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  1. The 12 Greatest Challenges for Space Exploration
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At the largest extreme, it is 26 km across, and the smallest is about 18 km across. Basically about the size of a large city here on the Earth. From the basic appearance, it is very much as it would look on the Earth's Moon, except that the surface features are exaggerated. Just like the Earth's Moon, Phobos has no atmosphere.

Also like the Earth's moon to the Earth, Phobos has one face that constantly points the same direction toward Mars, and is called tidally locked. One big difference you would notice is that there is almost no gravity at all on Phobos. Just by jumping with your own legs, you would be able to put yourself into "orbit" and "fly" around Phobos.

This also affects "mountains" on Phobos, as there would appear to be huge cliffs and other features where on even the Earth's Moon they would have collapsed due to gravity pulling them down. One of the most prominent features on Phobos is a giant crater named Stickney. The impact from this crater has a significant effect on the structure of the entire moon, and there are lines or "grooves" along the surface of Phobos that were formed as a result of this impact.

Phobos is tidally locked to Mars. This means that a day on Phobos is precisely the same as the time it takes to orbit Mars. So, the same side of Phobos always faces Mars. Phobos is very close to the surface of Mars. In fact, it is closer than any other moon in the Solar System that has been discovered so far from the surface of the planet that it orbits. This produces a very interesting experience to somebody on Mars, where Phobos rises from the west and sets in the east, as it travels faster than the Sun on a Martian day.

This is also called a transit , and produces many of the same effects that you see from a solar eclipse. If you were to see such an eclipse on Mars, it would significantly darken the Sun, but it would not go into totality as the Earth's Moon does on the Earth. This is because Phobos is too small to cover the Sun completely. Also, because the orbit of Phobos is so fast, the eclipse would happen very quickly, in just a few seconds instead of the several minutes you see an eclipse on the Earth. Because Phobos orbits Mars so closely, an eclipse near the Martian equator will be much more noticeable than an eclipse further north or south, because Phobos is usually quite a bit closer to an observer at the equator.

Because Phobos is so close to Mars, and because of the very low gravity, Phobos may be a place where people and supplies are transferred before going to the surface of Mars and then going to the Earth, almost like a space station in orbit around the Earth. It is very likely that if people go to Mars as astronauts, they will be visiting Phobos as well.

Phobos also has frozen water that could be useful to astronauts on Mars as drinking water and for extracting oxygen to breathe. However, Phobos is a doomed world. In about 50 million years, it will not exist. Every year, it gets about two meters closer to the surface of Mars, and will eventually crash or be ripped apart, forming a ring around Mars which will eventually fall to the ground. Asaph Hall was an astronomer with the United States Naval Observatory , where he studied many of the planets and objects in the Solar System.

In he discovered both Phobos and Deimos, and identified them as moons of Mars. The name for Phobos was suggested by Henry Madan, based on the book Iliad , a classical Greek book about mythology. His wife's maiden name, Stickney, gave the name of the giant crater.

Phobos, because it is so small, has hardly any gravity at all. This also means that you would be able to lift massive amounts of mass. A person who could carry 10 kg on Earth would be able to carry three elephants on Phobos. Because Phobos' gravity is so small, it is easy to escape Phobos and float off into space. In fact, Phobos' gravity is so light that you could throw a tennis ball or a baseball and it would fly away from Phobos and become a new moon of Mars! Surprisingly, however, Deimos was spotted and identified as a moon before Phobos, partly because of its greater distance from Mars, which meant that it was not so hidden in the glare of Mars' light.

The surface area of Deimos is roughly the size of a medium-sized city on the Earth. It is also very irregular in shape, due to its small size. From the viewpoint of somebody standing on Mars, Deimos would appear almost as just a very bright star, and you would not be able to identify any surface features without a telescope. The surface of Deimos has no atmosphere of any kind, and it is full of craters from meteors hitting the surface, just like the Earth's Moon. The surface of Deimos is made up of very dark rocks called carbonaceous chondrite , which includes a lot of the element carbon.

