RANDOM NOTES FOR THE SMART CEO! (The Thought Train Series: Station2)
In a restaurant it is of course possible to order other parts of meats. Depending on the season and region, it is possible to eat in Argentina very good food and meat such as deer, lamb, sheep, goat, fish, and other seafood. Special dishes, going back as far as colonial times are: "pastel de choclo" or the "humita".
More typical are chicken "pollo" in its most varied prepartions, "milanesa" Viennese escalope , "empanadas" fried pastry shells filled with chopped beef, chicken, maize or cheese and ham or "choripan" similar to a Hot Dog. Many Italian restaurants are found here which serve pizza and pasta. Next to fresh fruit salads and good ice cream, a wide range of desserts are offered.
Two Argentine specialities are the "dulce de leche", milk-caramel marmalade which is also used to as a bread spread and the "alfajores" small cake-formed biscuits with different fillings. Apartment for holiday lets in Cadiz. Good condition, If you are searching for places to stay on the Costa del Apartment in Sierra Nevada, close to the chairlifts.
Barcelona , Spain is a city located at the northeast side of the Iberian Peninsula, in the heart of Catalonia and bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the east. The city of Tarragona lies south of it, Lleida to the west, and Girona to the north. In this section you will find out how to get there by many transportation means. Barcelona is about kilometers from Madrid , at from Valencia , from Zaragoza , and at from Malaga. From other European cities, Paris is 1, kilometers away from Barcelona, 1, from Berna, and 1, from London.
There are bus routes from almost every city in Spain to Barcelona and as well from most major European cities. This is a number to call to get up to date information on the status of traffic in Barcelona Spain. Phone number for Prat Airport in Barcelona, Spain. This great lodging in Cala Ratjada, Mallorca is located in There are many Cadiz apartments for rent around the city. Bookmark Manager BKM for short is an open source tool for managing your bookmarks. You'll find everything about this tool on this Web site.
Current news, new versions and other information. But pyBKM is at very early stages and is not ready for production use, yet. Apartment to rent in Nerja, Andalusia. Spacious and Cosy apartment in the ski station of SIerra Nevada, Benalmadena studio apartment in a residential development This charter firm based in Cadiz offers boats for hire from Cadiz, Spain is fascinating; it's the oldest city in Europe. In the winter you can enjoy the old -su-interior-pueblos-blancos,town, and in the summer it's Apartamentos, chalets, hoteles, casas rurales, and lodging of all kinds.
Costa de la Luz is the ideal coast to charter. Cadiz, Spain is the most important city in the province. To eat in Cadiz, Spain in the region of Andalusia is easy. Almost entirely surrounded by water, the city appears isolated. It stands on a peninsula jutting out into the bay, dramatically defining the surrounding landscape.
This ancient city on the Costa de la Luz in Andalusia is approximately 3, years old. The Phoenicians, Carthaginians, and Romans have all settlled here at one point over the years. Next were the Carthaginians and then the Romans who turned it into a thriving port. Cadiz on the other hand, is very relaxed and easy-going. Even at night, you'd feel safe walking around the city. The narrow and cobbled streets open out onto pretty little squares. People sit outside in cafes all day long enjoying the heat, and gazing up at the Moorish architechture.
Cadiz or little Havana as it's often called, has strong relations with Cuba. There has been a continuous flow of traffic between the two cites over the years. The two cities even look very simililar. Cuba n scenes from the latest James Bond film Die another day were shot here in Cadiz.
You can walk around the old -su-interior-pueblos-blancos,town in about an hour. There are also some lovely parks you can visit with spectacular views out to the Bay. If you are looking to rent apartments in Cadiz, on the Costa de la Luz of Spain, this accommodation is located on the beach promenade of the city of Cadiz, right near the beach. This particular one is fully furnished and equipped for up to 4 people. If you're looking for Cadiz flats in the southern region of Andalusia, Spain than we have the perfect one for you. This home is fully furnished and equipped for your comfort.
Cadiz holiday rentals for let in Andalusia, Spain. This lovely apartment is located in the new area of Cadiz, near the hospital. This 2-star hotel is located in a tranquil area, half-way between the entrance of the city of Cadiz and it's old city center. The hotel is well-situated on one of the city? This is a brand new hotel in Cadiz? Located in the very heart of the thousand-year-old city of Cadiz and a few minutes away from the Santa Maria del Mar beach and Conference Centre.
The Hostel Mirador in Vejer de la Frontera is located in a tranquil area of this town in the province of Cadis. It's guests have 15 double rooms and 4 triple rooms available to them. This hostel is located in one of the old town squares in Rota. A perfect place to enjoy the center of town and the Costilla beach which is only 5 minutes walking distance. Cadiz Mountains vacation homes for rent in Spain. This holiday rental is situated in the pueblo blanco called Alcala de los Gazules and is situated in the Cadiz Mountains.
