A CRITICAL History of Hypnotism : THE UNAUTHORIZED STORY
Surman, O. Hypnosis in the treatment of warts. Archives of General Psychiatry, 28, 3, Morgan, A. The heritability of hypnotic susceptibility in twins.
The epoch of Mesmer : That devil's trick
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 82, 1, What is hypnosis: Studies in conditioning, including three techniques of autohypnosis. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Marlowe, F. Effective Treatment of Tinnitus through Hypnotherapy. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 15, 3, Barber, T.
Hypnosis, imagination, and human potentialities. New York: Pergamon Press. Oystragh, P. Hypnosis and frigidity. Benson, H. The relaxation response. New York: Morrow. Andreychuk, T. Hypnosis and biofeedback in the treatment of migraine headache. Crasilneck, H. Clinical hypnosis: Principles and applications. Anderson, J. Migraine and hypnotherapy. Walch, S. The red balloon technique of hypnotherapy: a clinical note. A comparison of active-alert hypnotic induction with traditional relaxation induction. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 2, Bowers, K. Hypnosis for the seriously curious.
Cheek, D. Short-term hypnotherapy for frigidity using exploration of early life attitudes. The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 19, 1, Klemm, W. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 2, 1, Tasini, M. Hypnosis in the Treatment of Warts in Immunodeficient Children. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 19, 3, Van, N. Successful treatment of sacroiliac pain by telephone. A brief clinical report. Ansel, E. A simple exercise to enhance response to hypnotherapy for migraine headache.
Duddle, M. Etiological factors in the unconsummated marriage. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 21, 2, Gendlin, E. New York: Everest House. Stanton, H. Hypnotherapy at a distance through use of the telephone.
The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 20, 4, Gibson, H. Hypnosis: Its nature and therapeutic uses. New York: Taplinger Pub. Roberts, J. Hypnosis by telephone. The Medical Journal of Australia, 2, 4, Lamont, J. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, , 6, Gordon, R. Your healing hands: The polarity experience. Erickson, M. Hypnotherapy, an exploratory casebook. New York: Irvington Publishers. Schlutter, L. March 14, A comparison of treatments for prefrontal muscle contraction headache.
British Journal of Medical Psychology, 53, 1, Chertok, L. L'ipnosi tra psicoanalisi e biologia: Quello che gli psicologi non sanno. Milano: Celuc libri. Baker, R. July 01, American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 25, 1, Askevold, F.
September 06, What are the helpful factors in psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa?. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 2, 4, Cooperman, S. Hypnotherapy over the telephone. The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 25, 4, Roma: Astrolabio. Brattberg, G. An alternative method of treating tinnitus: Relaxation-hypnotherapy primarily through the home use of a recorded audio cassette. Baltimore, Md. L'ipnosi: Teoria, pratica, tecnica. Roma: Edizioni Mediterranee. Silverman, W.
March 01, Length of Intervention and Client Assessed Outcome. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 2, Gabbard, G. With the eyes of the mind: An empirical analysis of out-of-body states. New York: Praeger. Shapiro, D. Meditation, classic and contemporary perspectives. New York: Aldine Pub. Conn, L. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 26, 3, Wintrebert, H.
Psychiatrie, 61, Rowley, D.
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London: Croom Helm. Heller, S. Monsters and magical sticks: There's no such thing as hypnosis? Phoenix, Ariz. A: Falcon Press. Olness, K. Comparison of self-hypnosis and propranolol in the treatment of juvenile classic migraine. Pediatrics, 79, 4, Nash, M. What, if anything, is regressed about hypnotic age regression? A review of the empirical literature. Psychological Bulletin, , 1, Tebbetts, C.
A CRITICAL History of Hypnotism: THE UNAUTHORIZED STORY
Miracles on demand: The short-term radical hypnotherapy of Gil Boyne as practiced by Charles Tebbetts. Glendale, Calif: Westwood Pub. Meares, A. Life without stress: The self-management of stress. Richmond, Vic: Greenhouse Publications. Koziey, P. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 18, 3, Rossi, E. Mind-body therapy: Ideodynamic healing in hypnosis. New York: Norton. Metcalfe, J. Hypnosis and sex. Stress Medicine, 4, 3, Heap, M. Hypnosis: Current clinical, experimental, and forensic practices.
Karle, H. Wellingborough, Northamptonshire: Thorsons Pub. Bandler, R. Using your brain -- for a change. Piccione, C. On the degree of stability of measured hypnotizability over a year period. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 2, Weitzenhoffer, A. The practice of hypnotism.
Y: Wiley. Opere: Vol. Jung, C. Memories, Dreams and Reflections. New York: Vintage Books. Ekman, P. I volti della menzogna: Gli indizi dell' inganno nei rapporti interpersonali, negli affari , nella politica, nei tribunali. Firenze: Giunti-Barbera. Hammond, D. Handbook of hypnotic suggestions and metaphors. Melis, P.
