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The project fills important gaps in understanding the choices of EU member states and Russian oblasts in implementing the agricultural policy framework decided upon at the higher level. Modern dictionaries of German are usually based on the written language that is represented in large electronic text corpora. As a prerequisite, lexical phenomena that are typical for spoken German are analyzed on the basis of the corpora of spoken German available at the Institute for the German Language.

The dictionary will be available online and extensible. It covers the lexical units and properties typical for spoken German as it is used in conversations in private and institutional contexts. At the Leibniz Institute for Crystal Growth a novel technique for the growth of dislocation-free single-crystals for the photovoltaic and the semiconductor industry has been invented and patented: the silicon granulate self-crucible method. The method has the potential to combine the advantages and avoid the disadvantages of the established methods, in terms of the costs, the achievable crystal quality and crystal diameter.

The feasibility was already shown for small crystal diameter at laboratory scale. The objective of this project is to develop a stable growth process for crystals with large, industry-relevant diameter by means of experiments and numerical simulation and to prove the applicability of the material for high-efficiency solar cells and semiconductor devices. Obtaining qualified staff in STEM-subjects science, technology, engineering, and mathematics is of fundamental importance for business and science in Germany.

Science competitions are a key element in preparing qualified students in science. They aim to spark interest as well as identify and systematically support the most talented students. The production of chemicals is currently based on increasingly scarce fossil resources. Cellulose and lignocellulose, in the form of agro waste or waste from the paper industry, are renewable feedstocks. A major challenge is their selective conversion into platform chemicals which are the building blocks for more elaborate chemicals. These reactions are totally different when compared to those needed for the conversion of fossil resources.

Consequently, they require further development to allow their implementation. We want to establish levulinic acid LA and furfural as new platform-chemicals. One task is the development of a method for the production of LA from small cellulose fibers originating from a waste stream of the paper production. Furthermore, new routes are proposed from LA and furfural to existing or new base chemicals. To achieve this we will design and prepare new catalysts.

Photoinduced electron transfer represents a basic ultrafast process changing the electronic structure of molecules. However, direct experimental insight into transient electronic structure and, in particular, correlations between valence electrons has remained scarce. We propose to develop and implement soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy to sensitively probe electron dynamics and interactions, based on a tabletop laser-driven generation scheme for ultrashort soft x-ray pulses up to photon energies of eV. Institute Website. The IPCC 5th Assessment Report shows large knowledge gaps about socio-economic impacts of climate change, especially changes in economic growth.

This prevents the integrated assessment of impacts, mitigation and adaptation. ENGAGE aims to move towards closing these gaps by a developing a sound conceptual and empirical understanding of channels through which climate impacts affect growth, b estimating economic damages from selected impacts in a changing climate and socio-economic environment, in particular with regard to long-term growth effects, c exploring how the inclusion of growth effects changes the integrated assessment of selected impacts and mitigation strategies.

This comprehensive approach will contribute to the next generation of integrated assessments for climate policy advice. Wheat is one of the most important staple foods worldwide. However, wheat-dependent inflammatory diseases like coeliac disease and non-coeliac wheat gluten sensitivity NCGS occur with increasing frequency among the population.

Changes in protein composition due to wheat breeding are one of the possible causes. This joint project aims to elucidate the influence of wheat breeding during the last years on the genetic expression pattern and protein composition of wheat and its immunogenic potential to trigger wheat sensitivities. Our multidisciplinary approach is expected to serve as a basis for the development of new wheat cultivars with a low potential to cause these wheat-dependent sensitivities. Furthermore, this work shall contribute towards improved diagnostics and a better understanding of the pathomechanism of NCGS.

BERA includes i coordination of recruitment among the seven institutions, ii personal mentoring of postdoctoral researchers by senior faculty, iii financial support of scientific activities like visitor programs and workshops, and iv provision of access to skills courses and other career and placement support.

The lung epithelium is directly exposed to environmental challenges demanding epithelial regulation of tissue homeostasis and immune responses. The lung microbiota is located at the interface between lung epithelium and environment. We hypothesize that environmental challenges alter the structure and functionality of lung microbial communities. These in turn affect epithelial barrier functions. Cigarette smoke is a major environmental cause of chronic lung diseases.

In a multidisciplinary approach we investigate the lung microbiota from human smokers, non-smokers and longitudinally after smoking cessation. Mechanistic studies are performed in murine and cellular models of active smoking. This approach will create a basis for future personalized treatment strategies targeting the microbiota in lung disease. Currently, there are no reliable intraoperative diagnostic approaches providing information towards the transition between tumour and normal surrounding tissue. If the final postoperative histopathology reveals that the tumour margins still contain tumour tissue, patients prognosis worsens dramatically.

The Leibniz HYPERAM research network opens interdisciplinary synergies of three Leibniz institutions in the areas of life sciences, astrophysics, electronics as well as medicine to translate their knowledge towards a rapid, lable-free and non-invasive tissue diagnosis based on wide-field Raman imaging for an ex-vivo but in the long-term in-vivo optical pathology. This approach offers the possibility to augment standard intraoperative clinical tissue assessment with functional Raman images to highlight tumour boundaries. We combine a number of unique and proprietary data sources to measure the impact of relationship lenders and unconventional monetary policy during and after the European sovereign debt crisis on the real economy.

The main objective is to permit the identification of causal effects, or their absence, regarding which policies were conducive to mitigate financial shocks and stimulate real economic activities, such as employment, investment, or the closure of plants. The project aims at analysing the influence of worker flows on productivity through the channels of worker reallocation and worker-firm match quality, and at studying the determinants of worker flows and match quality.

In order to do so, we analyse worker flows between and within regions and industries for a large number of European countries, and examine the importance of match quality for productivity and wage differentials for two case study countries using linked employer-employee data. A specific focus is on the role of labour market institutions in this context. Finally, a theoretical analysis computes the potential gains from reducing costs of worker mobility.

Mammalian species such as primates, wales, or bats exhibit various differences in their morphology, anatomy, or physiology. However, it is largely unknown which loci in the genome are responsible for these different characteristics. In order to address this question we explore currently available mammalian genomes using the novel concept of Forward Genomics. We aim at identifying genomic loci that explain the independent change of skeletal and visceral traits in mammalian species. Identifying and functionally characterizing such loci will not only deepen our understanding of evolutionary processes but is also expected to unravel genomic causes responsible for human organ function.

Our scientific network brings together scientists from very different disciplines such as mammalian biology, evolution, phylogeny, bioinformatics, and molecular biology. The aim of this network is to investigate the entire process chain of biological production of organic matter in the oceans, the export of organic matter to marine aerosol particles and finally their abilities to act as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei. Tank experiments and laboratory studies will be performed at the marine experimental facility of the ZMT and in the seawater outdoor tanks at the ICBM.

The modeling in MarParCloud will incorporate the experimental results and derived parameterisations in a process model that will be used beyond the project. There is an ongoing debate on whether scientific and professional communication should be based on a lingua franca like English or whether national languages should also play a role. Advisory boards, funding agencies and politicians see a strong need for career development programs for postdocs. To help excellent postdocs become independent and internationally networked researchers, successful applicants in competitive funding schemes, and - ultimately - professors, we will establish a network that provides funding for: 1 network activities 2 mentoring, 3 lab visits, 4 seed money for grant applications, and 5 funds for family-friendliness.

The network starts with 13 high-potential postdocs 2 are financed by the project, the others by the IWM and deals with an IWM core topic. The network will be sustained beyond the 3-year funding. This research project combines methods from musicology and organology with the broader approach of material culture studies. The acoustic dimensions of the material in particular open up a variety of questions for examination; the materials used also place certain demands on instrument builders and musicians. Our group will investigate the role played by materials in the invention of musical instruments and the sensory perceptions these instruments invoked.

Musical instruments will be examined in the context of aesthetic and scientific developments from the latter part of the 18th century. We will develop organology as cultural history—a methodology combining aesthetics and history of science. Our aim is for a consolidation of organology within musicology, in cooperation with neighbouring disciplines such history of acoustics.

The artefact-based research profile of the Deutsches Museum is an ideal starting point for further collaboration with similar collections. Regulation of vesicular ion homeostasis by ion transport proteins is of outstanding significance for basic cellular and organismal functions. Transporter dysfunction leads to a broad variety of diseases.

We will test for this by combining studies on genetic mouse models with cell culture systems using state-of-the-art techniques. The broad aim of this proposal is to better understand the physiological function and molecular role of vesicular NHEs in vesicle function in health and disease. Globalization advances and countries are increasingly interconnected via trade and global value chains. The World Trade Organization could not yet adapt its rules to 21st century trade and consequently many countries negotiate deep regional free trade agreements like the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership TTIP.

These developments give rise to important questions of international cooperation. What are the welfare effects of free trade agreements like TTIP? Is a bilateral investment treaty with the US favorable for the EU? Can regional climate policy be successfully implemented when trade costs are falling and investors are mobile? It aims to analyze the consequences of different international trade, investment and climate policies with the help of quantitative models and empirical datasets. By looking at the long-term developments surrounding this historic event from the mids to the beginning of the new millennium, this project analyses the social changes that paved the way for and shaped all three stages: the late phase of the GDR, the peaceful revolution, and the transformation that followed.