This Tarifa holiday letting in Spain has one bedroom, and is a nice choice for your vacation in Tarifa. Beautiful apartment in Chiclana, Cadiz for rent. The north east corner of the island has four championship standard golf courses. There's an organistation on the island called the Mallorca Golf Connection, who can organise all you golfing needs - tee-off times, transport to and from the courses , discounted green fees etc.
This holiday lettings in Majorca Spain, is located in Sa Apartments for rent in Cala Ratjada, Majorca. Self catering holiday in nice apartment of 90sqm in Cala Cala Ratjada is located on a small rocky peninsula on the extreme north east corner of Mallorca, Here you will find all kinds of Cala Ratjada accommodation and lodging, places to stay from top There are plenty of things to do and see in Ratjada. Cala ratajada's main town beach is called "Son Moll". Cala Ratjada is a fantastic place to practise outdoor sports. It goes without saying that eating and dirinking are important holiday pasttimes while you are In Cala Ratjada you are sure to find a nightclub you like.
Charter a yacht or boat in Cala Ratjada for your holidays, it will be a decision you will not There are many questions you may need answers to when planning your holidays in the beautiful An easy way to get an overall look at Cala Ratjada is with panoramic photos. Going shopping in Cala Ratjada is a great option. Cala Ratjada offers some very lively nightlife with plenty of bars, clubs and discos staying open well into the early hours. One of the most popular discos is called "physical".
It's popular with both locals and holiday makers. They play a wide variety of music and regularly hold foam parties and lazer shows. I hereby acknowledge having full knowledge of the booking terms. Complete guide of campsites in France. For each camp-site containing the classification, the services, the hirings, the lodging and the situation. Our multicriterion research assistant allows you to refine your research while answering simple questions.
At the heart of the matter is the issue of trust: trust in institutions, in counterparties, in the market, not least, in information. The investment strategy of Credit Suisse Fund Lux Global Responsible Equities focuses on appropriate capital growth in combination with environmental and social considerations. Note: Context support was added with PHP 5. For a description of contexts, refer to Stream Functions.
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Simply double-click the downloaded file to install it. You can choose your language settings from within the program. If you are upgrading from a previous version of UpdateStar, simply install the downloaded version - your licensing information will be retained and Premium features will be activated. If you first uninstalled your current UpdateStar, you'll need to re-enter your license key information to access the Premium features. Self catering apartment in Conil de la Frontera for Holiday chalet in Conil for 6 people in the area of El Attribution — You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work.
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This section holds the most general questions about PHP: what it is and what it does. Can I run several versions of PHP at the same time? I think I found a bug! Who should I tell? The goal of the language is to allow web developers to write dynamically generated pages quickly. This confuses many people because the first word of the acronym is the acronym.
This type of acronym is called a recursive acronym. While PHP 5 was purposely designed to be as compatible as possible with previous versions, there are some significant changes. If you don't see it in the database, use the reporting form to report the bug. It is important to use the bug database instead of just sending an email to one of the mailing lists because the bug will have a tracking number assigned and it will then be possible for you to go back later and check on the status of the bug.
In this case, the value for "bits" is the highest bit depth encountered. In this case, getimagesize returns the values for the first codestream it encounters in the root of the file. Note: The information about icons are retrieved from the icon with the highest bitrate. It can reference a local file or configuration permitting a remote file using one of the supported streams.
This optional parameter allows you to extract some extended information from the image file. Some programs use these APP markers to embed text information in images. You can use the iptcparse function to parse the binary APP13 marker into something readable. Index 0 and 1 contains respectively the width and the height of the image.
Note: Some formats may contain no image or may contain multiple images. In these cases, getimagesize might not be able to properly determine the image size. Note: This function does not require the GD image library. Now every Depositfiles user can upload his file even more easier, safer and at any time! There is available a new version of Depositfiles Uploader 1. It allows to upload up to 10 files simultaneously! Go to "Options" in the menu in the"Account" tag and type in your login and password if you don't have an account with Depositfiles, you can register one here - this is totally free.
To switch this option on, please indicate the route to the Winrar archiver on your computer. To do this please check the box with "compress files bigger then To do this, please go to "Options" in the menu and in the tag "Main" choose "clipboard" or "notepad". If you want to upload a file bigger then Mb - just add this to the upload queue and the program will offer splitting the file into smaller files and then will add these to the upload queue!
Pay attention that for this function to function properly, you need to go to "Options", choose submenu "Main" and indicate the route to the archiver program, mentioning the minimum size of the file and mark the option if you wish to activate it. Also please pay attention to such options as:minimize to tray, transparency of the program's panel, option of starting and stopping uploading according to the settings you make, etc.
