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Vietnamese Culture. The Association of Art and Literature is founded, replacing the Cultural. Association for National Salvation. The campaign of political rectification starts. Stalin dies. The land reform campaign. Geneva Agreements divide Vietnam into two parts: the North controlled by. A group of writers and artists in the army demand creative freedom. Some remarkable books are published:. The literary prize is announced. Khrushchev delivers a secret report on Stalin. The campaign of a Hundred Flowers is launched in China. A re-education course is organized for nearly writers and artists in.

Writers and artists are sent to factories or to the countryside to reinforce their. United States. American advisors begin active role in South Vietnam. First American combat units land at Danang South Vietnam. The Cultural Revolution is launched in China. Paris peace agreement is signed; and American troops withdraw. North Vietnam conquers Saigon; war ends. A massive exodus from Vietnam began with the change in government. Chinese leader Mao Zedong dies. Vietnam invades Kampuchea, and instals a pro-Vietnam government.

China launches invasion of Vietnam. Gorbachev's policies of glasnost and perestroika are adopted in the Soviet. Communism in Eastern Europe collapses. Tiananmen massacre occurs in China. Zachary Abuza, Contemporary Vietnamese literature is notable for its fissure along. From to this fissure marked the boundary. From to it was the. In this context of Vietnam's history, the relationship between literature and. Nowhere is this relationship deeper and clearer than in. Despite its significance, the relationship between literature and politics in.

Vietnam has never been studied in a systematic or comprehensive way. This study. Literature Review. In Vietnam, literary study and criticism began comparatively recently. In the. All were oversimplified, concentrating. A monograph on Vietnamese literary history with a critical stance close to. It was also in the s that.

These works, along. Immediately after this brief blossoming period, the anti-French resistance. In , as a result of the Geneva Agreements, Vietnam was. The Vietnam War created a variety of difficulties for literary activities, the. In the circumstances of. The study of socialist realism was even more influenced by war. In South. Vietnam during the period of , only one anthology written by writers living. In the Vietnamese community-in-exile after , the only published anthology of.

Paris in In North Vietnam after , and in Vietnam after , the situation has.


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Apart from several textbooks, no systematic and thorough work on. Publications in. This political. How do we assess forty two years of literature of revolutionary resistance and. There has been a lack of criticism and criticism of. Both cited. Vietnam over the past decades. It may be said that the whole output of literary criticism and scholarship in. Most, if not all, were. They appeared as sub-texts of the political narratives. Of the Western countries, France has the longest relationship with Vietnam.

Much Vietnamese literature, especially classical works, has been translated into. France has also had many prominent Vietnamese. Early studies of Vietnamese literature began with Georges Cordier and. Maurice Durand. Better-known than Georges Cordier,. Maurice Durand was the author of many translations and monographs on. Vietnamese literature and culture, the most notable being Introduction to. A special place in the research of modern Vietnamese literature in France is.

Vietnam Forum , no. Bertoin in In Russia, although the first publication on Vietnam can be traced to the. Tkachev, I. Zimonina, A. Sokolov, S. Toporishchev and N. Apart from. Vietnamese literature. Both focus on the history of Vietnamese literature as a. In the modern period, Nikulin has. In the last few decades, the topic of Vietnam has attracted several scholars. Until the mids, however, interest in the study. Specialists in the field of literature. Vietnamese Communist Party. Of these, the following authors must be mentioned:.

John K. Wolters, who mentioned several works of Vietnamese classical literature while. Schafer, the author and. Yeager, who is. January , p. Cornell University, pp. The Vietnam Forum no. Asian Studies Studies 52, no. Jamieson on modern. Taylor, 14 Peter. It is worth noting that, apart from those mentioned above, several. Hanover: University of New England. Richmond: Curzon, pp. Vietnam Review 1 , pp.

Taylor has also published several essays on. Vietnamese Studies , no. Press, pp. Studies Hanoi no. Greg Lockhart also translated and wrote introductions to. History, no. A part of it was translated. Vietnam between and Most of the above English works concentrate either on a notable author or. Thus, it. Communism , published in California in , and reprinted in Part one examines literary activities under the. Vietnamese writers. Part two examines the history of Vietnamese socialist realism. Part three gives an. At a glance, it is.

