Theyre Bankrupting Us!: And 20 Other Myths about Unions

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This timely, accessible, "warts and all" book argues, ultimately, that unions are necessary for democracy and ensure economic and social justice for all people. Die 8. They're Bankrupting Us! Sicher bezahlen. Folgen Sie uns. Das Passwort muss mind. Darin sollte mind. Recht Steuern Wirtschaft. Erschienen: Auf die Merkliste Drucken Weiterempfehlung. Lincoln's naval blockade was 95 percent effective at stopping trade goods; as a result, imports and exports to the South declined significantly.

The abundance of European cotton and Britain's hostility to the institution of slavery, along with Lincoln's Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico naval blockades, severely decreased any chance that either Britain or France would enter the war. Historian Don Doyle has argued that the Union victory had a major impact on the course of world history. A Confederate victory, on the other hand, would have meant a new birth of slavery, not freedom.

Historian Fergus Bordewich, following Doyle, argues that:. The North's victory decisively proved the durability of democratic government. Confederate independence, on the other hand, would have established an American model for reactionary politics and race-based repression that would likely have cast an international shadow into the twentieth century and perhaps beyond. Scholars have debated what the effects of the war were on political and economic power in the South. The war resulted in at least 1,, casualties 3 percent of the population , including about , soldier deaths—two-thirds by disease, and 50, civilians.

David Hacker believes the number of soldier deaths was approximately ,, 20 percent higher than traditionally estimated, and possibly as high as , Based on census figures, 8 percent of all white men aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6 percent in the North and 18 percent in the South.

Union army dead, amounting to 15 percent of the over two million who served, was broken down as follows: [6]. In addition there were 4, deaths in the Navy 2, in battle and in the Marines in battle. Black troops made up 10 percent of the Union death toll, they amounted to 15 percent of disease deaths but less than 3 percent of those killed in battle. Of the 67, Regular Army white troops, 8.

Of the approximately , United States Colored Troops , however, over 36, died, or In other words, the mortality "rate" amongst the United States Colored Troops in the Civil War was thirty-five percent greater than that among other troops, notwithstanding the fact that the former were not enrolled until some eighteen months after the fighting began.

Confederate records compiled by historian William F. Fox list 74, killed and died of wounds and 59, died of disease. Including Confederate estimates of battle losses where no records exist would bring the Confederate death toll to 94, killed and died of wounds. Fox complained, however, that records were incomplete, especially during the last year of the war, and that battlefield reports likely under-counted deaths many men counted as wounded in battlefield reports subsequently died of their wounds.

Thomas L. Livermore, using Fox's data, put the number of Confederate non-combat deaths at ,, using the official estimate of Union deaths from disease and accidents and a comparison of Union and Confederate enlistment records, for a total of , deaths. The United States National Park Service uses the following figures in its official tally of war losses: [2]. While the figures of , army deaths for the Union and , for the Confederacy remained commonly cited, they are incomplete.

In addition to many Confederate records being missing, partly as a result of Confederate widows not reporting deaths due to being ineligible for benefits, both armies only counted troops who died during their service, and not the tens of thousands who died of wounds or diseases after being discharged. This often happened only a few days or weeks later. Francis Amasa Walker , Superintendent of the Census, used census and Surgeon General data to estimate a minimum of , Union military deaths and , Confederate military deaths, for a total death toll of , soldiers.

While Walker's estimates were originally dismissed because of the Census's undercounting, it was later found that the census was only off by 6. Analyzing the number of dead by using census data to calculate the deviation of the death rate of men of fighting age from the norm suggests that at least , and at most ,, but most likely , soldiers, died in the war. Deaths among former slaves has proven much harder to estimate, due to the lack of reliable census data at the time, though they were known to be considerable, as former slaves were set free or escaped in massive numbers in an area where the Union army did not have sufficient shelter, doctors, or food for them.

University of Connecticut Professor James Downs states that tens to hundreds of thousands of slaves died during the war from disease, starvation, or exposure, and that if these deaths are counted in the war's total, the death toll would exceed 1 million. Losses were far higher than during the recent defeat of Mexico , which saw roughly thirteen thousand American deaths, including fewer than two thousand killed in battle, between and One reason for the high number of battle deaths during the war was the continued use of tactics similar to those of the Napoleonic Wars at the turn of the century, such as charging.

