environmental strategy, as presented in this section.
Pressure from different stakeholders to integrate sustainability conscious aspects in business practices has driven enterprises to adopt a variety of green initiatives in their supply chain. It goes without saying that no business can address all of these practices due to resource and budget limitations [ 60 ]. Therefore, they have to make a decision in selecting the most strategic practices for their business, and, subsequently, provide the appropriate infrastructure for implementing such practices.
In other words, the company has to decide on the desired values created by the implementation of these practices and then design the whole sustainable supply chain SSC to offer these values as much as possible. By considering this requirement, this study has embarked on a process-oriented approach to produce a comprehensive list of SSC practices classified into nine groups, namely, internal environmental management, green supply and supplier management, green manufacturing, green deliver, green consumption and customer management, collection management, recovery management, waste disposal, and influential stakeholder management.
The process-oriented approach to classify these practices provides a basis for matching the practices to the processes and structures. The main processes are plan, source, make, deliver, use, collect, recover, and waste disposal. The structures include both forward and reverse supply chain networks in which the reverse networks are categorized into four distinctive structures: the waste treatment, collection, reprocessing, and recycling networks. These configurations are developed based on the philosophy of various environmental strategies proposed by [ 14 , 15 ] with an emphasis on the natural-resourced-based view NRBV.
Efficient SSCs follow the pollution prevention [ 14 , 15 ] strategy, which intends to minimize the waste and emissions from the operations. The central theme for this configuration is cost and risk reduction. Core practices to meet the requirements of this environmental strategy could be green supply and purchasing, green process design, and material, product, and investment recovery. The processes would be designed to be costeffective, thus they are usually standardised and procedural.
A centralized design of structures [ 34 ] might lead to cost reduction throughout the whole chain. Innovative SSCs follow the clean technology strategy [ 15 ], which intends to develop the competencies for innovative development and future shaping. The central theme for this configuration is innovation and repositioning. Product eco-design and use of clean energy and technology are the core practices to meet this configuration's requirements. Processes are usually flexible and innovative to provide the rapid development of competencies required for the future.
Decentralized structures [ 34 ] could also be considered as a solution for designing the reverse networks to provide a basis for rapid development. Reputable SSCs follow the product stewardship strategy [ 14 , 15 ], which intends to integrate stakeholder views into the business process. The central theme for this configuration is reputation and legitimacy.
Collaborative practices in terms of collaboration with suppliers and customers and involving the influential stakeholders in business practices can be considered as core practices in this configuration. Processes should also be designed for effective collaboration with influential stakeholders. Reverse networks in this kind of configuration can also be developed by a joint approach through an alliance with existing reputable networks in the industry.
While designing the networks for this configuration, closing the loop is also a critical measure. This study has applied a process-oriented approach to classify SSC practices in addition to a configurational approach for configuring these practices with the processes and structure.
It forms the initial efforts in developing a framework for sustainable supply chain design SSCD. By configuring and harmonizing the design components of a SSC, this framework could assist companies to gain more benefit from implementing sustainability conscious practices. Future research for validating these configurations, such as conducting a series of case studies involving organizations from various industries, would develop this field of research further. Moreover, future studies for exploring the particular SSC practices in various industries and customizing the list of SSC practices for each unique combination of industries and configurations might develop the field further.
Once the framework is validated, the measurement methods can be developed to determine the degree of alignment of existing configurations to that of the standard configuration presented in the framework. Finally, this measurement method would provide a quantitative research framework for analysing the link between an appropriately configured SSC and the firm's performance and competitiveness. The authors would like to extend their appreciation to University of Malaya for the Postgraduate Research Fund Grant no.
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List ScientificWorldJournal v. Published online Jan Maryam Masoumik. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Oct 16; Accepted Nov Maryam Masoumik et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract Designing the right supply chain that meets the requirements of sustainable development is a significant challenge. Introduction In recent years, increased pressure from various stakeholders, such as customers, suppliers, regulators, competitors, local and global communities, and nongovernmental organizations NGOs , have prompted the manufacturing industry to integrate sustainability-conscious practices into their business not only at the firm level, but also for the entire supply chain [ 1 , 2 ].
Table 1 The list of previous studies in sustainable supply chain practices, processes, and structures. Area References Sustainable supply chain practices, drivers, and performances [ 39 , 44 , 58 , 59 , 61 — 72 ] Optimizing planning processes [ 73 — 86 ] Network design [ 34 , 36 , 87 — ]. Open in a separate window. The Concept of SSC This section attempts to provide a comprehensive understanding concerning the concept of a sustainable supply chain SSC by considering the related definitions presented in the literature. Research Process The research process of this study is divided into three stages.