There is also water ice on the surface of Deimos, as well as most of the interior. Deimos has two named craters: Swift and Voltaire. Swift is the smaller out of the two named craters, having a m diameter, while Voltaire has a m diameter. The person Voltaire — was a French supporter of freedom of religion and freedom of expression. Because Deimos is so small, the gravity on Deimos is very, very small.

This is so little gravity that it would be very dangerous for people to walk on the surface without a tether or some other restraint to keep them from pushing themselves completely away from Deimos. If there were a structure on Deimos built for humans, it would resemble an orbital space station inside.

Because Deimos is tidally locked to Mars, it always keeps one side facing Mars during its entire orbit. This means that if you were on the side facing Mars, you would always see Mars in the same part of the sky all of the time. The other side would never see Mars in the sky.

On the side facing Mars, the view of Mars itself takes up almost one eleventh of the sky, so Mars itself would be a very significant object to look at. One of the reasons why scientists are interested in exploring Deimos is because it is believed to be an asteroid that was captured by Mars many millions of years ago. By studying Deimos and its brother moon Phobos, scientists hope to get a very close view of what other asteroids of a very similar size also look like elsewhere in the Solar System. Deimos is tidally locked to Mars, so a day on Deimos is precisely the same as the time it takes to orbit Mars.

From the surface of Mars, Deimos still appears to rise from the east and set in the west like the Sun, planets, and everything else in the sky except Phobos , but it lingers in the sky for a very long time, taking almost 3 sols Martian days before it sets in the western sky. This is also called a transit , and in this case perhaps transit is a more appropriate term than eclipse. Because Deimos is so tiny and relatively far away from Mars as well, the portion of the Sun that is covered by Deimos during an eclipse is very small, and somebody standing on the ground on Mars would hardly even notice.

It is similar to taking a flashlight and putting a small pebble on it. You can't see much difference in the light that comes from the flashlight. In Greek mythology, Deimos was the personification of terror. Deimos, together with Phobos and others, would often accompany Ares into battle with gods. In he discovered both Deimos and, less than two hours later, Phobos, and classified them as moons of Mars. The name for Deimos was suggested by Henry Madan, based on the book Iliad , a classical Greek book about mythology.

Jupiter Facts :. Jupiter is by far the largest planet in our Solar System: two and a half times larger than all of the other planets put together. It is the fifth planet from the Sun and one of the brightest planets as seen from Earth. Jupiter, along with Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, is sometimes called a "gas giant" because most of these planets are made up of liquid and gas. Jupiter is , km or about 11 Earths in diameter at the equator. That makes it about one tenth as big in diameter as the Sun!

You could fit about 1, Earths into the volume of Jupiter. It is , km or 10 Earths in diameter from pole to pole. Jupiter's rapid rotation it spins around in under ten hours compared with 24 hours for Earth makes it bulge out at the equator. Jupiter's magnetic field is the largest single planetary thing in the Solar System.

It is 26 million kilometers across, making it about 20 times bigger than the Sun. It has a tail that extends past Saturn's orbit. If it could be seen from Earth, it would appear to be five times the size of the full moon. The surface we see is not solid. This enormous planet has a relatively small solid and rocky core. Liquids and gases surround this core and blend with the atmosphere.

Jupiter is a cloudy, windy and stormy planet. The storms are visible as swirls, bands and spots. A particularly violent storm, about three times Earth's diameter, is known as the Great Red Spot. This storm has been in existence since at least , and maybe since If the storm has existed since , that would make it more than years old! The layer of clouds is divided into several bands. The lighter colored bands are called zones and the darker bands are called belts. The colors are caused by small changes in the temperature and chemistry. Each band rotates in the opposite direction from its neighbors.