This led to the adoption of trench warfare , a style of fighting that defined much of World War I. The wealth amassed in slaves and slavery for the Confederacy's 3. Slaves in the border states and those located in some former Confederate territory occupied before the Emancipation Proclamation were freed by state action or on December 6, by the Thirteenth Amendment. The war destroyed much of the wealth that had existed in the South. All accumulated investment Confederate bonds was forfeit; most banks and railroads were bankrupt. Income per person in the South dropped to less than 40 percent of that of the North, a condition that lasted until well into the 20th century.

Southern influence in the U. While not all Southerners saw themselves as fighting to preserve slavery, most of the officers and over a third of the rank and file in Lee 's army had close family ties to slavery. To Northerners, in contrast, the motivation was primarily to preserve the Union , not to abolish slavery. The Republicans' counterargument that slavery was the mainstay of the enemy steadily gained support, with the Democrats losing decisively in the elections in the northern state of Ohio when they tried to resurrect anti-black sentiment. During the Civil War, sentiment concerning slaves, enslavement and emancipation in the United States was divided.

In , Lincoln worried that premature attempts at emancipation would mean the loss of the border states, and that "to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose the whole game. Lincoln warned the border states that a more radical type of emancipation would happen if his gradual plan based on compensated emancipation and voluntary colonization was rejected. When Lincoln told his cabinet about his proposed emancipation proclamation, Seward advised Lincoln to wait for a victory before issuing it, as to do otherwise would seem like "our last shriek on the retreat".

In September , the Battle of Antietam provided this opportunity, and the subsequent War Governors' Conference added support for the proclamation. In his letter to Albert G.

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Hodges , Lincoln explained his belief that "If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong And yet I have never understood that the Presidency conferred upon me an unrestricted right to act officially upon this judgment and feeling I claim not to have controlled events, but confess plainly that events have controlled me. Lincoln's moderate approach succeeded in inducing border states, War Democrats and emancipated slaves to fight for the Union. All abolished slavery on their own, except Kentucky and Delaware.

Since the Emancipation Proclamation was based on the President's war powers, it only included territory held by Confederates at the time. However, the Proclamation became a symbol of the Union's growing commitment to add emancipation to the Union's definition of liberty. In Texas v. White , 74 U. Reconstruction began during the war, with the Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, , and it continued until From the Union perspective, the goals of Reconstruction were to consolidate the Union victory on the battlefield by reuniting the Union; to guarantee a " republican form of government for the ex-Confederate states; and to permanently end slavery—and prevent semi-slavery status.

President Johnson took a lenient approach and saw the achievement of the main war goals as realized in , when each ex-rebel state repudiated secession and ratified the Thirteenth Amendment. Radical Republicans demanded proof that Confederate nationalism was dead and that the slaves were truly free. They came to the fore after the elections and undid much of Johnson's work. In the "Liberal Republicans" argued that the war goals had been achieved and that Reconstruction should end.

They ran a presidential ticket in but were decisively defeated. In , Democrats, primarily Southern, took control of Congress and opposed any more reconstruction. The Compromise of closed with a national consensus that the Civil War had finally ended. The Civil War would have a huge impact on American politics in the years to come. Many veterans on the both sides were subsequently elected to political office, including five U. Presidents: U. Grant , Rutherford B. The Civil War is one of the central events in American collective memory.

There are innumerable statues, commemorations, books and archival collections.

The memory includes the home front, military affairs, the treatment of soldiers, both living and dead, in the war's aftermath, depictions of the war in literature and art, evaluations of heroes and villains, and considerations of the moral and political lessons of the war. Professional historians have paid much more attention to the causes of the war, than to the war itself. Military history has largely developed outside academe, leading to a proliferation of solid studies by non-scholars who are thoroughly familiar with the primary sources, pay close attention to battles and campaigns, and write for the large public readership, rather than the small scholarly community.