Dynamics and tensions of the East German lifeworld throughout the regime change will be examined in four case studies focused on housing, local political culture, education and consumership. All four studies combine archival sources with oral history and the re-analysis of social science data. The results will be placed in the context of other late or post-communist countries as well as of other societies in transformation. Given their ability to detect not only known but also distantly related or even novel pathogens, next-generation sequencing approaches have the potential to greatly improve infectious disease diagnostics.

However, implementation of this technology in clinical microbiology laboratories continues to be hindered by a fundamental lack of software that allows analysis and interpretation to be performed by clinical personnel rather than professional bioinformaticians. This proposal therefore aims at development and distribution of an integrated and scalable, clinically-oriented software platform designed to allow rapid analysis of next-generation sequencing data on affordable hardware that can be easily installed in diagnostic microbiology laboratories.

The principle of gecko adhesion will be transferred into industrial applications. The basis of this development is the micropatterning of surfaces, which enables reliable and reversible adhesion to many materials. The aim of the project is to demonstrate upscaling of this technique by development of a roll-to-roll fabrication method. We will generate prototypes of novel gripping systems that will be much more energy-efficient than conventional vacuum grippers and furthermore extend the field of application for vacuum environments.

Overall, we will bridge the gap between successful demonstration of the gecko effect and large scale fabrication to achieve innovative gripping systems for the handling of microelectronic components, glass objects, medical products or space debris. The modern history of Eastern Europe is often conceptualised in catastrophic narratives.

Interventional landscape is a conceptual framework for a research program which provides a better understanding of the interdependence of space utilization, administrative power, and human intervention into natural landscapes. Research focuses on Social Engineering, genocidal action, asymmetric warfare as well as on Soviet technology and agricultural politics, and post-nuclear disaster intervention.

In this research project we seek to analyse processes of social construction of economic value. The main idea is to combine two approaches. In the cultural geographic discourse, contributors highlight that commodities achieve high prices on markets if they are successfully associated with entities representing positive, extra-economic values.

Complementary processes of dissociation so far have been ignored. The project makes a conceptual contribution to this discourse by developing a framework encompassing associations and dissociations as equally important mechanisms working together in the social construction of economic value. Empirically, the project will analyse this interplay taking the example of the global fur industry. To this end, we combine the political-economic perspective on value creation as elaborated in the global production network approach with cultural geographic and sociological approaches of the social construction of value.

The BRIDGE project will evolve the Federal ex situ Genebank from a 'storage facility' to an integrated resource and information centre for informed access and utilisation of crop diversity. Genotyping-by-sequencing GBS of the entire IPK barley collection will enhance quality, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of conservation management and provide comprehensive information on genetic diversity. The BRIDGE data warehouse will link sequence information to phenotypic data improving the depth of knowledge along with the scientific and practical value of the collection.

Collaboration with the ScienceCampus Plant-based Bioeconomy, Halle, will foster capacity building of young researchers in the emerging field of Biodiversity Genomics. Water is required for life. We have accumulated evidence suggesting it may be an overlooked viral vector. In climatic zones with seasonally limited precipitation in East Africa and Central Asia animals congregate at high densities at scarce water sources. We hypothesise that viruses shed in water in this ecological setting would gain a fitness advantage if they evolve traits permitting both the retention of their infectivity in water and a reduction of host specificity.

This proposal will determine if water is a significant viral vector, how viruses behave mechanistically in such settings and to develop mathematical models for the phenomenon. Wireless communications have become an indispensable part of everybody's daily live. However, the ever growing demands require continuous efforts on advancing the equipment and the techniques used, both on the user terminal and the infrastructure side. Presently, the major portion of the base station architecture is already digital and thus can be adapted to future needs in a flexible way. The last remaining analogue component in the transmitter chain is the power amplifier before the antenna.

There, the combination of challenges, to realise simultaneously high output power and bandwidth, low distortion as well as high energy efficiency, has prevented a digital solution so far. This will be addressed by the project presented here. Novel digital power amplifiers in the microwave frequency range are to be developed that make the wireless infrastructure capable of meeting the requirements of the future. This will involve also a big leap towards "green IT".

The project aims at creating a Virtual Research Environment VRE for an entirely new form of object and space related research in the humanities. As an example, the topography of a quarter of historical Nuremberg is displayed at three time levels: the early modern period; ; and the present. The representation consists of geo-referenced 2D maps and 3D models that serve as a structure for navigation.

The novel approach lies in the fact that the 3D objects of the interactive city model are directly linked to research literature and source material texts, images, sound via hotspots. The VRE serves as a platform for merging extremely heterogeneous research data.

It supports interdisciplinary research approaches and transdisciplinary networking. It also functions as an Open Access publishing platform and offers direct access to research data and results, thus supporting the concept of Open Science. The general circulation and thermal structure of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere MLT region crucially depends on waves such as planetary waves PWs , thermal tides, and internal gravity waves GWs.

These measurements are complemented by global satellite observations and two unique circulation models global and regional with resolved gravity waves. Aim of this project is the development of a freely selectable arrangement of sensors, which are based on quantum mechanical effects. That way, it shall be realisable in the near-field to achieve a high resolution so that the read-out of single nuclear spins gets possible. This type of sensors is universally applicable for the determination of different physical quantities.

Exemplary, nitrogen-vacancy centers NV centers generated by single ion implantation will be used for spectrometry as well as for magnetometry, allowing the tomographic determination of single spins at highest local resolution. Final Report PDF. Phase change materials PCM are leading candidates for an innovative generation of memory. The main objective of this project is to design and realise epitaxial PCM superlattices, consisting of alternating layers of GeTe and Sb2Te3, to investigate the role of non-thermal and electronic excitations during the phase transformation.

The fundamental physics underlying the phase change mechanism of such superlattices is still under debate. We will fabricate novel sequences of superlattices to investigate the switching mechanism by means of four complementary time-resolved experiments. We will use both ultra-fast optical pulses and long electrical pulses and compare the switching results. We intend to realise samples designed in their sequence such that the interpretation of time-resolved experimental results will be directly associated to the grown structure, through an atomistic picture.

Light is key in structuring biological communities and ecosystems. Skyglow and browning of lakes, two emerging features of global change, disrupt the current light conditions, with skyglow never experienced during evolutionary history. We elucidate the ecological consequences and underlying mechanisms through experiments in a large-scale field facility capturing the complexity of real lakes.

We hypothesise that system-level light effects arise through physiological and behavioural responses of key species, triggering changes of trophic and competitive interactions, thereby shifting community structure and nutrient fluxes through the food web. Results promise to yield fundamentally new insights and inform water management. Between and , more than international or domestic peace treaties were concluded in Early Modern Europe, tentatively ending countless wars during these centuries. This international and interdisciplinary research project focuses on these multimedia representations under transnational and comparative perspectives.

Project website. PIAAC provides up-to-date information on key adult skills in 24 countries. The data will be used to carry out further research on the acquisition and utilisation of skills. To achieve this goal, we intend to build an interdisciplinary network of researchers that are experienced with research in PIAAC. This network will evaluate existing measures in PIAAC and compare them to other measures of skills and intelligence.

In addition, alternative measures will be developed and subsequently tested using data from the German longitudinal PIAAC survey. Furthermore, the acquisition and utilisation of adult skills will be analysed in more detail by linking PIAAC to administrative data. In addition, the data and findings from this project will be disseminated to the scientific community through methodological workshops and a PIAAC research conference.

The EDP network focuses on a crucial but neglected issue in international democracy promotion: the interaction between external and local actors that is implied by any attempt of shaping the evolution of domestic political orders from the outside. The network, in contrast, is interested in studying what precisely happens when democracy promoters engage with counterparts — governments, political parties, civil-society groups, etc.

Coordination of the network is based at PRIF. In many countries, single-family homes SFH constitute the majority of residential buildings. In Germany, they make up 66 per cent of the residential building stock; in , more than 50 per cent of the population in Europe lived in SFH. However, increasing indications can be found, that this segment of the housing stock is under pressure. Economic and financial crises, demographic change, and changes in user preferences are raising new challenges to it.

Outside regions of economic growth, stagnating or dropping prices, difficulties in selling, and even vacancies, can already be found. The project seeks to scrutinise these developments and to discuss needs and options for action in terms of economic implications, resource use and settlement development. The investigations on the situation in Germany will be supplemented by studies inside Europe, as well as on the situation in Japan and the United States. Selected extracts of St. The effect is attributed to the interaction with special ABC transporters, and appears to be independent from the antidepressant component hyperforin.

The aim of the interdisciplinary network is to identify the relevant metabolites by new metabolomics and correlation methods, to investigate their formation in the plant with respect to the physiological, biochemical and genetic background, and to use the acquired knowledge to breed better cultivars and prepare more efficient, defined extracts, which will allow the reliable application in patients. We have established an international research network to investigate the early stages in the evolution of galaxies.