Along the edges where the bands meet, these winds collide and create swirling patterns. The stormy atmosphere of Jupiter has flashes of lightning just like on Earth. The lightning is made by water near the tops of the clouds. Jupiter's rings are dark and hard to see. They are made of tiny particles that meteors knocked off Jupiter's small inner moons and debris left over from comets and other objects that came close to the surface of Jupiter.

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In fact, until the Voyager spacecraft arrived near Jupiter and took closeup pictures of the rings of Jupiter, scientists didn't even know that it even had rings at all. Two rings are clearly from material that can be associated with two sets of the inner moons of the planet. In the outermost layer of Jupiter lie frozen Ammonia crystals.

Ammonia is a compound of hydrogen and nitrogen; its scientific designation is NH 3. Jupiter's atmosphere is mainly made of hydrogen H 2. Apart from this, the atmosphere has helium He. Because of the high pressure, helium becomes a liquid further down in the planet. In addition, Jupiter has methane CH 4 0. Jupiter's temperature is very high. Because of this, scientists cannot tell all the materials the planet is made of. The outer core of Jupiter has hydrogen.

The pressure present can make the gas solid. However, because of the very high temperature, the gas melts, and becomes liquid. Jupiter has 63 known moons. There are four major moons that were discovered by Galileo in , the first moons ever discovered around another planet. Those moons are Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto; they are named from characters in mythology closely associated with Jupiter.

They are called the Galilean moons. There are often eclipses on Jupiter's cloud tops by the Galilean moons. There are four small moons orbiting inside Io's orbit. That group is called the Amalthea group because Amalthea is the largest one. They are all small and potato shaped. Amalthea is very red. The material of Jupiter's rings came from meteors knocking it off of those moons. Io pronounced EYE-oh is Jupiter's closest major moon. It is It has the most spectacular volcanoes in the solar system and molten sulfur lakes.

Any craters formed by asteroids hitting the surface are quickly covered up by the volcanic activity. Io's core is made of molten iron and is surrounded by a rock shell. Unlike Jupiter's other moons, there is very little water on Io. Scientists think that when Jupiter was forming, it was hot enough to dry out Io, but not the other major moons. It is made of silicates and has a layer of smooth water ice 10 to 30 km thick. The ice has long cracks in it and very few craters. It looks like the sea ice on Earth.

The ice has slid around at the cracks. We believe there is liquid water under the ice as much as km below the surface. There are also some large spots on the surface. In Roman mythology Europa was courted by Jupiter in the form of a bull. Ganymede is It is Jupiter's largest moon and the largest moon in the Solar System. It has plate tectonics like Earth. There are older, darker regions and newer areas with grooves where the plates have moved. Newer craters have bright rays around them from material thrown up by impacts. Older craters look flat and faded because the icy surface does not hold the shape of the crater as well as rock does over long periods of time.

Ganymede may have an iron and sulfur core with a silicate mantle and an icy shell. It may be similar to Io except with a layer of ice on it. In Roman mythology Ganymede was a beautiful young man who Jupiter kidnapped and made cupbearer to the gods on Mt. Callisto is It has many craters.

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Like craters on Ganymede, the older craters have faded. The largest crater is Valhalla. It has a bright center km across with rings around it up to km across. Callisto is made of silicates and ice. There is a km thick icy crust with a liquid water sea under it. In Roman mythology Callisto was turned into a bear by Jupiter's jealous wife Juno. Later Jupiter placed her in the stars as The Great Bear. The other moons are smaller in several groups outside the orbits of the major moons. There is also a small moon, Themisto and four groups of small moons that orbit very far from Jupiter.

One Jupiter day is about 10 Earth hours long. You have to say "about" because different parts of Jupiter rotate about its axis at different speeds. This is caused by the fact that Jupiter is mostly gases that are in constant motion and sometimes going in different directions. Some efforts have been made to try and measure the rotation speed of the inner rocky core of Jupiter, but that has proved to be quite difficult to accomplish due to the magnetic fields that surround Jupiter and the very active radio energy that is generated by the atmosphere of Jupiter, which interferes with measuring techniques like radar that has been used to measure the surface of Venus and Mars.