Bruce Catton and Shelby Foote are among the best-known writers. Historian Wilson Fallin has examined the sermons of white and black Baptist preachers after the War. Southern white preachers said:. God had chastised them and given them a special mission—to maintain orthodoxy, strict biblicism, personal piety, and traditional race relations. Slavery, they insisted, had not been sinful. Rather, emancipation was a historical tragedy and the end of Reconstruction was a clear sign of God's favor.

God's gift of freedom. They appreciated opportunities to exercise their independence, to worship in their own way, to affirm their worth and dignity, and to proclaim the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man. Most of all, they could form their own churches, associations, and conventions. These institutions offered self-help and racial uplift, and provided places where the gospel of liberation could be proclaimed.

As a result, black preachers continued to insist that God would protect and help him; God would be their rock in a stormy land. Memory of the war in the white South crystallized in the myth of the "Lost Cause" : that the Confederate cause was a just and heroic one. The myth shaped regional identity and race relations for generations. Nolan notes that the Lost Cause was expressly "a rationalization, a cover-up to vindicate the name and fame" of those in rebellion. Some claims revolve around the insignificance of slavery; some appeals highlight cultural differences between North and South; the military conflict by Confederate actors is idealized; in any case, secession was said to be lawful.

He also deems the Lost Cause "a caricature of the truth. This caricature wholly misrepresents and distorts the facts of the matter" in every instance. The economic and political-power determinism forcefully presented by Charles A. Beard and Mary R. Beard in The Rise of American Civilization was highly influential among historians and the general public until the civil rights movement of the s and s.

The Beards downplayed slavery, abolitionism, and issues of morality. They ignored constitutional issues of states' rights and even ignored American nationalism as the force that finally led to victory in the war. Indeed, the ferocious combat itself was passed over as merely an ephemeral event. Much more important was the calculus of class conflict. The Beards announced that the Civil War was really:. The Beards themselves abandoned their interpretation by the s and it became defunct among historians in the s, when scholars shifted to an emphasis on slavery.

However, Beardian themes still echo among Lost Cause writers. The first efforts at Civil War battlefield preservation and memorialization came during the war itself with the establishment of National Cemeteries at Gettysburg, Mill Springs and Chattanooga. Soldiers began erecting markers on battlefields beginning with the First Battle of Bull Run in July , but the oldest surviving monument is the Hazen monument, erected at Stones River near Murfreesboro, Tennessee , in the summer of by soldiers in Union Col.

William B. Hazen's brigade to mark the spot where they buried their dead in the Battle of Stones River. In , these five parks and other national monuments were transferred to the jurisdiction of the National Park Service. The modern Civil War battlefield preservation movement began in with the founding of the Association for the Preservation of Civil War Sites APCWS , a grassroots organization created by Civil War historians and others to preserve battlefield land by acquiring it.

Mint Civil War commemorative coin revenues designated for battlefield preservation. Although the two non-profit organizations joined forces on a number of battlefield acquisitions, ongoing conflicts prompted the boards of both organizations to facilitate a merger, which happened in with the creation of the Civil War Preservation Trust. After expanding its mission in to include battlefields of the Revolutionary War and War of , the non-profit became the American Battlefield Trust in May , operating with two divisions, the Civil War Trust and the Revolutionary War Trust. The American Civil War has been commemorated in many capacities ranging from the reenactment of battles, to statues and memorial halls erected, to films being produced, to stamps and coins with Civil War themes being issued, all of which helped to shape public memory.

This varied advent occurred in greater proportions on the th and th anniversary. It was digitally remastered and re-released in Numerous technological innovations during the Civil War had a great impact on 19th-century science. The Civil War was one of the earliest examples of an " industrial war ", in which technological might is used to achieve military supremacy in a war. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Civil War disambiguation.

Civil war in the United States from to Theaters of the American Civil War. Status of the states, States that seceded before April 15, States that seceded after April 15, Union states that permitted slavery. Union states that banned slavery. Further information: Slave states and free states. Stephen Douglas, author of the Kansas—Nebraska Act of John J. Crittenden, of the Crittenden Compromise. Main article: United States presidential election.