The new network is constituted by these six institutions. Its prime purpose is the joint scientific exploitation of the MUSE observations, with the focus on the detection and characterisation of low-mass galaxies in the young universe, and the interpretation of the observational results in the context of theoretical models of galaxy formation. The project aims towards mimicking the alveolar barrier by seeding endothelial and epithelial cells onto the different sides of the nanofiber membrane mounted in a microfluidic device, resulting into an organ-like membrane module. The endothelial layer will be in direct contact with the blood pumped through the device, simulating the hemo-dynamics of lung microvasculature.

The device has the potential to encounter challenges caused due to the high use of anti-thrombotic agents, non-biocompatibility, hemolysis and inflammatory stress experienced by the blood cells in present day heparin-coated extracorporal membrane oxygenators. In a long term perspective, the concept might form the basis for an implantable organ level lung module. Final report PDF. Undoubtedly, the unambiguous attribution of scholarly material to their authors ranks among the most critical challenges for digital libraries. The main objective of this project is to significantly improve author disambiguation within two of the most comprehensive scholarly literature databases: the dblp computer science bibliography, maintained by Schloss Dagstuhl — Leibniz Center for Informatics, and the online service of Zentralblatt MATH zbMATH , maintained by FIZ Karlsruhe — Leibniz Institute for Information Infrastructure.

The corporation with the Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies HITS , one of the leading institutions in the field of named entity recognition, will help to bridge the gap between the latest results in natural language processing NLP research and their concrete application in digital libraries. This application will provide a structured training network for postdocs aiming for an academic career in biomedical sciences. The implementation of state-of-the-art and innovative education measures focuses on the main challenges in educating postdocs in biomedical research in Germany by supporting interdisciplinarity and translation of research results, career development of female scientists and international connectivity.

The postdocs work on interconnected projects to improve the understanding of functional impairments during aging induced by impairments in stem cell function and regeneration. The research work aims to identify targets for future therapies and intervention strategies to combat in aging associated dysfunctions and diseases. The inclusion of candidates from basic, medical andmathematical sciences will further enhance interdisciplinary education. The primary goal of this project is to establish a postdoctoral network at the Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology LIN in Magdeburg 1 to foster research on the physiological impact of monoamines on neuronal brain circuits, and 2 to increase the impact of the individual research of young investigators on this emerging, internationally highly competitive field.

Monoamines are an important class of naturally occurring neurotransmitters and pharmacological agents that affect fundamental operations in neuronal circuits of the brain during mediating cognitive phenomena, like decision making and motivated behaviour. The network includes members from the university and clinicians and facilitates translating fundamental research into clinical applications. In addition to promoting scientific excellence the network is a means to establish gender equal opportunity and optimal mentoring of young investigators. During the course of the 15th century merchants from northern Germany began to expand their trading links with the North Atlantic islands of Shetland, the Faroes and Iceland.

In the following two hundred years they became the most important trading partners for the islanders. Through these commercial links and the extensive exchange of goods and thoughts merchants, predominantly of Bremen and Hamburg, influenced the economy and culture of these islands. In this project, an interdisciplinary research team drawn from the disciplines of archaeology, history and archaeozoology investigates the many facets of these connections.

A starting point is the so-called cog of Bremen, a shipwreck which today for many serves as a symbol of the Hanse period. The main objectives include: how did trade on the North Atlantic islands operate, and how was it regulated? How were the merchants and sailors linked together? Which ship types were in operation and how did these develop? Which effect did the long and close trade relations have on both parties?

Research and debate on migration and education are usually conducted from a present-day perspective. This project seeks to widen the view. Its aim is, first, to analyse the historicity of the ideas of society, social norms and values which have influenced debates around migration in the period commencing after Population growth, the rising consumption of processed animal products as well as the use of agricultural commodities as energy sources will increase the demand for agricultural products. Given the scarcity of resources, the corresponding need of an increase in supply will challenge the global agribusiness.

So far, we have been lacking a theoretically sound analysis of supply- and demand-related approaches for global food security which takes the interactions along the value chain, from the primary producer to the final consumer, into account and allows for robust conclusions about the functioning of globally connected agricultural markets. He also named the challenges on the way forward, particularly the need to avoid competing regulatory initiatives and finding an end to impunity of PMSC. This blog post will continue the discussion and focus on five key challenges for legal scholarship focused on PMSC.

Misunderstandings of Legal Terminology As Sossai highlighted, …. Der Fall betraf den Polizeieinsatz vom 9. Dezember im Zusammenhang mit einem …. Am Ende ging es ganz schnell. In her contribution on the newly created right to tourism, Sabrina Tremblay-Huet convincingly states, that the social and economic phenomenon of tourism has been widely disregarded by the social sciences, law and philosophy due to the focus of the academia on migration. We invite contributions that address questions of race in various areas of international law, those taking comparative ….

The movement of bodies across borders attracts significant media and academic interest. This interest is often directed at specific forms of movement, such as refugees and economic migration. Another form of movement of bodies is having an important environmental, cultural, social and economic impact, albeit more quietly in the human rights realm: that of tourism, most especially mass tourism. Leisure tourism is not widely recognized as a serious area of …. This symposium is meant to offer insights from scholars working on international law issues related to Russia, to shed light on specific questions from the Russian context, and on Russian perspectives on international law.

Russia is among the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, occupying a central place in UN law-making and …. At the beginning of the new century there are more constitutional democracies than ever, and authoritarian regimes seems to be weaker, isolated and more …. Spain found that push-backs to Morocco in the border zone of the Spanish enclave Melilla violated the prohibition of collective expulsion. The decision is important as it concerns the delimitation between legitimate border protection and practices that violate the European Convention of Human Rights ECHR — and thereby the key question in all regulation ….

The overwhelming majority of the more than Most of the migrants landing in Italy departed from wartorn Libya. Italy seems to have …. Over the past twenty years a lively debate on the regulation of private military and security companies PMSCs in situations of armed conflict has developed. The time has come for an appraisal of the rich literature on the phenomenon. This post which is written in the context of the journal cooperation with the Swiss …. As Oklopcic underlines, the past 15 years have …. Scheduled to take place on 1 October , the referendum on the independence of Catalonia looks to be a turning point in the history of the Iberian peninsula; if not a point of no return, then at least the moment after which the relationship between Catalonia and Spain will never again be the same.

Though it is hard to predict what will happen on that day—the Spanish Constitutional Tribunal has …. Professor David Bilchitz in a recent blog considered obstacles concerning access to justice for litigating socio-economic rights in South Africa and potential solutions to overcome these obstacles. He argued that South Africa should i empower individuals to enable them to make claims and ii expand its current …. It aspires to introduce or amplify refreshing and innovative approaches to perennial as well as topical issues in the field.

German legal scholarship has a reputation for being quite orthodox. Amid doctrinal sophistication and positivist assumptions, however, lie hidden treasure islands of heterodoxy. The Academy explored different ways in which law shapes and regulates …. Courts are to many African leaders what models are to soccer stars: they are arm candy, but they are not expected to develop a life of their own, or make anybody look bad in public.

Thus, if international courts dare to touch upon issues that actually matter to African elites, they will either be killed off or neutered, or, if this is not possible, states will withdraw from their jurisdiction. In these times of re-emerging illiberalism, populism and authoritarianism, there is an increasing need for us to attempt to find new academic concepts to describe the phenomena that are emerging.

These efforts can also help to redefine existing forms of constitutional developments. One increasingly common term used is authoritarian constitutionalism, which seems to fit into the debates of the last decades like global constitutionalism or international constitutionalism, and appears to …. In July , European citizens set sail in a self-prescribed mission not to bring someone home, but to prevent others from calling Europe home.

The loosely affiliated Generation Identity, consisting mostly of activists from Austria, France, Germany and …. Book reviews are perhaps a difficult format for academic writing. After all, what we all like to do best is talk about ourselves and our own ideas and why we are right. Perhaps this is why so few scholars, in …. Latin American constitutional scholarship is on the rise in the Anglophone world. Am Montag, den The idea and the reality of the Global South represent different types of epistemological challenges to the disciplinary identity of comparative constitutional law.

One reason it is an oddity is because of its disciplinary hybridity. That is to say, it is neither fish nor fowl — it is neither fully a discipline of comparative constitutionalism nor is …. However, as has been noted elsewhere, the term is far from being used in a uniform way.

In her recent post, Sabine Witting discusses the case of trafficking that is exclusively committed online. The South African constitution has been lauded for its inclusion of justiciable socio-economic rights. Yet, making claims flowing from these rights remains inaccessible to many people across the country. This blog post based on a paper being presented at a conference in Berlin on Constitutionalism in the Global South seeks to consider the obstacles relating to access to justice for socio-economic rights claims in South Africa and potential solutions.

Transformative constitutionalism is a somewhat fuzzy notion. Reflecting about its exact meaning, one wonders what it actually is that distinguishes transformative constitutions of other types of constitutions. On the surface, the qualification as transformative signifies that a constitution contains norms that describe a particular aim or status to be reached. In the German context, one might for example think of Article 3 2 of the Grundgesetz requiring the state to …. Authoritarian constitutionalism is a new category used by constitutional law scholars to refer to a distinct type of regime wherein there are faulty practices and a constitution with an authoritarian content.