It aims to depict literary background rather than to study literature. In contrast, this thesis examines the relationship between literature and. In exploring the nexus between literature and politics in Vietnamese. How did the Vietnamese intellectuals of the s come to accept. How did the Vietnamese Communist Party introduce Marxist literary.

By what means did the Vietnamese Communist Party exercise its. What impact did this leadership style and control have upon literary. In respect to literary theory, one of the theoretical outcomes of this study is. Furthermore, as has been shown in literary history. Each author in. In view of this relationship, the research aims to discover the lessons.

In respect to literary history, most historians believe that the modern period. Poetry Movement. After fifty years, socialist realism is certainly the most durable. Consequently, one cannot fully understand modern Vietnamese. In relation to the socio-political life of Vietnam, an American belonging to a. Jamieson, the author of. To understand the war, we must understand the. This study offers i an. Theoretical Framework. The relationship between literature and politics is an age-old issue in the. It was one of the main concerns of the first theorists in. Although primarily.

First, both paid particular attention to the relationship between literature and. Faced with this kind of. While Plato thought that. Confucius believed it to be good and necessary. Plato sought to exclude poets from. Young men, why do you not study Poetry? It can be used to inspire, to. Jamieson , op. Chicago Press, p. About his review, see, for. Wimsatt Jr. History , volume 1, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, pp. Later, Plato's view of literature was adjusted and developed by Aristotle.

Although the relationship between literature and politics can be traced back. This involvement did not proceed. Movement which put forward one of the strongest defenses of literature's autonomy. Almost contemporaneous with the deinstrumentalization of literature by. Liu , op. Mosse eds. Marxism has been the most politically engaged school of thought.

As widely acknowledged by Marxist as well as non-Marxist scholars,. Their pronouncements on literature occur in various works but only. However, they put forward. Of these, the most important contend that a literature as part of the. Marxist theorists and critics have focused their attention on literature as well as its. As a result, in the field of literature, no school of thought can be. Even the existentialist philosopher, Jean-Paul Sartre, who has fervidly. All Marxist theorists, regardless of their differences, agree that literature,.

Of all Marxist movements of literature, socialist realism is certainly a. At its core, socialist realism was not born. Cambridge University Press, pp. Deeney , Chinese —. Press, p. The emergence of. Union of Writers , a highly bureaucratized, or in Ronald Hingley's words,. It is obvious that socialist realism is more. As a result, as Abram Tertz points out,. Most subjects of Soviet literature have in common a remarkable.

They all develop in one direction, and a direction well known. This direction may exhibit variations in accordance with time,. From the Soviet Union, socialist realism expanded to other countries, even. Flower as. In several countries such as the former German Democratic Republic,. Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and in all Western countries, which had.

University Press, p. House, p. Illinois : Northwestern University Press, p. Scriven and Dennis Tate eds. In this regard, China and Vietnam are different. In the s and s, both. Confucianism, which considers obedience, subordination and loyalty the highest. Compared to China, Vietnam had several striking differences. First, while.


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China was partly and temporarily occupied by foreigners, especially the Japanese. The Vietnamese experience of colonialism was, therefore, felt more deeply and. Secondly, while the Chinese began their process of. As a result, the para-religiousness seems to have been. While socialist realism in the former Soviet Union and Eastern European. This is one of the primary reasons. In other. Although the doctrine of nationalism, which was formed in the eighteenth. However, even in the twenty-first century, nationalism remains a confusing.

Like most historians, Charles Taylor agrees that. Western domination everywhere in the non-European world. Anderson points out that national consciousness inevitably produces historical. London: Macmillan, p. Nationalism , London: Verso, p. Smith ,. Nationalism , Cambridge: Polity, pp. Said, , Culture and Imperialism , London: Vintage, p. Ozkirimli confesses that his Theories of Nationalism, a Critical Introduction was. From this plethora of theories, Benedict Anderson's theory of nationalism. Said's theory of postcolonialism will be used as a framework for. The central theme of Anderson's theory of nationalism, which has been.