Main article: Battle of Fort Sumter. Main article: Border states American Civil War. Union states. Union territories not permitting slavery. Border Union states, permitting slavery. Confederate states. Union territories that permitted slavery claimed by Confederacy at the start of the war, but where slavery was outlawed by the U. See also: Child soldiers in the American Civil War. Main article: American Civil War prison camps. Main article: Union blockade.


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Main article: Blockade runners of the American Civil War. Main article: Diplomacy of the American Civil War. Main article: Conclusion of the American Civil War. This New York Times front page celebrated Lee's surrender, headlining how Grant let Confederate officers retain their sidearms and "paroled" the Confederate officers and men. One in thirteen veterans were amputees. Remains of both sides were reinterred.

National cemetery in Andersonville, GA. Main article: Emancipation Proclamation. Left: Contrabands —fugitive slaves—cooks, laundresses, laborers, teamsters, railroad repair crews—fled to the Union Army, but were not officially freed until Emancipation Proclamation.

Right: In , the Union army accepted Freedmen. Seen here are Black and White teen-aged soldiers. Main article: Reconstruction era. Right: Cherokee Confederates reunion in New Orleans, Main article: Lost Cause of the Confederacy.


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  • Main article: Commemoration of the American Civil War. See also: Commemoration of the American Civil War on postage stamps. Left: Grand Army of the Republic Union. Right: United Confederate Veterans. Contrabands and after the Emancipation Proclamation freedmen, migrating into Union control on the coasts and to the advancing armies, and natural increase are excluded.

    It omits losses from contraband and after the Emancipation Proclamation, freedmen migrating to the Union controlled coastal ports and those joining advancing Union armies, especially in the Mississippi Valley. By , when it became clear that this would be a long war, the question of what to do about slavery became more general.

    The Southern economy and military effort depended on slave labor. It began to seem unreasonable to protect slavery while blockading Southern commerce and destroying Southern production. As one Congressman put it, the slaves " As laborers, if not as soldiers, they will be allies of the rebels, or of the Union.

    From early years of the war, hundreds of thousands of African Americans escaped to Union lines, especially in occupied areas like Nashville, Norfolk and the Hampton Roads region in , Tennessee from on, the line of Sherman's march, etc. So many African Americans fled to Union lines that commanders created camps and schools for them, where both adults and children learned to read and write. See Catton, Bruce. Never Call Retreat , p. The American Missionary Association entered the war effort by sending teachers south to such contraband camps, for instance establishing schools in Norfolk and on nearby plantations.

    In addition, approximately , or more African-American men served as soldiers and sailors with Union troops. Most of those were escaped slaves. Probably the most prominent of these African-American soldiers is the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry. They used them as laborers to support the war effort. As Howell Cobb said, "If slaves will make good soldiers our whole theory of slavery is wrong.

    Lee argued in favor of arming blacks late in the war, and Jefferson Davis was eventually persuaded to support plans for arming slaves to avoid military defeat. The Confederacy surrendered at Appomattox before this plan could be implemented. Historian John D. Winters referred to the exhilaration of the slaves when the Union Army came through Louisiana : "As the troops moved up to Alexandria , the Negroes crowded the roadsides to watch the passing army.

    They were 'all frantic with joy, some weeping, some blessing, and some dancing in the exuberance of their emotions. Others cheered because they anticipated the freedom to plunder and to do as they pleased now that the Federal troops were there. This led to a breakdown of the prisoner and mail exchange program and the growth of prison camps such as Andersonville prison in Georgia, where almost 13, Union prisoners of war died of starvation and disease.

    Restoration of Law in the State of Virginia. The New York Times. Associated Press. May 10, Retrieved December 23, National Park Service. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, War Dept The ones who died have been excluded to prevent double-counting of casualties. Louisiana State University. Archived from the original on July 11, Retrieved October 14, University of Connecticut, April 13, The surviving records only include the number of black patients whom doctors encountered; tens of thousands of other slaves who died had no contact with army doctors, leaving no records of their deaths.

    Oxford University Press, April 13, As horrific as this new number is, it fails to reflect the mortality of former slaves during the war. If former slaves were included in this figure, the Civil War death toll would likely be over a million casualties Cambridge University Press. American Battlefield Trust. August 16, Retrieved October 7, Presidential Ballots, — Johns Hopkins University Press, , pp. Martin, Jr. Martin's, , University of Georgia Press, , , pp. The Emancipation Proclamation , pp. Science Daily. September 22, Retrieved September 22, October 1, Oxford University Press.