In this post I introduce a different understanding of authoritarian constitutionalism. For Mark Tushnet, authoritarian constitutionalism is an intermediate normative model between liberal constitutionalism and authoritarianism that …. While scholarship in comparative constitutional law is booming, this anniversary conference is an unusual event in at least two ways: It is asking particularly about the role of the Global South in comparative constitutional law, and it does so with a group of speakers that is mixed, if not dominated by voices from the Global South.

And indeed: This conference is meant to be not just a reflection of current …. We will accompany this conference with an online symposium also featured on the blog of the International Association of Constitutional Law. The symposium is not only intended to make the conference …. More than one year after the dead body of the Italian Ph. The circumstances of his death cast a shadow of suspicion over potential involvement of either Egyptian police forces or secret services in the killing.

Egyptian authorities initially denied any allegations, consistently maintaining unconvincing accounts. The digital era has changed the traditional realm and modus operandi of organised crime, such as human trafficking. With the increasing access to and usage of the internet, major criminal activity has expanded to the online sphere.

Law enforcement around the world is however largely not prepared for combatting cybercrime. Many states have not yet reached the capacity of drafting cyber specific legislation. In Africa for example, only 11 states …. Die letzte Rakete ist am The Michigan Guidelines are a document in which legal scholars summarize the existing international laws of refugee protection on one particular aspect.

They are used by courts interpreting the law and thus stand themselves at the threshold of the legal. At any rate the guidelines can frame debates about the legality of state actions in …. Sie tragen die wesentlichen Rechtsvorschriften zusammen …. Michel diesen Punkt subkutan, aber auch explizit, thematisiert. Mit der Argumentationsfigur vom gemeinsamen kulturellen Erbe der Menschheit werden solche Forderungen oftmals ….

The case of Piero Foresti, Laura de Carli and others v. Notwithstanding this observation, the …. International cultural heritage law is a vast and complex field of research which involves many actors, as the previous contribution by Adrianna Michel shows. In response, we would like to give a couple of thoughts on two of the issues raised by the author: the role of the International Criminal Court ICC , and the role of non-States actors. Unersetzliche …. If the number of female judges in an international tribunal is one out of twenty-one, as in the case of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea ITLOS , we can assume that there is a problem.

But, as Nienke Grossman also explains here, because women are just as qualified to serve as …. Jahrhundert …. Although both approaches, the human rights and a more gender-focused feminist one, may have the same goal this is a tricky and crucial distinction to be made. However, any critique of International Courts would be limited without a critical analysis of their output, the all important judgment! Instead of performing the usual academic critique of where the judgment was lacking in some analysis or form, another way to ….

While the International Criminal Court ICC has always been subject to criticism and is maybe currently facing its biggest crisis with member states withdrawing, the things that are actually going quite well must not be forgotten. It is time to reexamine the ICC from a different perspective: the feminist one. Her scholarship offers statistics about the numbers of women judges, their development over the last years and the respective distribution along nationalities; it examines causes for the exclusion of women, and discusses reasons for claiming a more equal composition of benches.

While directly concerned with the representation of women in …. In the upcoming days, we are very glad to host a symposium on feminist critiques of international courts. Where to begin when introducing this topic? There is much to say about the particular role of international courts for international law, and equally much about the role of feminist perspectives for international law. Courts are not just institutions, in which a decision is rendered about the interpretation of law in a …. As to the US claims on the violation of the Nuclear Deal, reached ….

In der Nacht vom 6. Syrien bestreitet allerdings den Einsatz …. I could not be happier that this book symposium turned out to be a forum for such wide-ranging and critical commentary about targeted killing. All contributors offer nuanced readings of my book while extending the analysis in several significant directions. In appreciation of both these aspects I want to use this opportunity for a brief response to describe the scope of the book — drawing on the contributors reading of ….

Im Gegensatz zu seinem amerikanischen Amtskollegen gilt …. With these disclosures, the apparently extra-legal killing of bin Laden took on a second life as a hyper-legal killing; a killing authorised by precedent and legal …. When the US Pentagon confirmed the use and deployment of depleted uranium munition in Syria, an armed conflict having by far exceeded the level of a civil war, on the 16th of February , it did not take long for public outcry to follow.

On a clear November morning in , Hussein Abayat, a senior official in the Fatah faction Tanzim, was killed by a hellfire anti-tank missile fired from an Israeli helicopter. When the incident was announced later that day, instead of the regular official denial of any direct involvement by Israel in the attack, the Israeli defense minister went on live radio, openly boasting that the IDF did it. On 14 March the CJEU upheld the banning of the visible display of any political, philosophical or religious sign in the workplace. As a future consequence, European companies may introduce certain rules to prohibit other religious, political and philosophical symbols.

The cases involved two female employees in France and in Belgium, who were dismissed for refusing to remove their headscarves which covered their hair and neck, but left the …. Offering a meticulous account of history and practice, the book highlights the law and politics of protection in the dispute on killing to protect. Targeted killing is a response to the …. Both the descriptive accuracy and normative implications of this position have been challenged.

One of the difficulties of trespassing disciplinary …. The case has set Israeli public debate ablaze for almost a year now, and was widely reported abroad. As a video released by the human rights group Betselem revealed, Abd Al Fatah A-Sharif was wounded and lying, face down, when Azaria approached and shot a bullet through his head.

A-Sharif had stabbed an …. Markus Gunneflo is a postdoctoral researcher and lecturer in public international law at Lund University in Sweden. In terms of scope and approach, TFC is a broader and perhaps more ambitious successor of the …. The Nuremberg trial often stands as a nostalgic memory in the minds of international criminal lawyers. Two principal questions guide the reader through the book: Can history be judged, and if so, by what means?

And can accountability mechanisms and the applicable law ever be neutral given their historically influenced evolution? Priemel questions the success of Nuremberg, given its selective focus on only certain parts of …. Februars nach …. A response to Lorraine Elliott Transnational environmental crime is both a challenging reality and a legal concept in the making. From an international law point of view, this concept is currently being defined by soft law instruments that are transmitting normative expectations about the way States may address it rather than prescribing legal provisions.

These instruments are paving the way for the future development of international agreements and play an …. The authors and editors of the special issue on sovereign debt restructuring are highly grateful to the contributors to this symposium on sovereign debt for their thought-provoking contributions. As I have highlighted in my initial post, this special issue is as much about improving the current practice of sovereign debt restructuring as it is about legal engineering — in this case, about instigating incremental progressive development in a crucial policy ….

This post continues the earlier part I. As the 19 January deadline approached, without Jammeh showing any inclination to resign, the crisis deepened. In keeping with the timetable foreseen in the Gambian constitution, …. The crisis had started to unfold …. Millions of dollars worth of smuggled elephant ivory intercepted by customs officers each year, shipping containers filled with hundreds of tonnes of illegally traded pangolin scales and kiln-dried geckoes, forests plundered for high-end timber species, rampant criminality in the fisheries sector, and the illegal disposal of hazardous waste across borders: in a report released in June , INTERPOL described environmental crime as a growing international problem that threatens natural resources, ….

Staying of enforcement plays a topical role in sovereign debt litigation as enforcing a debt claim may have a negative impact on the dynamics of restructuring processes and the regular functioning of financial markets for sovereign debt. As a response to this problem, in January the United Nations Conference …. In the context of domestic insolvency laws, this evaluation is made possible and enforceable through detailed priority structures designed to favor certain creditor groups over other.

When the debtor is sovereign, however, creditor priorities are only …. Events of historic proportions often feel anti-climactic. The exchange was not purely voluntary, since the majority of bonds were subjected to Greek law and an amendment made the offer compulsory for …. The Point of Departure Regionalism continues to increasingly develop in various fields of law.

Abdoulaye Soma, who acknowledges the birth of an African international criminal law, analyses one of its specificities: the crime of unconstitutional changes of government. Anyone interested in legal issues surrounding sovereign debt should pay careful attention to the last special edition of the Yale Journal of International Law in which a framework is set forth to ensure the progressive development of orderly sovereign debt restructurings SDRs.

The sovereign debt crises in the Eurozone, in Argentina, or in Ukraine have highlighted that the current international legal regime on sovereign debt is ill equipped to resolve the bankruptcy of nation states. Yet, when it comes to possible reforms, policy-makers and experts have been divided over two opposing solutions: A contractual one, which favors contractual clauses enabling a majority of the creditors of a sovereign bond to restructure it, ….

But the picture across the continent is more complex. While some African states have clearly rejected the Court, the majority remain members. More fundamentally — what is the best way of studying international criminal justice and its effects …. Fulda geht auf Parallelen und Unterschiede ein, vergleicht …. Die UN und das Prinzip der kollektiven Sicherheit sind aus der heutigen Weltpolitik nicht mehr wegzudenken. Dort wurden sie Koine Eirene griech.

Ist unser heutiges globales Friedenssystem nur eine Kopie der Antike? Im Jahre feierten wir 70 Jahre Vereinte …. Since October , the German Historical Museum has been dealing with the past and presence of German colonialism in a special exhibition see here — for the first time ever. But German colonialism is not only a dusty artefact exposed in some German museum. Instead, it continues to haunt the German State in the form of claims for reparations by the descendants of the victims of colonial injustices. While German …. Kein Wunder, dass Verfechter der Menschenrechte zuweilen die ….