A Jupiter year is about equal to four-tenths or two-fifths of a Saturn year. Thus after every two Saturn years, Jupiter has completed five full orbits about the Sun. So after 59 years, Saturn and Jupiter will be back in nearly the same position. When the orbits of two planets are simple ratios of each other like this, it is called a resonance. If someone were floating close to the cloud tops of Jupiter, it would pull them down with a force about two and a half times as strong as the force of Earth's gravity. Jupiter's rapid rotation causes the equator to bulge out.

This would also cancel out about 10 percent of gravity's force on them if they were at the equator. The amount of this counteraction becomes lower the closer they get to the poles. Jupiter Latin Iuppiter is named after the king of the Roman gods, also called Zeus in ancient Greece. The god Jupiter was known for causing lightning strikes on Earth. He is associated with the eagle and the oak tree. Next Topic: Saturn.

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Amalthea is the third moon of Jupiter. Amalthea's oribt is very close to the Amalthea gossamer ring. Amalthea is not spherical like a ball, instead it looks like an asteroid. In fact, there is an asteroid in the asteroid belt named Amalthea. However, the asteroid is completely unrelated to the moon. This moon of Jupiter has an average diameter of km. The entire moon is actually a bit smaller than Ireland. The surface of Amalthea is bright crimson.

The reddish colour may be from sulfur or some other non-ice material. Amalthea has multiple craters, but only two are named: Pan, named after the Greek god of the wild; and Gaia, goddess of the Earth. Amalthea also has two named mountains, both named after places in Crete, the largest island of Greece: Lyctos Facula, named after Lyctos; and Ida Facula, named after Mount Ida. Facula , in Latin, means a small torch.

One day on Amalthea is equal to about half of an Earth day. One day is 11 hours, 57 minutes, and 23 seconds, barely more time than Jupiter takes to rotate. One orbit around Jupiter also takes the same time as a day on Amalthea — about half of an Earth day. Since these two times are the same, the same side of Amalthea always faces Jupiter. Earth's moon is the same way, which is why you can always see the Man in the Moon. A one hundred pound person would weigh only 0. This means that if you could lift ten kilograms on earth, you could hold three cars on Amalthea. The strongest weightlifter would be able to lift a blue whale, the heaviest animal on Earth.

Amalthea was discovered on September 22, by Edward Emerson Barnard, using the 36 inch 91 cm refractor telescope at Lick Observatory, in California. He was the first to discover a new moon of Jupiter since Galileo discovered Io and Europa in Io is the innermost moon to Jupiter. Be careful not to confuse Io the moon with 85 Io, an asteroid, or with I. Jupiter has 66 moons, but only four are large ones comparable to our Moon.

Io is one of these four, and the third largest. Io is It only has a mass of about 1. It is a similar size to our Moon but a lot more exciting!

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Unlike most moons, Io has a "young" surface. Because there is so much volcanic activity, the surface is almost free of craters. Also, its volcanoes are quite unusual. Because of the low gravity of Io and the explosiveness of the volcanoes, sometimes they eject material as far as km above the ground.

Sometimes the volcanoes erupt more calmly, more like geysers on Earth. There are also shield volcanoes on Io, formed mostly from lava flows. The temperature of Io varies wildly. At some spots, near volcanic eruptions, the temperature is very hot. But most of Io is very cold, as it is so far away from the sun. In addition to volcanoes, Io also has many mountains, lakes of molten sulfur, calderas , and flows of molten sulfur or silicate hundreds of kilometers long.

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The colour of the surface is due to sulfur being at different temperatures. When sulfur warms up and cools down, it changes colour. This is why the surface of Io has so many colours. Some people think it looks like a pizza! All of the regions are named after ancient kingdoms and empires of Earth, similarly to how most planets and stars are named after gods and other characters from mythology. Io's volcanic features are all based on various beings in mythologies other than Greek mythology and Roman mythology.