November 01, Headache: the Journal of Head and Face Pain, 31, 10, Spanos, N. Secondary identity enactments during hypnotic past-life regression: A sociocognitive perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 2, Lynn, S. Theories of hypnosis: Current models and perspectives. New York: Guilford Press. Gauld, A. A history of hypnotism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Yapko, M. Hypnosis and the treatment of depressions: Strategies for change. Yue, G. Strength increases from the motor program: comparison of training with maximal voluntary and imagined muscle contractions.
Journal of Neurophysiology, 67, 5, April 01, Hypnotic suggestion and placebo for the treatment of chronic headache in a university volunteer sample. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 17, 2, Hypnose et psychanalyse: Les enjeux d'une histoire. Ward, E. Experiencing vaginismus-sufferers' beliefs about causes and effects. Sexual and Marital Therapy, 9, 1, Branden, N. The six pillars of self-esteem. Y: Bantam. Edgette, J. The handbook of hypnotic phenomena in psychotherapy.
Irving, H. A book of remarkable criminals.
Charlottesville, Va: University of Virginia Library. Tecniche dirette ed indirette in ipnosi e psicoterapia. Kaplan, H. Pocket handbook of clinical psychiatry. Borch-Jacobsen, M. Remembering Anna O: A century of mystification. New York: Routledge. Hossack, A. Elimination of posttraumatic symptomatology by relaxation and visual-kinesthetic dissociation. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9, 1, Lapassade, G. Dallo sciamano al raver: Saggio sulla transe. Milano: Apogeo. Smith, C. Jung and shamanism in dialogue: Retrieving the soul, retrieving the sacred.
New York: Paulist Press. Rebel with a cause: The autobiography of Hans Eysenck. New Brunswick, N. J: Transaction Publishers. Carroy, J. Delboeuf et Bernheim: Entre hypnose et suggestion. Martenot, M. Paris: Le Courrier du livre. Esplen, M. Guided imagery treatment to promote self-soothing in bulimia nervosa. A theoretical rationale. The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research, 7, 2, Lacan, J. Preference between two methods of active-alert hypnosis: not all techniques are created equal. The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 41, 3, Holden, E. Empirically supported treatments in pediatric psychology: recurrent pediatric headache.
Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 24, 2, Ginandes, C. Using hypnosis to accelerate the healing of bone fractures: a randomized controlled pilot study. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 5, 2, Harasymczuk, M. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 28, LeBlanc, A. On hypnosis, simulation, and faith the problem of post-hypnotic suggestion in France Kirsch, I.
Imaginative Suggestibility and Hypnotizability. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10, 2, Katz, D. Is Surgery the Answer to Vaginismus?. The Truth and the Hype of Hypnosis. Scientific American, , 1, Shermer, M. The Skeptic encyclopedia of pseudoscience. Trancework: An introduction to the practice of clinical hypnosis. New York: Brunner-Routledge. Results of a Clinical Trial. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 45, 4, Barrymore, J. Alpha Video Distributors. Narbeth, PA: Alpha Video.
Caro, M. Caro's book of poker tells: The psychology and body language of poker. Astin, J. Stewart-Steinberg, S. Diacritics, 33, 1, April 04, Waterfield, R. Hidden depths: The story of hypnosis. Reissing, E. Thirteen days: Joseph Delboeuf versus Pierre Janet on the nature of hypnotic suggestion. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 40, 2, Ranganathan, V.
From mental power to muscle power—gaining strength by using the mind. Neuropsychologia, 42, 7, Favaretti, S. Come guarire la depressione, l'ansia, le fobie e le ossessioni: Nuovi sviluppi della psicoterapia. Roma: Armando. Oakley, D. Hypnosis as a tool in research: experimental psychopathology. Contemporary Hypnosis, 23, 1, Mason, M. Wandering minds: the default network and stimulus-independent thought. Science new York, N. Traetta, L. La forza che guarisce: Franz Anton Mesmer e la storia del magnetismo animale.
Bari: Edipuglia. Ng, M. December 14, Treatment of a case of resistant vaginismus using modified Mien-Ling. Sexual and Marital Therapy, 7, 3, Vitale, J. Hypnotic writing: How to seduce and persuade customers with only your words. Hoboken, N. Della, S. Tall tales about the mind and brain: Separating fact from fiction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dufresne, T. Against Freud: Critics talk back. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press. Del, C. Induzione ipnotica. La comunicazione mente-corpo in ipnosi. Ferragut, E. Issy-les-moulineaux: Elsevier Masson. Mesmeric trance, as it will come to be used, seems to allow subjects to experience far away places, pronounce prophecies, diagnose diseases, read minds, taste food in the mesmerist's mouth, withstand pain, and employ a whole host of miraculous abilities—or so it seems. Nearly fifty years after Puysegur first induced somnambulism, Animal Magnetism finally takes root in English soil.
Doctor John Elliotson is utterly captivated by a demonstration of Animal Magnetism by a visiting French nobleman, the Baron du Potet, and the Englishman demands to learn the art from the foreigner. Though physically small, Elliotson is a man of considerable professional and social stature. A popular lecturer and professor of medicine and physiology, he is the founder and head of the University College Hospital with several important medical discoveries to his name. He is a good friend of Thomas Wakley, editor of the medical journal The Lancet, which often helps him in championing his medical reform causes.