For binary or case-sensitive collations, lettercase is taken into account when assigning values to the column. It also does not matter how many times a given element is listed in the value. When the value is retrieved later, each element in the value appears once, with elements listed according to the order in which they were specified at table creation time. The first of these statements looks for values containing the first set member. Be careful with comparisons of the second type. You should specify the values in the same order they are listed in the column definition. I was drawing this story with Microsoft Paintbrush.
Examine the original drawings in full size! There is also some Hupel Pupel in the book!
Intelligent Information and Database Systems
This is the main location for kitesurf in this part of Cadiz province. Beach with golden sands, located in the residential area next to the Castillo castle of San This beach is situated next to the ruins of the Castillo de Santa Catalina, of savage aspect, Beach on the port of fine golden sands and semi-urban charakter with excellent services and Semi-urban, very busy, large beach of golden sands.
This place has many visitors. Here you can enjoy nautic sports , fishing , wind-surf, kayak etc. Located in Chiclana de la Frontera, this holiday home for Located in Conil de la Frontera, Andalusia, this holiday The Top 70 Finalists shortlist has been selected from the entries submitted to the eLearning Awards in If you are among the shortlisted project, you can include a logo 'TOP 70' on your website.
In the spirit of newness, let's take a look at the only deck in the Top 8 of Turin that made use of the new Arena Grand Melee cards.
(PDF) Change by Design | Anca Elena - jiwopumo.tk
Basically, to have true control over the tempo of the game is like being a policeman controlling traffic. We just got a huge influx of new playables the new set is simply awesome! Holiday lettings available on the Costa del Sol of the This flat for rent in Benalmadena, Malaga is located in the The EuroLinux Alliance for a Free Information Infrastructure is an open coalition of commercial companies and non-profit associations united to promote and protect a vigourous European Software Culture based on copyright, open standards, open competition and open source software such as Linux.
For the last few years the European Patent Office EPO has, contrary to the letter and spirit of the existing law, granted more than patents on rules of organisation and calculation claimed in terms of general-purpose computing equipment, called "programs for computers" in the law of and "computer-implemented inventions" in EPO Newspeak since Europe's patent movement is pressing to legitimate this practise by writing a new law.
Although the patent movement has lost major battles in November and September , Europe's programmers and citizens are still facing considerable risks. Here you find the basic documentation, starting from the latest news and a short overview. The patent movement has during several decades won the support of large corporations and governments for its expansionist cause.
Still, we continue to have more tasks than free hands. Here we tell you how you can help us move forward more quickly. A database of the monopolies on programming problems, which the European Patent Office has granted against the letter and spirit of the existing laws, and about which it is unsufficiently informing the public, delivering only chunks of graphical data hidden behind input masks. The FFII software patent workgroup is trying to single out the software patents, make them better accessible and show their effects on software development. During the last few years, the European Patent Office EPO has granted several patents on computer-implemented rules of organisation and calculation, i.
We are systematically collecting these patents and republishing them in a more accessible form. Aged 29 and from West Bay, Dorset, Dave started fishing at the tender age of 5 and joined the West Bay Sea Angling Club when he was 14, going on to win pretty much every trophy there was. Shimano is pleased to a announce the appointment of Darran Goulder to their consultant team. Shimano is proud to announce availability of its new catalogues for Formigal also known as Fornigal in Aragon is a small town in the province of Huesca of Northern If you're looking for things to do in Formigal, Pyrenees in Spain the main attraction here The climate in Formigal is that of the Pyrenees in Aragon, Spain, cold in the winter and mild We are amongst one of the main ski resorts in the Iberian Penninsula and the Pyrnees.
Below these lines we offer you some information of interest in Formigal, Pyrenees, Spain. To speak of nature in Formigal is to speak of the Tena Valley, the Pyrenees and incredible areas Formigal is a ski resort located in a small municipality of about people. There are various sports you can practice in Formigal, Spain. If you want to get a great meal in Formigal, it will not be difficult as there are various Formigal, Spain in the Pyrnees belongs to the province of Aragon and is located in the Sallent de Gallego is a small town in the province of Huesca in the Pyrenees in Spain that has Formigal is located in Sallent de Gallego, in the Pyrenees of Spain.
Formigal also known as Fornigal in Aragon is a small town in the province of Huesca of Northern Spain in the heart of the Pyrenees. It is part of the locality of Sallent de Gallego and has a population of about inhabitants, although during the ski season this amount is multiplied by 5.