    Martis, Kenneth C. Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War. The Atlantic. Retrieved December 21, Remembering the Civil War Speech. Sesquicentennial of the Start of the Civil War. Retrieved August 29, Issues related to the institution of slavery precipitated secession It was not states' rights. It was not a tariff. It was not unhappiness with manner and customs that led to secession and eventually to war. It was a cluster of issues profoundly dividing the nation along a fault line delineated by the institution of slavery.

    March 1, What They Fought For — Louisiana State University Press. April 3, For Cause and Comrades. The loyal citizenry initially gave very little thought to emancipation in their quest to save the union. Most loyal citizens, though profoundly prejudice by 21st century standards, embraced emancipation as a tool to punish slaveholders, weaken the confederacy, and protect the union from future internal strife.

    A minority of the white populous invoked moral grounds to attack slavery, though their arguments carried far less popular weight than those presenting emancipation as a military measure necessary to defeat the rebels and restore the Union. Canton Daily Ledger. Canton, Illinois. Archived from the original on February 1, Retrieved January 29, American Political Science Review : 1— Causes of the civil war, — p.

    The American Historical Review. Harvard University Press.

    Bill Fletcher, Jr.: "They're Bankrupting Us!" And 20 Other Myths about Unions - March 19, 2013

    Retrieved July 10, Sydnor, The Development of Southern Sectionalism — Wakelyn Southern Pamphlets on Secession, November — April Porter, and Donald Bruce Johnson, eds. Retrieved November 28, World Digital Library. Retrieved July 16, Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri. Retrieved November 3, Retrieved May 28, Maryland State Archives. Archived from the original on January 11, Retrieved February 6, Frank Key Fourteen Months in American Bastiles. London: H.

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    Retrieved August 18, Retrieved April 20, Over 10, military engagements took place during the war, 40 percent of them in Virginia and Tennessee. See Gabor Boritt, ed. War Comes Again , p. Abraham Lincoln: A History. Century Company. Merton June 1, LSU Press. In his message of April 29 to the rebel Congress, Jefferson Davis proposed to organize for instant action an army of , Conscription and Conflict in the Confederacy online edition. Houghton Mifflin Company. The railroads and banks grew rapidly. See Oberholtzer, Ellis Paxson. See also Oberholtzer, Ellis Parson A history of the United States since the Civil War.

    The Macmillan company. Bearman, "Desertion as localism: Army unit solidarity and group norms in the U. Civil War.

    Gesamtwerk

    Retrieved August 9, Archived from the original on April 3, Retrieved June 22, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. June 4, Retrieved January 6, University of Alabama Press. Neely, Jr. Naval War College Review. II, p. Noyalas December 3, Stonewall Jackson's Valley Campaign. Arcadia Publishing. Army War College 21 3, pp. Missouri alone was the scene of over 1, engagements between regular units, and uncounted numbers of guerrilla attacks and raids by informal pro-Confederate bands, especially in the recently settled western counties.

    Chronicles of Oklahoma. Frederick; Jr Great Plains Journal. Neely Jr. Grant Personal Memoirs of U. Grant; Selected Letters. Library of America. Petersburg — The Longest Siege. Osprey Publishing. April 10, Savannah Daily Herald. Savannah, Georgia, U. April 16, April 17, Archived from the original on February 7, Ghost Towns of Oklahoma. University of Oklahoma Press. Census and Carter, Susan B.

    At the beginning of , the Confederacy controlled one-third of its congressional districts, which were apportioned by population. The major slave-populations found in Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Alabama were effectively under Union control by the end of The Collapse of the Confederacy. Washington: Associated Publishers. Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association. University of Illinois. Retrieved October 16, Explorations in Economic History. David September 20, The New York Times Company. National Geographic News. July 1, January January 1, Browning, September 22, Sentiment among German Americans was largely anti-slavery especially among Forty-Eighters , resulting in hundreds of thousands of German Americans volunteering to fight for the Union.

    Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania press. Retrieved July 29, When the draft began in the summer of , they launched a major riot in New York City that was suppressed by the military, as well as much smaller protests in other cities. Many Catholics in the North had volunteered to fight in , sending thousands of soldiers to the front and taking high casualties, especially at Fredericksburg ; their volunteering fell off after Boritt, ed.

    Lincoln, the War President , pp. Anne Francis. Hodges, April 4, Archived from the original on October 16, Trefousse, Historical Dictionary of Reconstruction Greenwood, covers all the main events and leaders. Woodworth Ritter and Jon L. Wakelyn, eds. Beard, The Rise of American Civilization , Progressive Historians. Knopf Doubleday. Accessed May 30, Railroad History. Christopher H. Sterling New York: Arno Press, vol. Air Power in the Age of Total War. The American Civil War.

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    Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Main article: Bibliography of the American Civil War. Ahlstrom, Sydney E. A Religious History of the American People. Anderson, Bern Asante, Molefi Kete; Mazama, Ama Encyclopedia of Black Studies. Beringer, Richard E. American Historical Review.

    Canney, Donald L. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. Catton, Bruce The Civil War. Chambers, John W. Davis, William C. Garden City, New York: Doubleday. Look Away! New York: Free Press. Donald, David; Baker, Jean H. The Civil War and Reconstruction.

    New York: W. Fehrenbacher, Don E. Fellman, Michael; Gordon, Lesley J. New York: Pearson. Foner, Eric Foote, Shelby New York: Vintage Books. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press. Fuller, Howard J. Gallagher, Gary W. The Confederate War. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Gara, Larry. Guelzo, Allen C. Lincoln: A Very Short Introduction. Hacker, J. David December Civil War History. Heidler, David S. Herring, George C. From Colony to Superpower: U.

    Foreign Relations since Hofstadter, Richard Holt, Michael F. New York: Hill and Wang. Holzer, Harold; Gabbard, Sara Vaughn Huddleston, John Johannsen, Robert W. Stephen A. New York: Oxford University Press. Johnson, Timothy D. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas. Jones, Howard Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. Keegan, John New York: Alfred A. Krannawitter, Thomas L. Lipset, Seymour Martin McPherson, James M.

    New York: McGraw-Hill. Thornton, Mark; Ekelund, Robert Burton Murray, Robert Bruce Legal Cases of the Civil War.

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    Stackpole Books. Neely, Mark Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Marquette University Press. Nelson, James L. New York: HarperCollins. Nevins, Allan. Ordeal of the Union , an 8-volume set — Fruits of Manifest Destiny, — online ; 2. A House Dividing, — ; 3. Douglas, Buchanan, and Party Chaos, — ; 4. Prologue to Civil War, — ; vols 5—8 have the series title War for the Union ; 5.

    The Improvised War, — ; 6. The Organized War, — ; 8. Perman, Michael; Taylor, Amy M. Boston, Massachusetts: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. Potter, David M. The Impending Crisis, — Rhodes, John Ford History of the Civil War, — New York: The Macmillan Company. Richter, William L. Lanham: Scarecrow Press. Russell, Robert R. Journal of Southern History. Schott, Thomas E. Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia: A Biography. Sheehan-Dean, Aaron, ed. A Companion to the U. New York: Wiley Blackwell.

    Stampp, Kenneth M. America in A Nation on the Brink. Stern, Phillip Van Doren The Confederate Navy. Symonds, Craig L. Naval Institute Press. Tucker, Spencer C. The Civil War Naval Encyclopedia. Varon, Elizabeth R. Vinovskis, Maris Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Ward, Geoffrey R. Weeks, William E. Weigley, Frank Russell Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press.

    Welles, Gideon Secretary of the Navy's Report.

    "They're Bankrupting Us!": And 20 Other Myths about Unions

    American Seamen's Friend Society. Winters, John D. The Civil War in Louisiana. Woodworth, Steven E. Wesport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. American Civil War. Origins Issues. Susan B. Combatants Theaters Campaigns Battles States. Army Navy Marine Corps. Involvement by state or territory. See also: Chronology of military events in the American Civil War. Johnston J.