His motto is "Onward! Du Potet , on the other hand, has a checkered past.
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Partly responsible for getting the French scientific and medical communities to re-open their investigations of mesmerism, he has watched those communities reject evidence of magnetism's ability to produce anesthesia suitable for surgery. Ultimately, as in Mesmer's day, the source of controversy is not the efficacy of mesmerism, but the questionable theory that underpins it. The landless baron has sought out a more receptive audience in England, and he finds it in Doctor Elliotson. Elliotson accepts the magnetic premise whole-cloth, and within a year, he is demonstrating magnetism to standing-room-only audiences at the University College of London theater.
The stars of those demonstrations are Elliotson's most receptive somnambulists, two Irish peasant sisters named O'Key. During the mesmeric trance, both sisters enchant the crowd by displaying personalities distinctly different from their own; the usually subdued servants disregard social convention, flirting, singing, and generally entertaining the audience. Nonetheless, Elliotson continues to associate with the O'Keys, even taking them on hospital rounds so that they could diagnose patients and recommend treatments while in trance. These antics do not sit well with the rest of the faculty.
Up to that point, surgeon Robert Liston had been the star of the University theater, where his formal and dignified public dissections had been the order of the day. Likewise, Wakley, after performing his own private experiments with the O'Key sisters not unlike the trials of the Bailly Commission, arrives at the same conclusions: there is no magnetic fluid, and cures are caused by suggestion. Very quickly, The Lancet and the faculty turn against Elliotson, and by the end of , he resigns from his post in public disgrace. Nonetheless, Elliotson carries on his investigations and practice from his home, and mesmerism spreads throughout Britain as a popular pursuit.
Famous writers such as a Charles Dickens practice it; Harriet Martineau writes about her experience as a mesmeric patient. Having been rejected by the mainstream medical community, Animal Magnetism is taken up as a parlor game in many households. In the same year that Elliotson is demonstrating what he learned from Du Potet, a New England clockmaker goes to see a demonstration given by the visiting French mesmerist, Charles Poyen Saint-Sauveur.
The clockmaker, having already observed that he could heal his own body better than the medicines of the day, becomes the mesmerist's apprentice for two years before setting out on his own circuit. In time, he will become famous as Phineas Parkhurst Quimby, founder of the New Thought movement, which teaches that the mind has the power to heal the body. One of Quimby's patients is a young woman who takes his ideas, frames them in religious context, and becomes known as Mary Baker Eddy , founder of Christian Science, which teaches that the mind through the power of God has the power to heal the body.
Ironically, the Christian Scientists warn readers about the supposed "evils" of hypnosis. Four years after Elliotson's controversial demonstrations, an amateur mesmerist named Ward induces anesthesia in a patient while surgeon Topham amputates a leg in the first public demonstration of magnetic anesthesia for surgery in Britain. The Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society explodes in scandal and controversy: some doctors cry fakery, while others insist the patient was just exceedingly brave.
The president of the society has the report struck from the record, claiming that pain is a "wise provision of nature" and that patients are better for their suffering. The reaction so disgusts Elliotson, who was by the way the founder of the society, that he starts a new journal, The Zoist, to publish that report and others. As would later be reported in The Zoist, Scottish Doctor James Esdaile has the task of draining fluid from the enlarged scrotum of an imprisoned convict named Madhab Kaura. Observing how much pain the procedure causes, Doctor Esdaile decides to attempt mesmeric anesthesia , even though he has no training in it and has never seen it done.
Drawing only on knowledge gained from a book, Esdaile begins making mesmeric passes over his patient; some hours later, the patient achieves a trance state, and the doctor is able to drain the fluid painlessly. Over the next several years, Esdaile performs thousands of painless surgeries using mesmerism as the only anesthetic. The deep level of trance he achieves later comes to be called " the Esdaile State " by twentieth-century hypnotists.
In , the surgeon publishes his findings, but once again, the medical community rejects mesmeric anesthesia as quackery. In the same year that James Esdaile publishes his account of thousands of successful major surgeries using mesmerism, two American doctors make history by performing a single minor operation on a patient while using ether for anesthesia.
A few months later, Robert Liston will perform the first major surgery using ether. The location he chooses is the University College of London theater -- the same place where Elliotson had demonstrated Animal Magnetism. The surgery he performs is a leg amputation -- the same procedure with which Topham and Ward had shown the effectiveness of mesmeric anesthesia.
Upon completing the surgery, during which the patient moved about and moaned only a little bit, Liston turns to his audience and crows triumphantly, "This Yankee dodge beats mesmerism hollow! Thus, the advent of chemical anesthesia, which has the advantage of being easily controlled by the doctor and only the slight disadvantage of occasionally killing a patient, spells the end of mesmeric anesthesia for surgery, and with it, the end of mesmerism's chance of becoming part of mainstream medicine.
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