Formigal is located at only a few kilometers from the French border, located at 90 kilometers from Huesca. It is located in the beautiful Tena Valley and is one of the most important and biggest ski resorts in all of Spain. The capacity of this ski resort is for approximately 30, people. Aramon Formigal is the Ski resort in Formigal, and this resort is located between meters above sea level, and has more than kilometers of skiable slopes. This resort has all types of equipment such as ski lifts, and conveyer belts to get around.
It has the capacity to allow 25, people ski each hour, and has services for material rental, restaurants, accommodation, accommodation such as hotels and apartments , health clinics , and a variety of slopes special for snowboarding , slalom and tubers. Located in the historic city center of la Villa de Sallent, hotel Balaitus is a traditional mountain lodging.
The outside is classic in style with an arch of stone. Situated in Huesca the hotel is located in an area of natural beauty, the hotel offers an ambience of peace and tranquillity in the heart of the Pyrenees. It is located in an exception location. Very cozy home and well equipped with all of the necessities for your holidays. This holiday apartment in Formigal, Pyrenees in northern Spain is located right by the slopes and very centric. Near the supermarkets, bars, restaurants and much much more! Real estate , constructions, transfers etc.
These Fuengirola apartment rentals in Malaga, Spain are This studio for rent in Torremolinos, Malaga is only a very In case of premature departure or late arrival we will charge room rates as booked. We accept cash, travellers cheques, EC-, Visa- or Mastercard as well as advance bank transfer. We would like to advise you that it is only possible to book individual room categories. Reservations of specific rooms or floors are not accepted. Rooms are available for guests from 3 p. Guests are asked to vacate rooms by 11 a. With your reservation you can take out hogast holiday insurance to cover you for cancellation and other unforeseen eventualities.
This statistic is based on the using ecommerce sites eshops, distributors, comparison sites, ecommerce ASPs, purchase systems, etc downloading this ICEcat data-sheet since 01 Mar The exact speed varies depending on the system configuration, software program, and document complexity. Time needed before printing after power switched on; expressed in seconds. Size of pallets Width x Depth x Height in millimeter. All personal data is encrypted and will be processed in a secure way. HROS takes the privacy of your personal data very serious. Your personal information will only be used to process your booking.
For more information, read our privacy statement. HROS will not charge you any reservation fees for making this booking, nor charge your credit card. You will simply pay for your stay at the hotel. Cancellation is free of charge; provided you adhere to the notification period stated in the hotel cancellation policy see "Hotel Policies" below. More information can be found in our terms and conditions. See your offers here too?
Register online free! This statistic is based on the using ecommerce sites eshops, distributors, comparison sites, ecommerce ASPs, purchase systems, etc downloading this ICEcat data-sheet since 17 Sep This statistic is based on the using ecommerce sites eshops, distributors, comparison sites, ecommerce ASPs, purchase systems, etc downloading this ICEcat data-sheet since 14 Jul This statistic is based on the using ecommerce sites eshops, distributors, comparison sites, ecommerce ASPs, purchase systems, etc downloading this ICEcat data-sheet since 23 Jul This statistic is based on the using ecommerce sites eshops, distributors, comparison sites, ecommerce ASPs, purchase systems, etc downloading this ICEcat data-sheet since 24 Sep This statistic is based on the using ecommerce sites eshops, distributors, comparison sites, ecommerce ASPs, purchase systems, etc downloading this ICEcat data-sheet since 24 Oct This statistic is based on the using ecommerce sites eshops, distributors, comparison sites, ecommerce ASPs, purchase systems, etc downloading this ICEcat data-sheet since 02 Nov This statistic is based on the using ecommerce sites eshops, distributors, comparison sites, ecommerce ASPs, purchase systems, etc downloading this ICEcat data-sheet since 15 Nov This statistic is based on the using ecommerce sites eshops, distributors, comparison sites, ecommerce ASPs, purchase systems, etc downloading this ICEcat data-sheet since 20 Mar This statistic is based on the using ecommerce sites eshops, distributors, comparison sites, ecommerce ASPs, purchase systems, etc downloading this ICEcat data-sheet since 11 Mar This statistic is based on the using ecommerce sites eshops, distributors, comparison sites, ecommerce ASPs, purchase systems, etc downloading this ICEcat data-sheet since 15 Jul ICEcat: creating the world's largest open catalogue with products, data-sheets, brands.
Work towards the harmonisation of terminology in the field of audit. From its very beginning EUROSAI has been active in organizing a fruitful and mutually beneficial cooperation in the field of public audit among all the countries of the previously divided Europe, prioritizing support for the establishment of independent public audit bodies in Central and Eastern European transition countries.
Drivers and Updates includes hardware drivers e. To obtain instrument drivers for NI products e. For the Kindo team it was a very exciting one and we are busy working in the arms of the MyHeritage family. You can read the announcement here pdf , or get the complete FAQ here, but I wanted to give you some more background on why Kindo and MyHeritage have teamed up.