Der He takes issue with the legal nature of the referrals, in which he finds the legitimation of a double standard of international justice in the Rome Statute. He also sees a double standard in the referrals themselves. That is, the referrals under Article 13 b are ….

The Council has done so for the first time in in the case of the atrocities committed in the brutal civil war in Darfur, Sudan. That referral resulted inter alia in two open arrest warrants …. The digital revolution is hitting the shores of academic publishing. Online resources increasingly gain ground, and open access has become the call of the day — and a hotly debated issue. Political and academic initiatives favor and fund open access, for instance the digital strategy of the German Ministry of Education and Research or the Open Access initiative of the Max Planck society.

For its advocates, open access promises …. Here we are. It could seem a bit obvious to start with this overwhelming event, but it is truly important to stress that the recent results of the US elections will have far reaching consequences in many fields of international law, including the one that this post is dealing with: the yet unsettled complex set of issues of extraterritoriality with respect to surveillance practices. Indeed, one of the foreseeable developments …. Schon seit dem Urteil Klass gg.

Have you ever paid for surveillance measures? Not indirectly through taxes, rather directly? And have you ever installed the measures in your home? If you think that this is an absurd question, do read this blog post. It relates to four trends I would like to point out to you: the constant development of the internet of things IoT adds a whole new dimension to the problem of surveillance 1. In this short piece I will argue that international law, in order to gain access to its revolutionary potential, needs to create a new linguistic opening.

This linguistic opening needs to be located within the expression as opposed to content of international law. In this sense this piece is not situated on the continuum of the existing international law and literature studies. It also develops an argument different from widely …. Latin America is a peculiar region in relation to protection through asylum.

However, among the Arab states, only Egypt and Yemen have signed the Geneva Convention of on the status of refugees. While nation states in the West have long offered the possibility of full citizenship to immigrants and refugees, it is surprising that the …. Since the s, the southern border of the United States — spanning miles of international border between the United States and Mexico — has been the site of significant migration from Central America. Over one million Central American refugees crossed into the United States from the late s to the early s to escape civil wars in Guatemala and El Salvador, while thousands more went to Canada, Mexico, Costa ….

Migration recently has been discussed in a very negative context. As Europe and the US moved towards right, we have to rethink human mobility and push for informed debates. Terminology used to describe migration and refugees is old, out dated and problematic. They were largely designed for the Cold War era and for a special category of people. The Geneva Convention had set the ground rules for treating refugees. This is surprising, given the vital importance of land, a finite resource, for a variety of human rights.

These include access to life-sustaining resources, such as food and water, as well as other means to ensure an adequate standard of living as codified in Art. Lawyers and political scientists from Germany, India and Brazil will reflect on the global scramble for land in local contexts. Land as such is a rather localized phenomenon, but land governance matters in much wider political, economic, social and ecological contexts: Control over land has always been ….

This summer he spent some days at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law in Heidelberg for a conference on the implementation of judgments of the regional human rights courts. We had the opportunity to meet him and discuss about new …. He was sentenced to nine years of imprisonment — the lowest sentence imposed by the ICC thus far. Although Mr. Russia no. The complaints lodged by three same-sex couples concern the inability of same-sex couples to register for marriage under Russian legislation and the lack of other means of giving legal status to the relationship of same-sex couples, as marriage is the only legally recognised union in ….

Intellectual Property Laws across the world is intended to provide incentives to creators, authors, innovators and businesses by granting them monopoly rights usually for a limited period. Those rights would reward their efforts, help recoup their investments and profit from their contributions to society. However, due to inconsistencies and loopholes in law coupled with the ineffectiveness or challenges in enforcement, society suffers from certain monopolistic, controversial and certain unfair trade ….

These dynamics …. He was referring to the situation in Europe and particularly in Germany, where after the successive closure of the Balkan route and the agreement between the EU and Turkey in March as …. Nach der Krise ist vor der Krise. All the three distinguished authors have looked at the multifaceted problem of legal formalization of the OSCE from various angles andhave provided rather helpful reflections on the current state of affairs.

This contribution deals with the issue in a broader political context. Should the OSCE finally be endowed with legal personality? I have a hard time positioning myself in the debate. Obviously, I understand the argument — brought forward at the conference on the legal framework of the OSCE mostly by practitioners working at the organization, but also by Niels Blokker see the introductory post , — that legal personality would make work at the organization much easier.

It is quite apparent that …. While before the Ukraine crisis the OSCE may have laid relatively dormant, the events in Ukraine allowed the organization to reclaim its position as a pan-European security forum. However, in the absence …. This …. Despite its name, the OSCE is not an international organization in the public international law sense and lacks international legal personality. One of the main consequences in practice is that OSCE personnel sent abroad ….

Elif Askin picked a current, important, and yet rarely discussed issue for her insightful post and offered a compelling perspective on human rights law and arms transfers. By transferring arms to regions where the human rights situation is precarious, Germany risks to contribute to human rights violations, as Elif has highlighted. I will use this opportunity to take up the example of Germany and look at how the human rights situation …. Strong reservations arguing that these weapons might end up in the wrong hands and likely be used to commit human rights violations were voiced, especially considering ….

The factual background is as follows: intended parents residing in a country with a higher average income, travel to a country with a lower average income, usually in eastern Europe or the global south, to make use of the services of a surrogate mother, and then return to …. Whether surrogacy is ethical or not is subject to lively debate. But so far, it is the prerogative of each sovereign state to decide whether to allow or forbid in its territory the provision of surrogacy treatments, according to its own national values.

Furthermore, conflicts associated with natural resources are more likely to relapse into violence within the first five years of a peace agreement. Fortunately, an increasing number of peace processes and related agreements include natural resource provisions on a direct or indirect basis. For these and other reasons, resource-sensitive mediation and dispute resolution is becoming an …. The Promise of Peace Mediation Navigating norms in peace mediation is possible through understanding what mediation can or cannot achieve.

This means determining whether it is indeed the best option for third-party intervention in a given context. Mediators have limited power. They can facilitate, cajole or encourage the parties, but they have …. A reply to Christian Tietje Attempts to conceptualize the foundations of and crucial questions around investment arbitration are most welcome, as the field gains not only public attention, but also increasing importance for investors as well as receivers. Christian Tietje, claiming in the title that investor-state arbitration is a part of the international rule of law and, therefore, a mechanism for upholding it, touches on what may surely be called ….

Investor-state arbitration is not only the most heated topic discussed in international economic law, but it also has become an important political issue more generally. Indeed, it is amazing to see how a topic that, some years ago, interested only a handful of international economic lawyers and very few academics has emerged today as an issue on which everybody has an opinion. Moreover, there seems to be only one direction …. But the name is a misnomer. In most legal systems these days, most disputes and conflicts are settled or resolved in some way short of a formal trial — through an ombuds a person who works for the government or for private industry by ….

Today, a vast array of treaties exists, both multilateral and bilateral. They regulate almost every aspect of human interaction and cover such diverse fields as the environment, trade, outer-space, human rights, organized crime and terrorism. For example, over multilateral treaties are deposited with the UN Secretary General alone and more than bilateral investment treaties exist.

The majority of these treaties are concerned with standard setting, that is, the …. We take this opportunity to reply to both posts and to reflect on some further themes coming out of the ICON-S panels that dealt with the megaregionals. In a post of 13 June to this blog, the authors addressed the financial crisis of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, characterized it as a result of state dissatisfaction, and portrayed it as an opportunity to reimagine the role of member states and the organs of the Inter-American Human Rights System the Commission and the Court.

I agree with the authors that the financial crisis goes beyond the issue …. Global international economic relations have been constantly evolving since the institutionalization of the GATT. The majority of African countries signed into the World Trade Organization in , whether because of a desire to join the multilateral trading system, or as a condition of loans from the IMF and World Bank during the heyday of the Washington Consensus.

The multilateral trading system has been quite efficient in mitigating the hitherto …. I am grateful for the opportunity to participate in this symposium and would like to congratulate the MegaReg team on their efforts to draw attention to a fascinating series of developments in international law, and the authors of the working papers on providing thoughtful commentaries to form the basis of these analyses.

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Stewart draw out some common themes relating to the …. Second, he explains the meaning of recognition as a requirement for the formation of a state. And third, he sets forth the legitimacy argument by concluding that because of the lack of the rule of law, the …. The so-called Islamic State has triggered a wave of commentary ever since it emerged as one of the leading military groups in Syria and further captured vast parts of Iraqi territory in mid What seems to have received only little attention this far is its legal characterization.

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Three key themes are developed. Each of them gives rise to diverging interpretations as …. The planned criminal law chamber stirs academics as much as practitioners because of its not yet defined relationship to the International Criminal Court ICC. The new chambers could either be upstream or equally ranked with …. The Protocol foresees the creation of an integrated African Court of Justice and Human Rights featuring a human rights chamber, a general affairs chamber and a criminal law chamber that has jurisdiction over natural ….

April , Beschwerde-Nr. These involve stories about stateless persons, for whom their state of residence decided to buy citizenship of another state, stories about the merchandising of passports for a global elite, and stories of a man who decided …. A response to Birgit Peters. Peters emphasizes what she understands as a shift from traditional regulatory approaches that frame the Arctic as a common heritage and common concern, focused on prohibition, to an integrated approach focusing on sustainability.