For him, these communities were formed mainly from the emergence. It was the. Anderson places a particular emphasis on the paramount importance of literature. It is here that Anderson's theory of. If nations are narrations, as one critic suggested, 48 Western colonists. JanMohamed's view, dehistoricizing and desocializing the. According to Edward W. Said, one of the variations of this. Frantz Fanon argues that, in. Said, in his essay on the Irish poet William. He argues that it is also a. Imperialism , Said concludes that. Along with armed resistance in places as diverse as nineteenth-century.

Algeria, Ireland, and Indonesia, there also went considerable efforts in cultural. Never was it the case. Bhabha ed. Griffiths and Helen Tiffin eds. Routledge, p. York: Grove. Said , op. Such a cultural resistance occurred in Vietnam in the twentieth century. Since the early s, ten years after its establishment, the Vietnamese Communist. Party confirmed that culture, including literature, was one of the three most. Writers were. Make rhymes into bombs and from verse make grenades. They not only used their pen as a weapon to fight against.

Along with music and traditional theatre,. French education system and had been deeply influenced by French romanticism,. Vietnamese revolutionary poetry, motioned to the East as a country of revolution:. Languages Publishing House, p. September , p. This demonstrates that, at least during the wars against the French and.

Americans, Vietnamese communists functioned as nationalists rather than. Is there any contradiction here? Yes, because as most historians agree, Marxism, whose roots were in. Enlightenment rationalism, is basically internationalism. For Karl Marx, the. Furthermore, both Marx and Engels predicted.

In this context, as Guibernau writes, nationalism was a. Programme, Myth, Reality , which was first published in , Eric Hobsbawm still. On the other hand, there was no contradiction, because in practice,. In the early nineteenth century, when. Russian Empire, Lenin advocated the doctrine of nationalism. In the early s, in. Robert J. Publishers, p. Minh , who, as historians have shown, first came into contact with. Congress in the summer of , that, in William J. A comrade gave me some essays of Lenin to read; they concerned the problem. Some political terms in them puzzled me.

But by reading and re-reading the. And I was filled with a. Alone in my room I exclaimed. The two complemented each other, merged. Most of the first generation of Vietnamese communists who became. They were originally. Harvard University Press, p. Cowles, p. He points to the. Vietnamese invasion and occupation of Cambodia in December and January.

These wars, he. Socialist Republic of Vietnam, and so forth - and, in so doing, has grounded. Studying the communist movements in Asia, two French historians, Jean-. Louis Margolin and Pierre Rigoulout, reach the same conclusion:. Communism in Asia has in general been a national affair, with national. Asia after all has seen intense wars between. Communist states, at the end of the s between Vietnam and Cambodia,. Where education, propaganda, and. That experience at least. The problem is that the resulting. Focusing mainly on the politics of culture in Vietnam during the period.

Ninh reaches a similar. In comparison with the tremendous upheavals in the Chinese case, the. Vietnamese revolution certainly seemed much more centered in and. The image of the communists as. Thus, in terms of theoretical or historical accounts, there is no contradiction. It was nationalism which took a crucial part in receiving and shaping. Argument and Structure of the Thesis. In conclusion, the main contention of this thesis can be summarized as.

Americans, socialist realism was politically constructed and functioned as a tool in. It not only emerged from a political. The first part of this thesis contends that Marxist literary theory was. Vietnamese traditional and Marxist literary perspectives have much in common,. Ninh , op. Politically speaking, with the limited importation of French. This helped the Chinese to maintain their predominant role in Vietnam. Marxist literary theory which was introduced into Vietnam in this period was the. This part of the thesis will include three chapters: a Western influences on. The second part of the thesis attempts to analyze the process of change by.

Vietnamese writers and artists from patriotism to Marxism and then Maoism, using. This part will point out that. Vietnamese artists and writers participated in the resistance, and accepted. Communist Party;. This part will include several chapters, focusing on three periods: the. During these. One of the most striking characteristics of these periods was the lack. The top leaders of the Vietnamese Communist Party were. The canonical texts of literary theory underpinned the leaders'.