The first time we met Gilad, the founder and CEO of Myheritage, was in early — a few weeks before we released the first public version of Kindo. But there we were: A Swede, a South African and an Israeli, all with very different professional background and life stories, talking about the future of families online from very different perspectives. We shared the same ideas and vision for what we wanted to achieve with our businesses, even though our approach was far from similar.
Kindo had set out to build a site that would help you interact with the family that is around you here and now. We were trying to come up with tools to help you share information and communicate with the people that matter most to you right now. Ultimately though, what interested us both was the opportunity to help families discover more about who they are and their past, and use the web to bring them closer together.
As Gareth and I travelled back on the tube, we talked about how nice it would be to be able to offer our own users the same tools as MyHeritage already had. What really got us excited was their SmartMatching Technology, which matches people in your family tree with Million other names, and suggests who you might be related too. So we join the MyHeritage family because we share the same vision and values as families should , and because we think that we can build an amazing product together — bringing real benefits to families around the world.
As you see from the smiles in the picture below, this is a happy day for us here in the Putney Offices. Everything from genealogical societies, archives to companies offering original sources online. Update: Now everything is fixed! It was the database acting a bit weird but Stephen has done a great job to fix it. In that case, try some different records. Deeds often contain information on who sold what to whom; who inherited what from whom; or how some land was divided among a family. Conference proceedings. Front Matter Pages i-xviii. Pages Pawan, Rajendra K. Sharma, A. Sharma, Vinod Jain.
A Directed Threshold Signature Scheme. Praveen S. Thakur, Sushila Madan, Mamta Madan. The train ride is more comfortable today the carriages now sport springs and cushioned seats and the scenery has certainly changed, but a century and a half after it was built the GWR still stands as an icon of the industrial revolution—and as an example of the power of design to shape the world around us.
In every one of his great projects Brunel displayed a remarkable—and remarkably prescient—talent for balancing technical, commercial, and human considerations. He was not just a great engineer or a gifted designer; Isambard Kingdom Brunel was one of the earliest examples of a design thinker. Since the completion of the Great Western Railway in , industrialization has wrought incredible change.
Technology has helped lift millions out of poverty and has improved the standard of living of a considerable portion of humanity. As we enter the twenty-first century, however, we are increasingly aware of the underside of the revolution that has transformed the way we live, work, and play. The sooty clouds of smoke that once darkened the skies over Manchester and Birmingham have changed the climate of the planet. The torrent of cheap goods that began to flow from their factories and workshops has fed into a culture of excess consumption and prodigious waste.
The industrialization of agriculture has left us vulnerable to natural and man-made catastrophes. The innovative breakthroughs of the past have become the routine procedures of today as businesses in Shenzhen and Bangalore tap into the same management theories as those in Silicon Valley and Detroit and face the same downward spiral of commoditization. Technology still has not run its course. The communications revolution sparked by the Internet has brought people closer together and given them the opportunity to share perspectives and create new ideas as never before.
The sciences of biology, chemistry, and physics have merged in the forms of biotechnology and nanotechnology to create the promise of lifesaving medicines and wondrous new materials. But these spectacular achievements are unlikely to help us reverse our ominous course. Just the opposite. What we need are new choices—new products that balance the needs of individuals and of society as a whole; new ideas that tackle the global challenges of health, poverty, and education; new strategies that result in differences that matter and a sense of purpose that engages everyone affected by them.
It is hard to imagine a time when the challenges we faced so vastly exceeded the creative resources we have brought to bear on them. What we need is an approach to innovation that is powerful, effective, and broadly accessible, that can be integrated into all aspects of business and society, and that individuals and teams can use to generate breakthrough ideas that are implemented and that therefore have an impact.
Design thinking, the subject of this book, offers just such an approach. Design thinking begins with skills designers have learned over many decades in their quest to match human needs with available technical resources within the practical constraints of business. By integrating what is desirable from a human point of view with what is technologically feasible and economically viable, designers have been able to create the products we enjoy today. Design thinking takes the next step, which is to put these tools into the hands of people who may have never thought of themselves as designers and apply them to a vastly greater range of problems.
Design thinking taps into capacities we all have but that are overlooked by more conventional problem-solving practices. It is not only human-centered; it is deeply human in and of itself. Design thinking relies on our ability to be intuitive, to recognize patterns, to construct ideas that have emotional meaning as well as functionality, to express ourselves in media other than words or symbols.
Nobody wants to run a business based on feeling, intuition, and inspiration, but an overreliance on the rational and the analytical can be just as dangerous. The very first products I designed as a design professional were for a venerable English machinery manufacturer called Wadkin Bursgreen. The people there invited a young and untested industrial designer into their midst to help improve their professional woodworking machines. I spent a summer creating drawings and models of circular saws that were better looking and spindle molders that were easier to use.