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  • Peters in this respect discusses the role of …. Climate change in the Arctic Climate change, in particular global warming, is an inevitable fact. Nonetheless, it will hit different regions of the world differently. Of all regions, the area most affected by future temperature change is the Arctic. This is the part of the global north, which is situated above 66,3 degrees latitude.

    Here, differences in temperatures are predicted to rise at least 3 degrees Celsius compared to the …. The international legal order finds itself in turmoil. The crises in Ukraine and Syria, the questioning of the authority of the ECtHR, the opposition against the ICC by African states and the rise of global terrorism can all be interpreted as crisis symptoms justifying the need for a re- assessment of the current state and future of International Law.

    The illness caused by this virus is very rarely fatal, and it causes mild symptoms: rash, headaches, conjunctivitis, sometimes fever and joint pains. The last quarter of century registered the resurgence of infectious diseases, that the medical community deemed to have defeated with the global vaccination campaign. The global health governance …. In theater, the peak of a play in which all strings of the story converge and the intrigue is resolved, is called the climax.

    Regional integration in Africa has been regarded as a necessary step towards accelerated development on the continent. The belief is that greater gains would be made if states pooled their resources together rather than act individually. Despite elaborate regional goals and objectives, regional institutions in Africa have not been effective in facilitating development, for two major reasons. First, they have significant capacity deficits, especially considering the weakness of their members ….

    During the Ebola-crisis , states have widely ignored the measures recommended by the World Health Organization WHO and have interfered in the fight against the disease. After the first appearances of the Ebola epidemic in December , the disease spread wide and fast, exceeding any previous Ebola epidemic with regard to incidence and prevalence and was declared a pandemic by WHO.

    Before , the outbreaks of this highly infectious disease were locally restricted and primarily situated in rural areas. The latest outbreak of this epidemic, however, expanded to the urban population as well as across borders. The recent Ebola crisis that shook West Arica, exceeded any previous Ebola epidemic and later was declared a pandemic by the WHO not only stretched local health care systems, but also revealed deep structural deficiencies in the international response to health issues of such a scale.

    The outbreak of this virus that crossed boarders easily and cost the lives of so many people raises fundamental questions regarding the actors and …. I am grateful to all participants of this symposium for their thoughtful and generous commentaries. The strange truth about book-writing, which I suppose all experienced hands know and I discovered as a first-time author , is the void that follows once the manuscript is finished.

    The book then disappears into the publishing process, and gradually snakes on to the desks and reading lists of other scholars. The author might wait months …. The choice of the subject-matter alone shows that Ranganathan puts legal concepts into political context. She outlines the inherent limits of international law which cannot prevent states from creating new treaties to undermine existing commitments. However, international law may constrain policy-makers by steering them towards legal …. Some years ago, I published a slender book on the topic of treaty conflict.

    Zooming in on the treaty relations of member states of the EU, I found that international law had little to say about treaty conflicts involving different parties. If party A has incompatible treaty obligations with states B and C, then it just has to make a choice or, as a German scholar and later EU judge …. This assessment, however, reveals more about myself and how I would approach the topic than it does ….

    International legal scholarship tends to address the political substrate of international law in one of two extreme modes: either by not dealing with it at all and engaging only with the doctrinal surface; or by being entirely consumed with it and reducing doctrinal form to insignificance.

    Maximilian Oehl started his text spelling out the abbreviation …. Law Clinics kannte man einst nur aus dem US-amerikanischen Rechtskreis. Neben …. A response to Maximilian Oehl In his thoughtful post, Maximilian Oehl placed TTIP into the wider context of the world trade system and discussed some of the critical questions surrounding the negotiations. While there is certainly no fault in the portrayal of events and facts presented, it may only be one view of the cathedral.

    Let me add a slightly different one. The present Turkish military interventions in Syria and northern Iraq continue to raise the question of when States may use defensive force against armed non- State actors in other States. It is one of the ongoing and legally disputed actions of multiple, state and non-state, actors involved in the Syrian conflict.

    This post analyses the international legal implications of the ensuing military action by Turkey, especially the meaning of ius …. Nevertheless, political leaders are determined to follow through with the undertaking …. Representative democracy is the most widespread political system in the world today. At the same time, in a number of countries, democratic institutions and guarantees are subject to erosion with severe consequences for the respective population. This means, for example, that state …. In this contribution, I look at the first state-led prior consultations which were implemented in the Peruvian Amazon.

    In contrast to other studies this will not …. Portmann is right in pointing out that direct effect is crucial. I would …. Current Developments. Simon Gauseweg — 12 June, Sabaa A. Khan — 10 June, Stephan Dreyer — Wolfgang Schulz — 3 June, Oskar Josef Gstrein — 29 May, Valentin J. Schatz — 28 May, Roxana Vatanparast — 27 May, Topics in this article: Cyber , Data Protection , universality. Bofaxe Current Developments. Benedikt Behlert — Vanessa Bliecke — 24 May, Topics in this article: Discrimination , Human Rights. Tassilo Singer — 22 May, Outside of academia, he has worked as a web designer and a radio host.

    She has also published articles on argument theory, stylistics, the history of rhetoric, and the rhetoric of science. She has directed the professional writing program at Maryland and served on the board of the Rhetoric Society of America. Andreas Fahr's scholarship focuses on mass communication, mainly from a media psychological perspective.

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    He studied communication, psychology, and economics between and at the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany. Between and he worked as research associate at the Media Institute Ludwigshafen, Germany. Her research focuses on media psychology and methodology.

    In her doctoral thesis she examined information and entertainment perception of political talk shows. Gail T. Her research focuses on organizational communication, leadership, and organizational discourse. Her work has received numerous awards, including the Best Article award for the communication discipline from the International Communication Association. Lisa T. She is an accredited member of the Public Relations Society of America. He developed the ideodynamic model after noting a parallel between hormone biology and human communications: In biology, hormone-producing cells send identical chemical signals to affect other cells.

    In society, the publishers send identical copies of mass media messages to influence other people. Anthony L. He is a former newspaper reporter and editor. Jerry D. Her research focuses on the effects of news and entertainment on political knowledge, attitudes, and engagement. Anthony R. Bob M. His research interests include nonconscious processes in social influence and persuasion.

    His research focuses on new media and audience behavior. Ferguson's publications include numerous journal articles and three books on television. She designed and delivered training in strategic communications to more than 1, Canadian federal government communication officers after being involved in the Privy Council Office project. She consulted extensively for the Canadian government and acted as a speechwriter for numerous government ministers and top-level bureaucrats. Cara A.

    Olson and D. Finnegan, Jr. His interest is studying the role of media in public health. Her main fields of research include media functions in the social construction of reality; mediated representations of minority groups, particularly women and Arabs; multiculturalism as reflected in various genres on prime-time television; advertising as the locus of the Americanization process of Israeli society; and dilemmas in teaching and researching mass media. Shalom M. For over 25 years, he has used educational practice and empirical research to help create TV series, websites, magazines, and other media that both entertain and educate children.

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    • Martin Fishbein is the Harry C. Coles Jr. He is also director of the health communication area in the Annenberg Public Policy Center and director of the theory and methods core of the University of Pennsylvania's Center of Excellence in Cancer Communication Research. Developer of the theory of reasoned action and the integrative model of behavioral prediction, Prof. Fishbein has authored or co-authored six books and over articles. Carla L. Her research focuses on how intergenerational family communication affects wellness across the life-span.

      She has co-authored several chapters and articles on developmental communication research. Her research and teaching focus on interaction in social and personal relationships with a special emphasis on marital and family relationships. She is a past president of the International Communication Association and recipient of its Career Productivity Award of His research interests are in media psychology, media effects, and technology.

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      As co-director of the WebArchivist. John A. Karen A. She was named Co-Gender Scholar of the Year by the Southern States Communication Association in and received the Francine Merritt Award from the National Communication Association in for her contributions to the lives of women in communication.

      Her research interests include media effects on interpersonal relationships, sexualized representations in new media, health communication, and media literacy. Currently she is investigating the potential uses of new media technologies in health behavior modification. David A. Frank is professor of rhetoric and associate director of the Robert D. She has published extensively in the areas of media content and the technologies and sub-cultures of the screen.

      Her other research interests deal with issues of media self- regulation and media literacy, on which she provides expertise for UNESCO and the European Union. In , she was awarded the E-Toile d'Or of the Internet for her research on new information technologies. Vicki S. She was director of communication at the CDC from to He was a research assistant at the Institute of Communication Studies, University of Erfurt, Germany, from to Lawrence R. Lewis A. Katherine T. Prior to joining academia, she worked in New York as an advertising copywriter and creative director for J. She was president of the Eastern Communication Association and has been active in the National Communication Association.

      She also serves on the editorial board of several journals and has published over 25 articles and chapters on instructional communication. His research interests include cultural studies and popular culture, political economy of Chinese media, gender and youth identity, and new media technologies. Robert N. His published work concerns strategic and deceptive communication and, more recently, national and gender identities.