The third part of the thesis examines the crisis and subsequent bankruptcy. However, while the dissidents in. Socialist realism as a theory and as a creative method was at an end not. It can be said that the enemy of. The market economy is its real mortal enemy. There are several terms used in this thesis which should be explained. First, the names of the Vietnamese Communist Party. During more than. It was.

Vietnamese Workers' Party , and finally as the Vietnamese Communist. Party from December to the present. In this thesis, for the sake of brevity. The key concept of each is realism, which. As a philosophical term,. Hemmings ed. Spariosu and. Georg Lukacs , Studies in. Essays in Honour of J. University Press, pp. Realism includes a variety of modes: psychological realism, magical. In contrast to. Magical realism focuses on seizing the paradox of the union of opposites:. Socialist realism, however, focuses on representing the economic and political. In contrast to social. Socialist realism is also different from critical realism.

It should, however,. As a philosophical term, critical realism, which is associated with the. British philosopher Roy Bhaskar, was born of a critique of the positivist approach. London: Routledge, pp. London: Athlone Press, p. This critical. In other words, socialist realism is a product of communism, formulated in. To avoid confusion and possible misunderstandings, all Vietnamese names. For example, without tone-marks,. For the sake of consistency, all Chinese names and places are written using.

Republic of Chinese government in and has come to be widely used by the. Titles of Vietnamese and French books are written according to Vietnamese. The Importation of Socialist Realism into Vietnam. Western Influence on Modern Vietnamese Literature. The history of relations between Vietnam and Western countries may be traced. During the following. Most merchants failed to make a profit as they had done in other Asian countries, and. Only the.

Christian missionaries remained, disregarding the menacing stance and terrorizing. But those very. Western influence on Vietnamese literature became noticeable only in the final. Smith , Vietnam and the West , London: Heinemann. These three factors acted strongly. Owing to the strong influence of Chinese culture, particularly during the Tang. After some trials and failures,. Vietnamese Middle-Ages literature can be characterized by one distinct feature:. DeCaro , Rhetoric of Revolt. Praeger, p. Vella ed. Honolulu: Asian Studies at Hawaii 8, pp.

Chử Đồng Tử

DeFrancis , Colonialism and. From the syncretic perspective, literature was not seen as an independent entity,. In this view, aesthetic consciousness was not. Moreover, based on the psychology of the ancestral cult and on the Confucian. Ages regarded all age-old achievements as standards of perfection, according to which. All those norms contributed to limiting the expression of the poet's self.

However, impersonality was not only a corollary of normativeness but also a. The three major philosophical schools. Buddhism: all of which devalue, if not deny, individuality. Buddhism regards the.

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Confucianism perceives the individual as part of a social structure: preference is given. A backward agricultural economy on. People feared and hence revered nature, regarding. Both Confucianism and Daoism. This is why, in respect to. It may be said that both.

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As a result, in. Hegel and R. Hessney eds. Vietnamese traditional poets were conditioned to think that poetry was a mere chorus. Consequently, all poets attempted to. In the second part of the nineteenth century, the awkward, perplexed and. They then. Most literati oscillated between these two political poles. Consequently, the subject. In struggling for. The development of satirical and political trends in Vietnamese literature at the.

Phan Chu Trinh , was a new and very remarkable phenomenon. Satirical and political trends, in their turn, deeply affected the development of. In order to be effective, political poetry had to concern itself. These led to many important.


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  • The first was the change in content: the Dao and the static natural. The second was the. More details about the satirical and political literature of this period can be found. Details of this. The third was the aesthetic criterion: for classical poets, the high artistic. It is not surprising that in Vietnamese. Apart from the above indirect impacts, there were other more direct and. First of all, Western thought. In the traditional era, Vietnamese literati knew almost nothing but Chinese culture,. The bitter contact with modern and powerful.