For example, Masubi is a volcano, but in Japanese mythology, he is the deity of fire who is said to have caused 8 volcanoes on earth. Another example would be another volcano named Ra. Ra in Egyptian mythology was the god of the sun. Io's mountains are a mix of many mythologies, in the aspects of their names. They all end in several Latin words vaguely meaning mountain. On the other hand, there are mountains such as Epaphus Mensa , named after Epaphus, son of Io and Zeus; and Ot Mons — in Mongolian mythology, Ot Ene the final "e" is pronounced is the goddess of marriage, who was born at the beginning of the world, when the sky and the earth separated.

It also takes 42 hours for Io to complete one orbit around Jupiter. Since these numbers are the same, it means that the same side of Io always faces Jupiter. She was a nymph.


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Nymphs are spirits of nature, associated with water, forests, and grottoes. According to the legend, Io was transformed into a cow by Zeus in order to hide her. If you stood on the surface of Io, you would weigh less than you do on Earth. A person who weighs pounds 90kg on Earth would weigh about 36 pounds 16kg on Io. So the gravity, of course, pulls less on you. Io was discovered by both Simon Marius and Galileo Galilei. Galileo discovered it on January 7, , and Marius discovered it around the same time. Europa is one of the moons of Jupiter. Europa has an icy surface.

Europa is special to scientists as they believe there is an ocean under the ice. Life may live in the ocean. These lifeforms, assuming they exist, would most likely be very different than the lifeforms on Earth, even the aquatic life here. The differences will probably be very random and very large. For example, the lifeforms may have not developed sight as we know it, but could see the radio waves instead, or the micro waves instead of the colour spectrum. They might not even be solid, but liquid or gas! Europa is 3, km 0. It would take Europas to equal the weight of one Earth, and almost 67 Europas could be fit into the volume that Earth occupies if they could be molded together like lumps of clay.

The Europan surface is extremely smooth; few features more than a few hundred meters high have been seen. There are very few craters on Europa, and only three are more than 5 km wide. This would seem to indicate a young and active surface; based on estimates of the frequency of cometary bombardment Europa probably endures, the surface must be no more than 30 million years old.

The smoothness and visible markings strongly resemble that of sea ice on Earth, and it is thought that under the surface there is a layer of liquid water kept warm by tidally generated heat. The temperature on the surface of Europa is far below freezing, even at the equator, so water ice is as hard as rock. The largest craters appear to be filled with flat, fresh ice; based on this and on the calculated amount of heat generated by Europan tides it is predicted that the outer crust of solid ice is approximately kilometers thick, which could mean that the liquid ocean underneath may be as deep as 90 kilometers.

Europa's most striking surface feature is a series of dark streaks crisscrossing the entire globe. These streaks strongly resemble the cracks that form in sea ice on Earth, and close examination shows that the edges of Europa's crust on either side of the cracks have moved relative to each other. Another way to look at it is that Europa resembles a cracked eggshell. The larger bands are roughly 20 km across with a central band of lighter material that is thought to have been produced by a series of volcanic water eruptions or geysers as the Europan crust spread open to expose warmer layers beneath.

The effect is similar to that seen in the Earth's oceanic ridges. These various fractures are thought to have been caused in large part by the tidal stresses exerted by Jupiter; Europa's surface is thought to rise and fall up to 30 meters between high and low tides. Since Europa is tidally locked to Jupiter- the same side always faces towards Jupiter - the stress patterns should form a distinctive and predictable pattern. However, only the youngest of Europa's fractures conform to the predicted pattern; other fractures appear to have occurred at increasingly different orientations the older they are.

This can be explained if Europa's surface rotates slightly faster than its interior, which is possible due to the subsurface ocean separating the moon's surface from its rocky mantle. It has been suggested that life may exist in this under-ice ocean. Scientists who suggest this point out that life can thrive in similarly harsh conditions on Earth: around deep-ocean hydrothermal vents or in the Antarctic Lake Vostok, which is also under a thick sheet of ice. There is currently no supporting evidence that life exists on Europa, but efforts have nevertheless been made to avoid any possibility of contamination.