Understanding the Components of SSCD A comprehensive literature review was conducted on the credible literature published within the last 18 years to identify and understand the components of SSCD in terms of practices, processes, and structures. Table 2 The distribution of articles in various journals over the last 18 years. Figure 1. Table 3 Sustainable supply chain processes and their definitions. SSC Structures Different organizations or individuals are required to play a role in a supply chain in order to implement the SSC processes.
From the literature [ 34 — 37 ], there are five types of network through which the processes of forward and reverse supply chains are accomplished: forward supply chain networks, which include suppliers, producers, and distributors that are designed for producing original products and distributing them to the market; collection networks CO , which are designed for collecting used products from consumers and distributing them to relevant destination points based on feasible recovery options; reprocessing networks REP that transform used products to reusable products through repairing, refurbishing, remanufacturing or cannibalizing, and distributing them to the reuse market; recycling networks REC , which extract reusable materials from used products and distribute them to suppliers; waste treatment networks WT that direct unusable products and materials to disposal or landfill sites.
Figure 2. SSC Practices Different practices in managing environmentally conscious supply chains are identified from the collected literature. Figure 3. Figure 4. A process-oriented approach for categorizing sustainable supply chain practices. Table 4 Sustainable supply chain practices presented in the literature.
Group A: Internal Environmental Management To implement green supply chain practices, the organizations are required to establish their own environmental management system. Group B: Green Supply and Supplier Management Practices that relate to the supply of raw materials and components are categorized in this group. Group C: Green Manufacturing The majority of practices in this group involve the waste-directed approach [ 22 ].
Group D: Green Deliver The practices categorized in this group are those that minimize the environmental impact of products' delivered in terms of transportation and packaging. Group G: Recovery Management The main objective of the practices within this group is to minimize the generated waste by recovering the used-products in terms of repairing, refurbishing and remanufacturing, or recycling materials whenever possible [ 40 ].
Group H: Waste Disposal The waste disposal practices originated from the effect-directed approach, which is a less integrated approach to manage an environmentally conscious supply chain [ 22 ]. Group I: Influential Stakeholder Management Practices categorized under this group aim to minimize the cost of meeting the regulators' requirements and to increase the company's flexibility and responsiveness by influencing the key stockholders.
Table 5 A harmonized categorization of sustainable supply chain practice, processes, and structures. Figure 5. A conceptual framework for designing a sustainable supply chain. Table 6 Different configurations of a sustainable supply chain. Conclusion and Research Implications Pressure from different stakeholders to integrate sustainability conscious aspects in business practices has driven enterprises to adopt a variety of green initiatives in their supply chain.
Acknowledgment The authors would like to extend their appreciation to University of Malaya for the Postgraduate Research Fund Grant no. Conflict of Interests The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. References 1. Extending the horizons: environmental excellence as key to improving operations. Manufacturing and Service Operations Management. The role of stakeholder pressure and managerial values in the implementation of environmental logistics practices.
International Journal of Production Research. Sustainable supply chains: an introduction. Journal of Operations Management. Concurrent product and closed-loop supply chain design with an application to refrigerators. Reverse supply chains for commercial returns. California Management Review. Applying 3DCE to environmentally responsible manufacturing practices. Journal of Cleaner Production. Miller D. Configurations of strategy and structure: towards a synthesis.
Strategic Management Journal. Configurational approaches to organizational analysis. Academy of Management Journal. Designing supply chains: towards theory development. International Journal of Production Economics. Chandra C, Grabis J. Stavrulaki E, Davis M. Aligning products with supply chain processes and strategy. International Journal of Logistics Management. Fisher ML. What is the right supply chain for your product? Harvard Business Review. Porter ME. What is strategy? Hart SL. A natural-resource-based view of the firm.
Academy of Management Review. Creating sustainable value [and executive commentary] Academy of Management Executive. Defining supply chain managemnet. Journal of Business Logistics. A framework of sustainable supply chain management: moving toward new theory. Brundtland GH. World commission on environment and development: our common future. UN Documents. Beamon BM. Designing the green supply chain. Logistics Information Management. Quantitative models for reverse logistics: a review.
European Journal of Operational Research. Jayaraman V, Guide V, Jr. A closed-loop logistics model for remanufacturing. Journal of the Operational Research Society.
Contact the Library
Interactions between operational-research and environmental-management. Performance measurement for green supply chain management. Srivastava SK. Green supply-chain management: a state-of-the-art literature review.
International Journal of Management Reviews. Leveraging closed-loop orientation and leadership for environmental sustainability. Supply Chain Management. Wells P, Seitz M. Business models and closed-loop supply chains: a typology. Svensson G. Aspects of sustainable supply chain management SSCM : conceptual framework and empirical example. From a literature review to a conceptual framework for sustainable supply chain management. Council SC. Supply-chain operations reference-model: overview of SCOR version 9.
