Symphony No. 1, Movement 4 (Theme)
The movement ends, after a final statement of the second moto theme by the flute, with the muted string " pizzicato ", giving out pp a subdued reference to the motto theme with which it began.
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Second Movement-Andante expressivo, ma con moto The bass clarinet is heard alone in a moody soliloquy prefacing the principle subject of the Andante, given out by richly harmonized strings. The color becomes more tense by the addition of wind instruments, and the entrance of muted horns makes a brief climax. Then the rather sombre mood changes with the entry of a fluttering, capricious subject in which clarinet and flute play a marked role.
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Later a solo violin introduces a languid subject, developed immediately by full orchestra. A return to the theme by strings leads to the climax of the movement, after which the music returns to the capricious motive previously stated by clarinet and flute. The theme appears, this time played by muted cellos. A brief reference to the second moto theme in the flute, and the music dies away. Third Movement-"Divertimento" Allegro vivo Two abrupt, explosive measures, and flutes in their lowest register announce the principle theme over the accompaniment of a pattering side-drum.
Clarinets, and later, violins take it up, and the music grows in volume until xylophone and woodwinds, to the accompaniment of the heavy string chords, blare it out with the utmost force. Suddenly, at the height of the rollicking lift, there intrudes the sinister first moto theme and the colour changes. Trumpet and trombone chords herald a trio section which features an insistent figure for lower strings and side drum. Over this figure clarinets and bassoons have a melody, later taken up by violins and English horn. A climax is reached, and the music sinks down to a repetition of the opening theme of the movement, whereupon the first part of the scherzo is repeated.
There follows a brief coda in which, when it would seem the music must almost stop for lack of momentum, the full orchestra suddenly bursts into four measures which bring the movement to a violent and abrupt end. Finale-Maderato-Alla Breve con moto A lonely clarinet over a bass accompaniment soliloquizes on the wistful second motto theme.
Mahler's Symphony No 1, by Sir Charles Mackerras
Almost imperceptibly, the violas in rapid cumulative passage is announced fortissimo by horns and lower strings as the principle subject of the finale. A growling reference to the very first moto theme by the tuba is eclipsed by a triumphant brass fanfare whereupon the full orchestra triumphantly sings an extended version of the opening theme in the somewhat unusual time of , or four whole-notes to each measure. The music ebbs, and the principle subject is heard uneasily wandering through solo wind-instruments over a fluttering string accompaniment. A new and pleading melody is next announced by clarinet over a shifting harmonic accompaniment in the strings.
The melody, taken up by violins, rapidly attains great dynamic force, and twice rises to a strong climax in a short space of time. The trio of the " Divertimento " then reappears, and the music takes on a melancholy which is heightened by a solo oboe in quotation from the slow movement. The clarinet, in more optimistic soliloquy, succeeds in restoring the movement to its opening animation.
Prophecy; II. Profanation; and III.
The first two movements are instrumental and the third features a mezzo-soprano soloist, singing a Hebrew text from the anguished poems of Jeremiah's Book of Lamentations. While not as explicitly theatrical as his later symphonies, The Age of Anxiety and Kaddish , Jeremiah is clearly motivated by a strong dramatic impulse. As Bernstein described it in his program notes for the March New York Philharmonic performances:. Thus the first movement 'Prophecy' aims only to parallel in feeling the intensity of the prophet's pleas with his people; and the Scherzo 'Profanation' to give a general sense of the destruction and chaos brought on by the pagan corruption within the priesthood and the people.
The third movement 'Lamentation' , being a setting of poetic text, is naturally a more literary conception. It is the cry of Jeremiah, as he mourns his beloved Jerusalem, ruined, pillaged and dishonored after his desperate efforts to save it. The first theme of the Scherzo is paraphrased from a traditional Hebrew chant, and the opening phrase of the vocal part in the Lamentation is based on a liturgical cadence still sung today in commemoration of the destruction of Jerusalem by Babylon.
Other resemblances to Hebrew liturgical music are a matter of emotional quality rather than of the notes themselves. Bernstein's longtime associate Jack Gottlieb has pointed out that Jeremiah contains more motives based on specific Jewish liturgical sources than Bernstein was consciously aware—a testament to his religious upbringing, which had been deeply infused with synagogue music and Hebrew studies.
Most notably, each movement uses variations on two combined themes, one that comes from the Amidah a solemn prayer of the 'Eighteen Blessings,' used on festival mornings , and one from the K'rovoh the poetic expansion of the 'Eighteen Blessings' by the cantor. Musically, each new section develops thematic material from the previous one. As Gottlieb has noted, the three movements constitute "a giant sonata-form wherein the movements are, successively, the exposition, development and recapitulation.
Related Works Symphony No. Profanation from Symphony No. Frank Bencriscutto. To perform Symphony No.
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For general licensing inquiries, click here. To purchase sheet music for Symphony No. Rembrandt, Jeremiah Lamenting the Destruction of Jerusalem ca. Bernstein: Symphony No. Background In the summer of , shortly after graduating from Harvard, Leonard Bernstein made a sketch for what he described as a "Hebrew song" for soprano and orchestra, based on a text from the Book of Lamentations.
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As Bernstein described it in his program notes for the March New York Philharmonic performances: "The intention is Details 24 min. Text Lamentations in Hebrew. World Premiere: January 28, Scoring mezzo-soprano