    France made people question all the old idols. Early in , when attempting to go. They preferred Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao Western-educated intellectuals were more enthusiastic about reading and. It may be said that,. In both verse and prose, these works were. Rome in the seventeenth century; 24 and the other was a versified translation of an. Several people became famous as professional translators. Manon Lescaut , J. Swift's Gulliver's Travels through the French-translation, Les. In general, while Confucian scholars,.

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    While the former only. The first translations from French were. Cultural and Social Affairs, p. For Vietnamese writers of the first three decades of the twentieth century,. At a time when language and human mind keep changing, Vietnamese writers. What they can do now to be of use is to.

    The second impact of the West on Vietnamese literature is partly due to the. Harmonious, rhythmical and musical by. Until the French conquest, the Vietnamese had extremely few works of. Consequently it was soft, subtle and musical, but had many defects. For example, it lacked abstract words, had few prefixes and suffixes in order to.

    Moreover, it had no passive. In Vietnamese traditional writings, sentences were often. The relationship between the main and subordinate clauses was not clear, partly. Contact with Western literature, particularly through translation tasks,. The quantity of scientific and technological terms increased rapidly from. After many trials and experiments, the Vietnamese. Vietnamese terms.

    From onwards, thanks to the intelligent and effective reform. Weekly, was greater than that recorded over the next sixty years. The third Western impact on Vietnamese literature resulted in the formation. Prior to , in Vietnamese literature, poetry was. Writings in prose, both in Sino-Vietnamese. Through translation, writers gradually practiced some. HCM, pp. In the two hundred and ten issues. The first two novels,. Year At Hoi , which was published in Aside from creative writings, writers gradually learned to pay close attention to.

    In the traditional era, no works of literary criticism, theory or history. However, it was only a short. Outline History of Vietnamese Literature , which was used as a textbook in high. During the. However, before that date, in. All were dogmatic, inclined to criticize the contents of the art. Most of these writers were still heavily influenced by neo-. The fourth Western factor impacting strongly on Vietnamese literature was the. Although the Vietnamese have traditionally been.

    Literature was attached to education and regarded as a traditional route into the. People attended school, practiced their literary skills in order to pass the. The literary path becomes a cul-de-sac. My life has not been worth much! Beyond the triennial examination, literature was merely a kind of gentle.

    If there was any,. In some lucky cases, they would get a reward of a few bars of ten. In praising Cat as a talented poet. The King bestowed on him a loin-cloth and two piastres. After , some printers were brought from France to Vietnam. These were favorable conditions that pushed forward press and publishing. After failing his examination,. Hanoi and Saigon to work as a journalist and writer. Prologue to My Small Love, Volume 1 , published in , he wrote:. Having a half-baked learning of Chinese and French. I only hope to earn a meagre living by writing in the vernacular.

    As long as the mountain, the river, the moon and the wind still are. I still have poems to sell in the street. In a colony where writers were hampered by censure and repression,. HCM, p. By the beginning of the s the number of writers and. Literary activities, once they became professional, not only contributed to an. Writers were now influenced by a new factor: their readers. As a result. In the past, the ideal was that they should try to.

    All the four factors mentioned above played an important role in pushing. Vietnamese literature away from the orbit of the Middle-Ages culture. However, for. Firstly, the time in which the Vietnamese elite had been in contact with the West was. Most of them were undecided: on the one hand, they longed for the new; on. Before , most wanted to reconcile the. Marr , Vietnamese on Trial, , Berkeley: University of.

    California, pp. Thirdly, Western culture was. Writers were divided into two large groups: the scholar-. This characteristic was embodied. Because of this transitional character, the majority of literary achievements in. Also, the. No one lifted literary criticism from the level of the particular observation. Poetry, because of its burdens of a long.

    Since the end of. If anything happens, I will leave a trail of feathers. Just follow it to find me. Trong Thuy brought the magic longbow home as a present for his father. Trieu Da did not hesitate and immediately ordered his army to fight Au Lac. An Duong Vuong was confident that his magic longbow was going to destroy the enemy forces as usual.

    Of course, the fake longbow could not stop the enemy from rushing in like water from a broken dam. Seeing that the situation was perilous, An Duong Vuong sprang onto his horse with My Chau, and headed straight for the south. Kim Quy appeared and informed the king, Your enemy is none other than the one sitting right behind you!