The Galileo mission was concluded by crashing the spacecraft into Jupiter—if simply abandoned, the unsterilized craft might have eventually crashed into Europa and contaminated it with microorganisms from Earth. This would have made it impossible to determine if Europa ever had its own native life, and could even destroy native organisms if they exist. Europa's postulated ocean has excited tremendous interest in the scientific community.

Just as the Russians have been planning to drill to Lake Vostok in order to sample its water and explore for life, there has been a great deal of speculation about ways to drill through Europa's surface ice to explore it's ocean. Finding life on Europa would be a watershed moment in the history of science. It also takes 85 hours for Europa to complete one orbit around Jupiter. Since these numbers are the same, it means that the same side of Europa always faces Jupiter. Europa was a Phoenician princess who was abducted by Zeus and brought to Crete.

Europa was discovered by two people: Simon Marius and Galileo Galilei. Galileo discovered it on January 7, Marius also observed it around the same time. It is the largest of Jupiter's moons — in fact it is the largest moon in the solar system. The surface of Ganymede is divided into two regions: dark regions, and light regions. The dark regions are very old and highly cratered, while the light regions are younger but still quite old , and marked by grooves and ridges. Ganymede's crust is made of water ice. Like Earth's crust, it is broken up into plates, which can move.

Along the fracture zones, mountain ranges have formed. Because the crust can flow, craters tend to be flat. Sometimes, old craters become palimpsests because of erosion casued by the crust. Recently, the Hubble Space Telescope found evidence of an oxygen atmosphere on Ganymede. This does not mean that there is life on Ganymede; it is believed that the oxygen is produced when radiation splits the water ice H 2 O into hydrogen and oxygen.

The hydrogen is lost because it has a low mass , while the oxygen forms the atmosphere. It takes Ganymede 7. Ganymede orbits Jupiter at the same speed that it spins. Ganymede was discovered by Galileo Galilei and Simon Marius. Galileo found it on January 11, , and Marius around the same time.

It is Jupiter's second largest moon, after Ganymede , and the third largest moon in the solar system. It is a little more than one third the size of the earth. The surface of Callisto is one of the most cratered in the Solar System. In fact, impact craters are the only features found on the surface. Because Callisto's surface is icy, large craters and mountains are slowly erased. Callisto's crust is about 4 billion years old, dating back to the formation of the Solar System.

The largest crater on the surface is Valhalla. It measures km across. The second largest crater, Asgard, measures km across. Gipul Catena, a series of craters in a straight line, was probably caused by an object that was tidally disrupted as it passed close to Jupiter. There is no oxygen in the atmosphere.

Under the rocky crust of the surface there is a salty underground sea. Kallisto was one of Zeus' many lovers. Callisto was discovered by Galileo Galilei and Simon Marius. Galileo discovered it on January 7, , and Marius observed it around the same time. Saturn is , km or 9. Saturn is mostly gas and liquid. Saturn's rings are composed of rock and ice particles ranging in size from specks of dust to the size of a house.

Some particles might even be a few kilometers wide! The particles in the rings are actually spaced far apart. It would be easy to pass through the rings. Saturn has 56 moons, and many of them have names. Saturn's biggest moon is named Titan, and is large enough to be a planet in its own right! There are small potato-shaped moons in or near Saturn's rings. They control the ring particles with their gravity.

That is why they are called shepherd moons. Six of them are known, and there may be more. Mimas is mostly made of water ice with a small amount of rock. It is km across, making it about a third as big as Mimas. Enceladus is made of ice. It is denser than the other icy moons. That suggests it also has some rock inside. The smooth areas are younger. Craters there have been erased within the past million years. Water vapor was found over a smooth area around the south pole. The cracks and grooves suggest tectonics similar to Ganymede's.