      He is currently working on projects on masculinity and mental health. He has sat on the editorial boards and teams of a number of international journals. Cindy Gallois is a professor of psychology and communication at the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia. She was founding director of the Centre for Social Research in Communication and executive dean of social and behavioral sciences. Her research focuses on intergroup language and communication in health. He has conducted and published research on globalization, nongovernmental organizations, information and communication technology, and global social justice.

      He is currently the principal investigator on a grant to study global social justice activism, funded by the Marsden Foundation of the Royal Society of New Zealand. Her research interests include theories of communication rights and media justice; digital inclusion; data profiling, online surveillance, and privacy; politics of communication policymaking; and media activism.

      She was a Carnegie scholar and is a founding member and treasurer of the International Society for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. She is the co-editor of three books on meta-analytic contributions to the communication discipline. Cecilie Gaziano owns a consulting business, Research Solutions, Inc. Ken Gelder is professor of literary and cultural studies at the University of Melbourne, Australia, where he teaches contemporary literature, genre fiction, and sub-cultural studies.

      He has published three books on Australian literature and cultural politics, including with Jane M. He is currently co-writing a book on contemporary Australian fiction and is coordinating a large-scale project on colonial Australian popular fiction, which includes the production of a digital archive as well as a series of anthologies on colonial popular genres. Salma I. Her areas of research interest include agenda setting, framing, social issues and the media, and coverage of the Middle East.

      Eytan Gilboa is professor of international communication and chair of the communication program at Bar-Ilan University, Israel, and a visiting professor of public diplomacy at the Annenberg School of Communication, University of Southern California, USA. His research has spanned many different intergroup contexts, including intergenerational relations around the Pacific Rim and civilian—police interactions.

      He is fellow and past president of the International Communication Association as well as the inaugural recipient of the Association's Career Productivity Award more recently named the Steven H. Chaffee Award. In she was invited to address the United Nations as one of five international experts on women, media, and information and communication technologies.

      She lives in London. Prior to that she was appointed to the inaugural Council of the South African Telecommunications Regulatory Authority, having established the Policy Department at the Independent Broadcasting Authority. Her research interests include the history of communication, mass media and terrorism, the effects of mass media, and social scientific methods.

      Theodore L. Glasser is a professor of communication at Stanford University, USA, where he is also affiliated to the modern thought and literature program. In — he served as president of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. His current research and teaching interests include communication in conflict, negotiation, and mediation. Carroll J. Her research work explores emerging ethical responsibilities in human and medical genetics and the development of frameworks for ethical decision-making in these fields. Daena J. Her research addresses couple communication about chronic health problems.

      Dennis S. A specialist in the area of communication in decision-making and problem-solving groups, Prof. Gouran has published in excess of books, chapters, and refereed articles dealing with this and related subjects. He has received numerous awards for his teaching, scholarship, and service.

      From to he was a lecturer in the Department of Media and Communications at the London School of Economics and Political Science, UK, where he was director of the graduate programme in media and communications regulation and policy. He continues to work with organizations such as the International Telecommunication Union and the Canadian government on projects involving communications technology and public safety.

      Karla K. Doris A. His primary research is in applied linguistics. Recent publications reflect his interest in the areas of sociocultural theory, cognitive linguistics, and service-learning. He has received two fellowships for his work in the last of these. Lawrence D. He is past president — of the International Society for the History of Rhetoric. He has published widely on the history of rhetoric in Europe, the United States, and Asia. Melanie C. John O. He has been identified as one of the top most productive researchers in the field of communication Communication Monographs , ; Communication Quarterly , He is a two-time recipient of the Gerald R.

      Woolbert Research Award. She has done research on news magazine photographs of presidential candidates, anime-related websites, advergames, and religion in the virtual world Second Life. She teaches qualitative and quantitative research methods, media planning, and video game design, and is involved in developing a new curriculum on video games.

      Rainer Greifeneder is research scientist and lecturer at the Universtiy of Mannheim, Germany. His research interests center on the role of meta-cognitive strategies in judgment and decision-making, with a particular focus on subjective experiences. Greifeneder also investigates individual differences in decision-making such as satisficing and maximizing strategies, and how individuals subjectively perceive change. Robert J.

      His teaching and research focus on communication about environmental issues, energy, health, science, and risk. He has been principal investigator PI or co-PI on various federally funded research projects into environmental risk, and served on a National Research Council standing committee concerned with emerging issues in environmental contamination. He is internationally known for his work in gambling and gaming addictions and has published over refereed research papers, three books, 75 book chapters, and over 1, other articles.

      He has worked extensively on media effects physiological, psychological, and social , media entertainment, media violence, news and news reception, political communication, and the development of empirical methods. Grimm is a member of the German FSF-board the organization for the voluntary self-regulation of television and chairman of the VFM society for the promotion of media research.

      Her research areas include political communication and media—military relations. David J. Grimshaw is international team leader new technologies programme with Practical Action and visiting fellow at Cranfield School of Management, UK. Previously at the University of Leeds and Warwick Business School, UK, his research projects include business use of geographical knowledge, knowledge exploitation, and e-business. Grimshaw has published many papers in academic journals, at international conferences, and in the professional press.

      Recent reports include Connecting the first mile and Podcasting in the Andes. Drawing on her teaching experience, her research includes an emphasis on experiential learning and first-year learning communities. Bruce E. He authored or edited 10 books on media theory and criticism, presidential campaigning, rhetorical criticism, argumentation, and public speaking, as well as dozens of articles and book chapters on such subjects.

      His work focused on the intersection of rhetoric, politics, and media in the modern and contemporary eras. He holds degrees in technology education and mass communication. Alan G. Harmon and M. Daniel M. Gross is associate professor of English at the University of California, Irvine, USA, where he directs the composition program and teaches courses in the history and theory of rhetoric. He has published eight books and dozens of scholarly articles and chapters that focus mainly on media in eastern Europe.

      He has received fellowships, and research, lecture, and training awards and grants, from, among other institutions, Harvard University's Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy, J. In , Dr. James E. He is the author or co-author of five books on public relations and has published articles, books, chapters, papers, and reports. Grunig was the director of a year research project on Excellence in Public Relations and Communication Management. Laura K. She has published six books and over seventy articles and chapters on issues related to nonverbal and interpersonal communication.

      Guerrero has received several research awards, including the Gerald R. She currently serves on eight editorial boards. Barrie Gunter is professor of mass communication at the University of Leicester, UK, where he is also head of the Department of Media and Communication. He serves on the editorial boards of six academic journals in media and communications. He is author of 44 books and over other publications on a range of media and communication topics, including news and audiences.

      Albert C. His research focuses on the psychology of the mass media audience. He won the International Communication Association's outstanding article award for a hostile media effect study. Her research focuses on employing participatory approaches to social marketing; ethics in health communication interventions; disseminating rights information to the public, in particular to minority populations; involving citizens in policy issues; and using entertainment programs to advance social issues.

      Kenneth L. He has edited two volumes on presidential candidates' images and one on digital democracy. He is currently working on a second book regarding digital democracy and is conducting research on how strategic political communication is used both in terrorist discourse and in counter-terrorist discourse. Robert A. He has written extensively on journalism, media representations, and social movements. His current work concerns journalism paradigms in relation to global climate crisis. Her research and teaching address the transformation of media and journalism in central and eastern Europe as well as media systems and journalism cultures.

      She was the co-founder of the study and research program International Journalism at the University of Dortmund, Germany, where she worked from until From until she was a board member of the European Journalism Training Association. Nina Haferkamp holds an endowed junior professorship for emerging communications and media at Dresden University of Technology, Germany.

      Her research work explores social psychological aspects of social media. She has published several papers on the usage and effects of social networking sites, blogs, and social games. Lutz M. His research focuses on assessing media performance and on the production, uses, and effects of news. His main area of research is sexology in a public health perspective, with emphasis on pornography.

      His research on pornography includes epidemiological, experimental, and meta-analytic studies using both heterosexual and homosexual samples in a variety of populations. He is also a clinical psychologist and specialist in clinical sexology. Michael L. Haley is executive director of the International Communication Association. Pingitore, R. Scheffler, T. Sentell, and D. Dominik and has published various articles on the speeches, letters, and rhetorical works of Cicero.

      Most recently he has completed a book on politeness and politics in Cicero's letters, and has written and produced two DVDs on the performative aspects of Cicero's oratory. His research interests include strategic communication, including message design. KG, Hamburg, Germany. Martin E. Halstuk is associate professor of communications at the Pennsylvania State University, USA, where he teaches communications law. Lauren M. Her research foci examine deception from both the production and reception perspectives, and health communication.

      Cees J. Hamelink is professor emeritus of international communication at the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. He is professor of public health and human rights at the Free University Amsterdam, professor for management of information and knowledge at the University of Aruba, and honorary professor at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. His main research interests are argumentation, message production, persuasion, and conflict management. Thomas Hanitzsch is professor of communication at the University of Munich, Germany.

      A former journalist, his teaching and research focus on global journalism cultures, war coverage, celebrity news, and comparative methodology. Hans V. Hansen is associate professor of philosophy in the University of Windsor, Canada. Marie Hardin is associate professor of journalism at Pennsylvania State University, USA, where she is also associate director for research in the university's Center for Sports Journalism. She has published extensively in the areas of gender and sports media representations and the experiences of women in the sports newsroom. Sibylle Hardmeier works as a political and social scientist in Berlin, Germany, and Zurich, Switzerland.

