La Corte costituzionale (Studi e ricerche) (Italian Edition)

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  1. Languages of Italy
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Finished herbal products and mixture herbal products may contain excipients in addition to the active ingredients.


Languages of Italy

Herbal medicines include herbs, herbal materials, herbal preparations and finished herbal products that contain as active ingredients parts of plants, or other plant materials or combinations. Traditional use of herbal medicines refers to the long historical use of these medicines. Their use is well established and widely acknowledged to be safe and effective, and may be accepted by national authorities. Therapeutic activity refers to the successful prevention, diagnosis and treatment of physical and mental illnesses; improvement of symptoms of illnesses; as well as beneficial alteration or regulation of the physical and mental status of the body.

Active ingredients refer to ingredients of herbal medicines with therapeutic activity. In herbal medicines where the active ingredients have been identified, the preparation of these medicines should be standardized to contain a defined amount of the active ingredients, if adequate analytical methods are available. In cases where it is not possible to identify the active ingredients, the whole herbal medicine may be considered as one active ingredient.

A modern professional ethics, which aims at achieving a satisfying doctor—patient relationship, should develop from a renewed listening capacity to a renewed understanding capacity. This implies that the focus on the microscopic and tiniest aspects is to be shifted and the view extended to the natural and social environment in which man lives and falls ill.

That is why an integrative medicine based on a true confidence is required. It gathers more than 30 universities. WHA56 31 dated May 28, , invites the Member States to formulate and implement policies and national regulations on NCM, and to give special attention to personnel training. The best position statement on the practice of CAM at European level was produced by the Council of Europe in a resolution in Resolution On November 4, the Council of Europe published the Resolution no.

No mutual recognition of other medical qualifications. New medical specialties can be included if common to at least two-fifths of the Member States. This situation causes self-regulation by establishing training standards and accrediting training courses. There is a growing demand among the European citizens CAM: the clinical effectiveness of CAM is, in many cases, at least as high as the effectiveness of conventional medicine, as showed by several long-term studies involving many thousands of patients; CAM is not only effective but also very safe, and that, therefore, CAM can help to reduce the enormous burden of mortality and morbidity caused by the adverse effects of conventional prescription drugs.

Integrated Health Care offers the better of two worlds, i. Government and Parliament had been invited to pass a law that acknowledges and rules the practice of NCM. Such law has not yet passed. The educational and therapeutic task of Complementary Medicines is to teach modern medicine how to take advantage of their contribution in an integrated way, including humanization of medical practices. This is the first contribution of Non Conventional Medicines to a medicine focusing on the human being in its wholeness, integrity and full dignity for a suitable and free choice of the individual health program.

Health is no longer conceived as absence of illness but it corresponds to the psychophysical well-being claimed by the World Health Organization. Corte Costituzionale - Sentenza n. Roberti di Sarsina P. La Medicina Biologica, —21, Lo status giuridico delle MNC in Italia e in altre nazioni occidentali.

Il Domenicale de Il Sole 24 Ore, , , Medicine Non Convenzionali, prime schiarite. MNC e situazione sanitaria in Italia. Natura e Benessere, VI , 19, 30— Con regole restrittive in controtendenza. La situazione sanitaria in Italia.

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Medicina Naturale, XVI 2, 48— Le Medicine Non Convenzionali in Italia. Non Conventional Medicine in Italy. History, Problems, Prospects for Integration. FrancoAngeli Publisher, Milan, Foreword by Edwin L. Health Technology Assessment. Schattauer GmbH. Stuttgart, Righetti M. GanzheitsMedizin ;— World Health Organization. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, Traditional Medicines Strategy: Geneva, Switzerland: WHO , Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Kobe, Japan: Centre for Health Development, Expanding horizons of healthcare: five-year strategic plan, — Use of unconventional medicine in Italy: a nation-wide survey.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol ;—4. Caratteristiche individuali e familiari degli utilizzatori di terapie non convenzionali in Italia. Brussels, Luxembourg. The bill was met with resistance by all the subsequent legislatures, being reluctant to challenge the widely-held myth of "Italian linguistic homogeneity", [18] and only in did it eventually pass, becoming a law. In the end, the historical linguistic minorities were thus recognized by the Law no. Some interpretations of said law seem to divide the twelve languages into two groups, with the first including the non-Latin speaking populations with the exception of the Catalan-speaking one and the second including only the Romance-speaking populations.