IDEF family of methods for concurrent engineering and business re-engineering applications. Computers in Industry. Menzel C, Mayer RJ. The idef family of languages. Handbook on Architectures of Information Systems. Berlin, Germany: Springer; International Handbooks on Information Systems. A characterisation of logistics networks for product recovery.
An integrated logistics operational model for green-supply chain management. Transportation Research Part E. Mutha A, Pokharel S. Strategic network design for reverse logistics and remanufacturing using new and old product modules.
- Sustainable Supply Chain Design: A Configurational Approach.
- Who Can Stop the Drums?: Urban Social Movements in Chávez’s Venezuela (e-Duke books scholarly collection.).
- A Supply Chain Management Guide to Business Continuity, Appendix D: The Business Continuity Team.
- A Rapid Introduction to Adaptive Filtering (SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering).
- The Chance to Say Goodbye:Hope for Grieving Parents!
- Det M°rkner Mildt Mod Nat;
Computers and Industrial Engineering. Development of key performance measures for the automobile green supply chain. Resources, Conservation and Recycling.
Sustainable Supply Chain Design in Social Businesses: Advancing the Theory of Supply Chain
Assessing the impact of environmental management systems on corporate and environmental performance. Zhu QH, Sarkis J. Relationships between operational practices and performance among early adopters of green supply chain management practices in Chinese manufacturing enterprises. Strategic issues in product recovery management. Green logistics comparative views of environmental progressives, moderates, and conservatives.
The use of recycled materials in manufacturing: implications for supply chain management and operations strategy. Kumar S, Putnam V. Cradle to cradle: reverse logistics strategies and opportunities across three industry sectors. Rao P, Holt D. Do green supply chains lead to competitiveness and economic performance? International Journal of Operations and Production Management. Applying hazardous substance management to supplier selection using analytic network process.
Environmental performance evaluation of suppliers: a hybrid fuzzy multi-criteria decision approach. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. Bai C, Sarkis J. Green supplier development: analytical evaluation using rough set theory. The impact of integrating return components planning with purchasing decisions on purchasing performance a contingency perspective.
Industrial Management and Data Systems. Vachon S. Green supply chain practices and the selection of environmental technologies. Does sustainable supplier co-operation affect performance? Examining implications for the triple bottom line. Zuidwijk R, Krikke H. Strategic response to EEE returns: product eco-design or new recovery processes? A taxonomy of green supply chain management capability among electronics-related manufacturing firms in Taiwan. Journal of Environmental Management. Examining the impact of reverse logistics disposition strategies. Kumar S, Malegeant P. Strategic alliance in a closed-loop supply chain, a case of manufacturer and eco-non-profit organization.
Remanufacturing for the automotive aftermarket-strategic factors: literature review and future research needs.
Impact of sustainable manufacturing practices on consumer perception and revenue growth: an emerging economy perspective. Green supply chain management in China: pressures, practices and performance. Green supply chain management: pressures, practices and performance within the Chinese automobile industry.
Rao P. Greening the supply chain: a new initiative in South East Asia. An empirical study of the implementation of green supply chain management practices in the electrical and electronic industry and their relation to organizational performances.
Sustainable Supply Chain Design: A Configurational Approach
Zhu Q, Sarkis J. The moderating effects of institutional pressures on emergent green supply chain practices and performance. Is an environmental management system able to influence environmental and competitive performance? Testa F, Iraldo F. Shadows and lights of GSCM green supply chain management : determinants and effects of these practices based on a multi-national study. Diabat A, Govindan K. An analysis of the drivers affecting the implementation of green supply chain management.
Lun YHV. Green management practices and firm performance: a case of container terminal operations. Buyukozkan G, Cifci G. Evaluation of the green supply chain management practices: a fuzzy ANP approach. Green KW, Jr. Green supply chain management practices: impact on performance. Sustainable production: practices and determinant factors of green supply chain management of chinese companies.
Business Strategy and the Environment. Examining the effects of green supply chain management practices and their mediations on performance improvements. Diffusion of selected green supply chain management practices: an assessment of chinese enterprises. Green MRP: identifying the material and environmental impacts of production schedules. Guide VDR, Jr. Building contingency planning for closed-loop supply chains with product recovery. The impact of product lifecycle on capacity planning of closed-loop supply chains with remanufacturing.
Production and Operations Management. Jayaraman V. Production planning for closed-loop supply chains with product recovery and reuse: an analytical approach.
Responsible Supply Chains Conference - Podcasts
A system dynamics model for dynamic capacity planning of remanufacturing in closed-loop supply chains. Computers and Operations Research. Low-frequency collection of materials disassembled from end-of-life vehicles: on the value of on-line monitoring in optimizing route planning.