      Her research focuses on political communication and public opinion; political behavior; and gender, representation, and democracy. Teresa M. Her research focuses on democratic processes in organizations and the relationship between democracy and communication technologies. Joy L. Her research and teaching interests center on health, organizational, and interpersonal communication. She has published a number of journal articles and book chapters and is currently completing a book on workers' narratives of plant closings. In the past, she has worked at several universities in the UK, Belgium, and Germany, in both research and teaching positions.

      She has published widely in the field, concentrating primarily on new media and everyday life, and on cyberculture and the domestication concept. The latter interest has grown out of her work with the European Media, Technology, and Everyday Life network. Tilo Hartmann is an assistant professor of communication research at the Free University Amsterdam, the Netherlands. His research interests are in the psychological aspects of media choice and exposure. He was a long-time assistant to Hans Mathias Kepplinger in Mainz.

      Working at a desk at the Allensbach Institute, Germany, at the time of writing, he divides his time between publication projects at Dresden Technical University, Germany, and health communication research at the University of Lugano, Switzerland. His principal subjects of research are intellectuals, alternative media, the Global Justice Movement, and anti-Americanism. He has taught undergraduate and graduate courses at the University of Rennes 2 and the Catholic University of the West in the field of political sociology, sociology of communication, and globalization.

      Jake Harwood is professor of communication and former director of the graduate program in gerontology at the University of Arizona, USA. He has published more than 70 journal articles and book chapters. His main research interests are individual patterns of media use; transnational audiences and public spheres; and media qualities and public service.

      He has written several books, mainly on the legal history of the press, media, and communication in Malaysia, delving into press freedom and responsibility. His current research interest is propaganda, terrorism, and information and communication technologies. She has published numerous theoretical and critical essays on classical and contemporary rhetoric. Kathleen C. She studies telephone talk in broadcasting, emergency services, and other institutional contexts.

      She has served as an officer of the Language and Social Interaction Divisions of the International Communication Association secretary, — , the Western States Communication Association chair, — and the National Communication Association vice chair elect, —. Robert Hassan is a senior research fellow in the media and communications program at the University of Melbourne, Australia. Gerard A. He specializes in rhetorical theory and criticism. Richard Hawkins is professor and Canada Research Chair in science, technology, and innovation policy at the University of Calgary, Canada. In addition to academic work, Dr.

      Andrew F. Hayes conducts research on statistical methods and public opinion and teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in statistical methods and research design. He has been a Fulbright senior scholar at three Nigerian universities. He edited the first book on the Nigerian video boom and has written numerous articles on the subject. His areas of interest include ethics, organizational communication, communication theory, research methods, communication apprehension, and intercultural and interpersonal communication.

      Heath , professor emeritus of communication, University of Houston, USA, has published 20 books and more than articles and chapters. He has lectured extensively around the world, consulted, and won many academic and professional association awards for his publications. His academic work has concentrated on issues management, crisis management, and risk communication, as well as advancing the connections between the rhetorical heritage and public relations theory and practice.

      He has explored the nature and role of corporate social responsibility that truly commits organizations to serve society, making it more fully functioning, rather than merely advance their agentic self-interests. Lorna Heaton is associate professor of communication at the University of Montreal, Canada. Radha S. Her research focuses on the subject of gender, globalization, migration, and global media flows. Don Heider is an author, researcher, and award-winning broadcast news journalist.

      He spent 10 years working in TV news as a photographer, reporter, producer, and manager. During his career he received five Emmy awards, a regional Edward R. Murrow, and a Tennessee Associated Press Award. His current work focuses on the effects of contextual changes economic, technological, cultural, and political on journalism. His research interests include journalism and new media, the changing journalistic profession, and journalism ethics. He has directed and participated in several national and international research projects on the changing nature of journalism in the age of the net.

      Amanda R. She received the Walter G. McMillen Memorial Reward for Parkinson's disease Research from the American Psychological Association to help her conduct her dissertation research on how the symptoms of Parkinson's disease affect first impressions and social relationships. His main research field is the sociology of technology with a focus on the politics of surveillance, the militarization of urban space, and evaluation methodology. His current research lies broadly in the field of media and cultural history. Before joining the University of Westminster, he was a senior producer for the BBC, specializing in news and current affairs documentaries.

      He was spokesman of the media sociology section of the German Communication Association from to Cultural citizenship, popular culture, media, and diversity form her research interests. Her research focuses on the linguistic and social aspects of communication mediated by new technologies, especially with regard to gender, interaction management, classification, and discourse analysis methodologies.

      James K. His research has focused on press coverage of social protest, political communications, and health communications. Current research focuses on minor political parties and candidate experience with the media during electoral campaigns. Bradford W. Kim D. His research focuses on the effects of social context on communication. His publications include three edited books, 36 refereed journal articles, and 24 book chapters. Her research focuses on the influence of communication on political and health-related behaviors. Her research interests include legal discourse, medical discourse, language and gender, and the evolution of communication.

      Janny C. She was a part-time professor in direct marketing at the Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands, —, and since then has been a professor at the University of Groningen. Her research interests include the development of the marketing concept, customer relationship management, market orientation, customer lifetime value, direct marketing, and e-commerce. She speaks frequently at scientific and practitioners' conferences. In she was awarded the Direct Marketer of the Year award by the Dutch direct marketing association. Lindsay H.

      Hoffman has received top paper awards from the International Communication Association and the Midwest Association for Public Opinion Research, and publishes political communication and public opinion research in both national and international journals.


      Amanda J. A recent graduate of Purdue University, USA, she twice received doctoral fellowships to support her research and was the recipient of awards recognizing both outstanding scholarship and outstanding teaching. She was also a visiting professor at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, a research fellow at the Joan Shorenstein Center, Harvard University, and a guest researcher at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. Her research interests include political communication and electoral communication in particular, media systems, and European media policy.

      She has authored and edited numerous books and has published widely in German and international journals. She teaches courses in public relations, strategic communication management, and research at undergraduate and graduate level. Before joining the University of South Florida in she practiced communication for 25 years.

      Holtzhausen is a recipient of the Pathfinder Award from the US Institute of Public Relations for her original research agenda on postmodern public relations and continues to consult on strategic communication in the USA and South Africa. Gregory G. His dissertation research focuses on the foreign policy opinion gap between leaders and the general public. Katharina Holzinger is professor of international relations at the University of Constance, Germany. She is vice president of the German Political Science Association and a member of the editorial board of several political science journals.

      She has published in the field of political communication and deliberation, among others. At the University of Constance she directs a new research program on communicative dynamics of conflict and conflict resolution, and she teaches in an MA program on public administration and conflict management. James M. He has published widely in more than 10 languages. He has spoken at the Council of Europe in Strasbourg, France, on the processes of political socialization among parents and adolescents. He has also co-authored several book chapters on political socialization.

      Brant Houston is professor of journalism at the University of Missouri, USA, and executive director of Investigative Reporters and Editors, an international organization. He was a reporter for 17 years. His main research topics have been: party—press relations, longitudinal changes in the structure of the newspaper industry, the profession of journalists, and the history of journalism and newspapers.

      Her research area concerns the development and interventions of communication apprehension. She was the chair of the Communication Apprehension and Competence Division of the National Communication Association from to She studied communication, political science, and computer science. Her current research projects focus on real and presumed media effects. Heather E. Her research focuses on applications of information and communication technologies for socio-economic development and policies to extend affordable access to new technologies and services in rural and developing regions.

      Hudson has planned or evaluated communication projects in northern Canada, Alaska, and more than 50 developing countries and emerging economies. She has also consulted for the private sector, government agencies, consumer and indigenous organizations, and international organizations. She is the author of numerous articles and several books.

      His research interests include alternative media and participatory communication for social change. He has published two books and over articles on media violence and aggression. Michael E. Huge is a research associate at Ohio State University's School of Communication, USA, where his research interests include public opinion, political communication, and science communication.

      Her research endeavors center on documenting how and why affective states, such as mood or emotion, impact message processing and decision-making. She has published research concerning deception detection accuracy and the motivations underlying nontraditional opposite-sex relationships. Craig R. His scholarship focuses on the development of the functional theory of attitudes, emotion as both a route for and goal of persuasion, and quantitative research methodology.

      His research follows the implicit goals of advancing theory and having practical importance; e. He teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in health communication, persuasion, interpersonal communication, and research methods. His previous writings include both books and articles considering sexual rights and the effects of pornographic media and legal strategies for pornography regulation or deregulation. He has previously worked as a corporate attorney in Silicon Valley and has co-written and co-directed an independent feature film in Hollywood.

      Holly R. Hutchins is a retired senior corporate communications executive with plus years experience with several major US companies, including Georgia-Pacific Corp. Hutchins has also served as an adjunct professor at the University of Houston, USA, and Central Oregon Community College in Bend, Oregon, USA, teaching graduate and undergraduate seminars in investor relations, business communications, and public relations management.

      She continues to serve on the editorial boards of several journals in the field.