Some other interpretations state that a further distinction is implied, considering only some groups to be national minorities. In actual practice, not each of the twelve historical linguistic minorities is given the same consideration. The bill was later implemented, but deemed unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court.

The selection of the twelve recognized languages to the exclusion of others is a matter of some controversy. Italy is a signatory of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages , but has not ratified the treaty, and therefore its provisions protecting regional languages do not apply in the country. The Charter does not, however, establish at what point differences in expression result in a separate language, deeming it an "often controversial issue", and citing the necessity to take into account, other than purely linguistic criteria, also "psychological, sociological and political considerations".

The source for the languages' distribution is the Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger [52] unless otherwise stated, and refers to Italy exclusively. All living languages indigenous to Italy are part of the Indo-European language family. The source is the SIL 's Ethnologue unless otherwise stated.

Not included is Corsican , which is mainly spoken on the French island of Corsica. Istriot is only spoken in Croatia. Judeo-Italian is moribund. Sardinian is a distinct language with significant phonological differences among its own varieties. Ethnologue , not without controversy, even goes as far as considering Sardinian to be a macrolanguage with four separate languages of its own, all being included along with the Corsican varieties in a specific subgroup of the Romance languages, named Southern Romance : [57] this particular classification has gained little support from linguists.

Some other linguists, like Heinrich Lausberg , proposed to consider Sardinian as the sole living representative of the above mentioned linguistic family, which used to comprise even the now extinct Afro-Romance dialects as well as the Corsican dialects before they underwent Tuscanization. UNESCO, while seeming to share the same opinion of Ethnologue by calling Gallurese and Sassarese "Sardinian", [52] considers them to be originally dialects of Corsican rather than Sardinian on the other hand. The classification of these languages is difficult and not agreed-upon, due both to the variations among the languages and to the fact that they share isoglosses of various sorts with both the Italo-Romance languages to the south and the Gallo-Romance languages to the northwest.

Any such classification runs into the basic problem that there is a dialect continuum throughout northern Italy, with a continuous transition of spoken dialects between e. All of these languages are considered innovative relative to the Romance languages as a whole, with some of the Gallo-Italian languages having phonological changes nearly as extreme as standard French usually considered the most phonologically innovative of the Romance languages.

This distinguishes them significantly from standard Italian, which is extremely conservative in its phonology and notably conservative in its morphology. All of these languages are considered conservative relative to the Romance languages as a whole, with Sardinian being the most conservative of them all.

Although "[al]most all Italian dialects were being written in the Middle Ages, for administrative, religious, and often artistic purposes," [61] use of local language gave way to stylized Tuscan, eventually labeled Italian. Local languages are still occasionally written, but only the following regional languages of Italy have a standardised written form.

Languages of Italy - Wikipedia

This may be widely accepted or used alongside more traditional written forms:. Detailed map of the languages and dialects in Italy, net of the recognised ethno-linguistic minorities. Percentage of people in Italy having a command of a regional language Doxa, ; Coveri's data, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For regional-influenced varieties of Italian, see Regional Italian. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.

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Per the Wikipedia style guidelines , please remove duplicate links, and any links that are not relevant to the context. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Regional and minority languages of Italy [1] [2] [3] [4] [ not in citation given ]. Mythology and folklore. Mythology folklore. Music and performing arts. Television Cinema. World Heritage Sites. Flag Coat of arms. Catalan Algherese dialect.

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Sardinian Logudorese dialect. Sardinian Campidanese dialect.

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Molise Croatian. Southern Italian. Griko Salento. Griko Calabria. Le origini delle lingue neolatine: introduzione alla filologia romanza. Archived from the original on February Retrieved 22 July Storia linguistica dell'Italia repubblicana: dal ai nostri giorni. The Dialects of Italy.

Phonological Theory and the Dialects of Italy. John Benjamins Publishing. Retrieved 3 November Retrieved 17 October Archived from the original on 9 October Retrieved 8 October Articolo 6, Lingue da tutelare ". Le lingue tagliate. Storia della minoranze linguistiche in Italia , Rizzoli Editore, p.