Only gradually did I come to see the power of design not as a link in a chain but as the hub of a wheel. When I left the protected world of art school—where everyone looked the same, acted the same, and spoke the same language—and entered the world of business, I had to spend far more time trying to explain to my clients what design was than actually doing it. I realized that I was approaching the world from a set of operating principles that was different from theirs. The resulting confusion was getting in the way of my creativity and productivity.
I also noticed that the people who inspired me were not necessarily members of the design profession: engineers such as Isambard Kingdom Brunel, Thomas Edison, and Ferdinand Porsche, all of whom seemed to have a human-centered rather than technology-centered worldview; behavioral scientists such as Don Norman, who asked why products are so needlessly confusing; artists such as Andy Goldsworthy and Antony Gormley, who seemed to engage their viewers in an experience that made them part of the artwork; business leaders such as Steve Jobs and Akio Morita, who were creating unique and meaningful products.
A few years ago, during one of the periodic booms and busts that are part of business as usual in Silicon Valley, my colleagues and I were struggling to figure how to keep my company, IDEO, meaningful and useful in the world. There was plenty of interest in our design services, but we also noticed that we were increasingly being asked to tackle problems that seemed very far away from the commonly held view of design.
A health care foundation was asking us to help restructure its organization; a century-old manufacturing company was asking us to help it better understand its clients; an elite university was asking us to think about alternative learning environments. We were being pulled out of our comfort zone, but this was exciting because it opened up new possibilities for us to have more impact in the world.
But this phrase never seemed fully satisfactory. I now use it as a way of describing a set of principles that can be applied by diverse people to a wide range of problems. I have become a convert and an evangelist of design thinking. And I am not alone. Today, rather than enlist designers to make an already developed idea more attractive, the most progressive companies are challenging them to create ideas at the outset of the development process. The former role is tactical; it builds on what exists and usually moves it one step further.
As a thought process, design has begun to move upstream. Moreover, the principles of design thinking turn out to be applicable to a wide range of organizations, not just to companies in search of new product offerings. The causes underlying the growing interest in design are clear. As the center of economic activity in the developing world shifts inexorably from industrial manufacturing to knowledge creation and service delivery, innovation has become nothing less than a survival strategy.
It is, moreover, no longer limited to the introduction of new physical products but includes new sorts of processes, services, interactions, entertainment forms, and ways of communicating and collaborating. These are exactly the kinds of human-centered tasks that designers work on every day. Change by Design is divided into two parts. The first is a journey through some of the important stages of design thinking.
What I hope to do is to provide a framework that will help the reader identify the principles and practices that make for great design thinking. As I suggest in chapter 6, design thinking flourishes in a rich culture of storytelling, and in that spirit I will explore many of these ideas by telling stories drawn from IDEO and other companies and organizations. The first part of the book focuses on design thinking as applied to business. Part two is intended as a challenge for all of us to Think Big. By looking at three broad domains of human activity—business, markets, and society—I hope to show how design thinking can be extended in new ways to create ideas that are equal to the challenges we all face.
If you are managing a hotel, design thinking can help you to rethink the very nature of hospitality. If you are working with a philanthropic agency, design thinking can help you grasp the needs of the people you are trying to serve. If you are a venture capitalist, design thinking can help you peer into the future. I have done my best to oblige. The truth is, however, that I see things a bit differently. Design thinking is all about exploring different possibilities, so I thought I would start by introducing the reader to another way of visualizing the contents of the book.
There are times when linear thinking is called for, but at IDEO we often find it more helpful to visualize an idea using a technique with a long, rich history, the mind map. Linear thinking is about sequences; mind maps are about connections. This visual representation helps me see the relationships between the different topics I want to talk about, it gives me a more intuitive sense of the whole, and it helps me to think about how best to illustrate an idea.
Linear thinkers like Ben are welcome to use the table of contents; more venturesome readers may wish to consult the inside cover and view the whole of Change by Design in one place. It may prompt you to jump to a particular section of interest. It may help you retrace your steps. It may remind you of the relationships among different topics of design thinking and may even help you to think of topics that are not covered here but should be.
Experienced design thinkers may find that the mind map is all you need to capture my point of view. I hope that for everyone else the ten chapters that follow will provide a worthwhile insight into the world of design thinking and the potential it has for us to create meaningful change. If that proves to be the case, I hope you will let me know. The company had always relied on new technology to drive its growth. It had invested heavily in an effort to anticipate the next innovation.