    An Duong Vuong suddenly understood what had happened. He unsheathed his sword and beheaded My Chau. He hugged her and cried. Then he jumped into a nearby well, killing himself. If you can find one of these pearls and wash it with water from the well where Trong Thuy drowned, the pearl will suddenly become brilliant and sparkle spectacularly. As in some other Asian cultures, the turtle is one of the four holy animals in Vietnam. The other three are the dragon, the qilin and the phoenix. A strong belief in something can be the reason for one to make extremely bold decisions.

    A princess meets a young man in an uncomfortable situation and believes that fate has arranged that unusual encounter. In deciding to marry him, she goes against the traditional customs that every woman has to obey in a feudalist and patriarchal society. She liked to travel here and there, visiting natural landscapes during the four seasons. They were so poor that they took turns using only one loincloth whenever they went out in public. When the father was on his deathbed, his last words were for his son to keep the loincloth for himself.

    Chu Dong Tu did not have the heart to bury his father naked and cold, so he buried the loincloth with his father. From that moment on, he caught fish in the river at night and immersed himself in the water to sell his catch to passing boats during the day. Frightened, he swam to shore and hid, using sand to cover his body.

    He did not realize that Tien Dung had given orders for her entourage to pull ashore and rest. She ordered her tent to be set up exactly where Chu Dong Tu was hiding so she could bathe. Her bath water splashed down, exposing his naked body. Though Chu Dong Tu was shaking and embarrassed, Tien Dung talked to him and found out about his miserable situation. Is this our destiny or what?

    She then boldly decided to have a wedding ceremony with this stranger.

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    News of Tien Dung marrying a man without permission made its way to the palace. The king was furious and grumbled, Tien Dung has disregarded the order of things, and has married someone of low rank. From this moment on, I forbid that disobedient child to ever come back here again! From then, Tien Dung and Chu Dong Tu lived a simple life, making a living by setting up a trading post to buy and sell goods at the market. Slowly, their business became prosperous. They then opened a shop in a larger market.

    Day after day, customers flooded in, buying and selling. Chu Dong Tu diligently traveled to neighboring areas to start more businesses, while Tien Dung stayed to watch over their shop. Along his route, Chu Dong Tu happened to run into a hermit who taught him some magic. The hermit gave him a cane and a hat, saying that the two objects had supernatural powers. When Chu Dong Tu came home, he showed off these two strange objects to his wife and told the story of how he met the hermit.

    The couple decided to change their lives, leave their business, and travel the world to find a master to study the supernatural with these new objects. One day, while they were traveling, the couple stopped at a small teashop to rest. Just as Chu Dong Tu set the cane down and hung the hat on top, the couple fell asleep. Oddly, when they awoke the following morning, they found themselves not inside the shabby teashop anymore, but instead in a magnificent palace, surrounded by royal officials and servants.

    Folks in the area came to worship and submitted themselves to the couple as if they were king and queen. From then on, that region became like a separate country, with the people living peacefully and well taken care of. Not long afterwards, a gossiper tattled to Hung Vuong that there was a new country that wanted to rebel. The king believed this gossip to be true and assembled an army for battle. The entire palace and citadel twirled up into the heavens, bringing along Chu Dong Tu, Tien Dung, and all their trusted courtiers.

    The next morning, all that was left behind was a large marshy pond. The people of the area built a shrine there for worship, every year offering sacrifices. Everyone calls this marsh, which had a long-ago palace, Nhat Da Trach. The marsh later became part of the Hung Yen province. There was a succession of 18 such kings who ruled over Van Lang, a feudal community of rice peasants.

    The first Hung king was Kinh Duong Vuong. In the old days and probably even nowadays still , most people strongly believed in fate when it came to love and marriage. The belief is that two people in love must have had some unfinished bonds good or bad in a previous life, which brought them together in the current life in the form of matrimony. This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue? Upload Sign In Join. Save For Later. Create a List. Tran and Tram Le.