Some ridges similar to Europa's ridges were also found. Those suggest oceans like Europa's under some areas of Enceladus. It is because Enceladus orbits Saturn twice for every orbit by Dione. This makes Dione and Saturn tug on Enceladus. This is similar to how Europa and Ganymede's tidal forces on Io power Io's volcanoes.

Tethys is an icy moon that has many craters, including the huge Odysseus. The crater had become flattened because the icy material does not hold its shape as well as rock would. There is also a large valley called Ithaca Chasma.

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It is 3 to 5 km deep, km wide and km long, three fourths of the way around Tethys. There are two moons, Telesto and Calypso, which share Tethys' orbit. Telesto is ahead of Tethys and Calypso is behind it. Dione is made of lots of ice and there may be some rock in its core. It has lots of craters. The craters are flattened because the ice does not hold their shape as well as rock. No canals were found; while scientists did not believe that Mars was a moist planet, the lack of surface water surprised them.

By the s, the ideas of canals and ancient civilizations had to be abandoned. Authors soon began writing stories based on the new Mars frequently treating it as a desert planet. Most of these works feature humans struggling to tame the planet, and some of them refer to terraforming using technology to transform a planet's environment to be Earthlike. A common theme, particularly among American writers, is that of a Martian colony fighting for independence from Earth.

It is also part of the plot of the movie Total Recall and the television series Babylon 5. A historical rebellion of Mars against Earth is also mentioned in the Star Trek series of novels, which are not considered canon. In the decades following Mariner and Apollo, the once-popular subgenre of realistic stories about a first expedition to Mars fell out of fashion, possibly due to the failure of the Apollo Program to continue on to Mars. The early s saw a revival and re-envisioning of realistic novels about Mars expeditions. Early novels in this renaissance were Jack Williamson 's novel Beachhead and Ben Bova 's novel Mars both , which envisioned large-scale expeditions to Mars according to the thinking of the s.

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Landis 's Mars Crossing , and Robert Zubrin 's First Landing , which took as their starting points the smaller and more focused expedition strategies evolved in the late s, mostly building on the concepts of Mars Direct. Several post-Mariner works are homages to the older phase of Mars fiction, circumventing the scientific picture of a dry and lifeless Mars with an unbreathable atmosphere through such science fiction generic staples as positing its future terraforming , or creating alternate history versions of Mars, where Burroughs' Barsoom , Bradbury's Martian Chronicles or The War of the Worlds are literal truth.

Nostalgia for the older Mars also frequently appears in comics and role-playing games, particularly of the steampunk genre:. In the following works of fiction, the Martian setting is of secondary importance to the work as a whole. The Martian is a favorite character of classical science fiction; he was frequently found away from his home planet, often invading Earth, but sometimes simply a lonely character representing alienness from his surroundings. Martians, other than human beings transplanted to Mars, became rare in fiction after Mariner, except in exercises of deliberate nostalgia — more frequently in some genres, such as comics and animation, than in written literature.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This article may contain minor, trivial or unrelated fictional references. Trivia or references unimportant to the overall plot of a work of fiction should be edited to explain their importance or deleted. August See also: Mars in culture.

This classic novel, later turned film, defined an era of science fiction. The mission goes awry, and the astronauts have a lot to contend with, from HAL —the artificially intelligent computer—to the truth behind the society situated in the depths of our solar system. She has to leave behind her boyfriend, her best friends, and all her extended family so that she can be cryogenically frozen for the next years on the journey to the new world. Yet, part of the way through the mission, someone tries to kill her, waking her from her sleep.

Stuck in the middle of space hundreds of light years from any solid ground, in danger, and completely alone, her options are limited. Buy now from your favorite retailer:. Luke Skywalker dreamed of adventures out among the stars and alien worlds. But when he intercepted a message from a beautiful captive princess, he got more than he had bargained for—and that was how the adventure of his life began…. This wonderfully imagined space opera takes place on a military spacecraft, Ananke. Labor organizer Padma Mehta is on the edge of space and the edge of burnout.