In the face of the changing market it seemed prudent to try something new, so Shimano invited IDEO to collaborate. What followed was an exercise in designer-client relations that looked very different from what such an engagement might have looked like a few decades or even a few years earlier. Shimano did not hand us a list of technical specifications and a binder full of market research and send us off to design a bunch of parts.
Rather, we joined forces and set out together to explore the changing terrain of the cycling market. During the initial phase, we fielded an interdisciplinary team of designers, behavioral scientists, marketers, and engineers whose task was to identify appropriate constraints for the project. The team began with a hunch that it should not focus on the high-end market. Looking for new ways to think about the problem, they spent time with consumers from across the spectrum.
They discovered that nearly everyone they met had happy memories of being a kid on a bike but many are deterred by cycling today—by the retail experience including the intimidating, Lycra-clad athletes who serve as sales staff in most independent bike stores ; by the bewildering complexity and excessive cost of the bikes, accessories, and specialized clothing; by the danger of cycling on roads not designed for bicycles; and by the demands of maintaining a sophisticated machine that might be ridden only on weekends.
They noted that everyone they talked to seemed to have a bike in the garage with a flat tire or a broken cable. A huge, untapped market began to take shape before their eyes. Coasting bikes, built more for pleasure than for sport, would have no controls on the handlebars, no cables snaking along the frame, no nest of precision gears to be cleaned, adjusted, repaired, and replaced. As we remember from our earliest bikes, the brakes would be applied by backpedaling.
Coasting bikes would feature comfortable padded seats, upright handlebars, and puncture-resistant tires and require almost no maintenance. But this is not simply a retrobike: it incorporates sophisticated engineering with an automatic transmission that shifts the gears as the bicycle gains speed or slows. Designers might have ended the project with the bike itself, but as holistic design thinkers they pressed ahead.
They created in-store retailing strategies for independent bike dealers, in part to mitigate the discomfort that novices felt in retail settings built to serve enthusiasts. In collaboration with local governments and cycling organizations, it designed a public relations campaign including a Web site that identified safe places to ride. Many other people and organizations became involved in the project as it passed from inspiration through ideation and on into the implementation phase. An exercise in design had become an exercise in design thinking.
There are useful starting points and helpful landmarks along the way, but the continuum of innovation is best thought of as a system of overlapping spaces rather than a sequence of orderly steps. We can think of them as inspiration, the problem or opportunity that motivates the search for solutions; ideation, the process of generating, developing, and testing ideas; and implementation, the path that leads from the project room to the market.
Projects may loop back through these spaces more than once as the team refines its ideas and explores new directions. The reason for the iterative, nonlinear nature of the journey is not that design thinkers are disorganized or undisciplined but that design thinking is fundamentally an exploratory process; done right, it will invariably make unexpected discoveries along the way, and it would be foolish not to find out where they lead. Often these discoveries can be integrated into the ongoing process without disruption. At other times the discovery will motivate the team to revisit some of its most basic assumptions.
While testing a prototype, for instance, consumers may provide us with insights that point to a more interesting, more promising, and potentially more profitable market opening up in front of us. Insights of this sort should inspire us to refine or rethink our assumptions rather than press onward in adherence to an original plan. To borrow the language of the computer industry, this approach should be seen not as a system reset but as a meaningful upgrade. The risk of such an iterative approach is that it appears to extend the time it takes to get an idea to market, but this is often a shortsighted perception.
To the contrary, a team that understands what is happening will not feel bound to take the next logical step along an ultimately unproductive path. We have seen many projects killed by management because it became clear that the ideas were not good enough. When a project is terminated after months or even years, it can be devastating in terms of both money and morale. But over the life of a project, it invariably comes to make sense and achieves results that differ markedly from the linear, milestone-based processes that define traditional business practices.
In any case, predictability leads to boredom and boredom leads to the loss of talented people. It also leads to results that rivals find easy to copy. It is better to take an experimental approach: share processes, encourage the collective ownership of ideas, and enable teams to learn from one another. A second way to think about the overlapping spaces of innovation is in terms of boundaries. To an artist in pursuit of beauty or a scientist in search of truth, the bounds of a project may appear as unwelcome constraints.
But the mark of a designer, as the legendary Charles Eames said often, is a willing embrace of constraints. Without constraints design cannot happen, and the best design—a precision medical device or emergency shelter for disaster victims—is often carried out within quite severe constraints. It is actually much more difficult for an accomplished designer such as Michael Graves to create a collection of low-cost kitchen implements or Isaac Mizrahi a line of ready-to-wear clothing than it is to design a teakettle that will sell in a museum store for hundreds of dollars or a dress that will sell in a boutique for thousands.
The willing and even enthusiastic acceptance of competing constraints is the foundation of design thinking. The first stage of the design process is often about discovering which constraints are important and establishing a framework for evaluating them. Constraints can best be visualized in terms of three overlapping criteria for successful ideas: feasibility what is functionally possible within the foreseeable future ; viability what is likely to become part of a sustainable business model ; and desirability what makes sense to people and for people.
A competent designer will resolve each of these three constraints, but a design thinker will bring them into a harmonious balance. The popular Nintendo Wii is a good example of what happens when someone gets it right. For many years a veritable arms race of more sophisticated graphics and more expensive consoles has been driving the gaming industry.
Nintendo realized that it would be possible to break out of this vicious circle—and create a more immersive experience—by using the new technology of gestural control. This meant less focus on the resolution of the screen graphics, which in turn led to a less expensive console and better margins on the product. The Wii strikes a perfect balance of desirability, feasibility, and viability.
It has created a more engaging user experience and generated huge profits for Nintendo. This pursuit of peaceful coexistence does not imply that all constraints are created equal; a given project may be driven disproportionately by technology, budget, or a volatile mix of human factors. Different types of organizations may push one or another of them to the fore. Nor is it a simple linear process. Design teams will cycle back through all three considerations throughout the life of a project, but the emphasis on fundamental human needs—as distinct from fleeting or artificially manipulated desires—is what drives design thinking to depart from the status quo.
Though this may sound self-evident, the reality is that most companies tend to approach new ideas quite differently. Quite reasonably, they are likely to start with the constraint of what will fit within the framework of the existing business model. Because business systems are designed for efficiency, new ideas will tend to be incremental, predictable, and all too easy for the competition to emulate. This explains the oppressive uniformity of so many products on the market today; have you walked through the housewares section of any department store lately, shopped for a printer, or almost gotten into the wrong car in a parking lot?
A second approach is the one commonly taken by engineering-driven companies looking for a technological breakthrough. In this scenario teams of researchers will discover a new way of doing something and only afterward will they think about how the technology might fit into an existing business system and create value.
As Peter Drucker showed in his classic study Innovation and Entrepreneurship, reliance on technology is hugely risky. Relatively few technical innovations bring an immediate economic benefit that will justify the investments of time and resources they require. Today, corporations instead attempt to narrow their innovation efforts to ideas that have more near-term business potential.
They may be making a big mistake. By focusing their attention on near-term viability, they may be trading innovation for increment. Finally, an organization may be driven by its estimation of basic human needs and desires. Design thinkers, by contrast, are learning to navigate between and among them in creative ways. They do so because they have shifted their thinking from problem to project. The project is the vehicle that carries an idea from concept to reality. Unlike many other processes we are used to—from playing the piano to paying our bills—a design project is not open- ended and ongoing.
It has a beginning, a middle, and an end, and it is precisely these restrictions that anchor it to the real world. That design thinking is expressed within the context of a project forces us to articulate a clear goal at the outset. It creates natural deadlines that impose discipline and give us an opportunity to review progress, make midcourse corrections, and redirect future activity.
The clarity, direction, and limits of a well-defined project are vital to sustaining a high level of creative energy. Google teamed up with the bike company Specialized to create a design competition whose modest challenge was to use bicycle technology to change the world. The winning team—five committed designers and an extended family of enthusiastic supporters—was a late starter. In a few frenzied weeks of brainstorming and prototyping, the team was able to identify a pressing issue 1. The experience of the Aquaduct team is the reverse of that found in most academic or corporate labs, where the objective may be to extend the life of a research project indefinitely and where the end of a project may mean nothing more than the funding has dried up.
Almost like a scientific hypothesis, the brief is a set of mental constraints that gives the project team a framework from which to begin, benchmarks by which they can measure progress, and a set of objectives to be realized: price point, available technology, market segment, and so on. The analogy goes even further. Just as a hypothesis is not the same as an algorithm, the project brief is not a set of instructions or an attempt to answer a question before it has been posed.
Rather, a well-constructed brief will allow for serendipity, unpredictability, and the capricious whims of fate, for that is the creative realm from which breakthrough ideas emerge. If you already know what you are after, there is usually not much point in looking. When I first started practicing as an industrial designer, the brief was handed to us in an envelope.
It usually took the form of a highly constrained set of parameters that left us with little more to do than wrap a more or less attractive shell around a product whose basic concept had already been decided elsewhere. One of my first assignments was to design a new personal fax machine for a Danish electronics manufacturer. Even its desirability had largely been predetermined by precedent, as everybody supposedly knew what a fax machine was supposed to look like.
There was not a lot of room for maneuver, and I was left to try to make the machine stand out against those of other designers who were trying to do the same thing. It is no wonder that as more companies mastered the game, the competition among them became ever more intense. Nor have things changed much over the years. The proof of this can be found at any consumer electronics store, where, under the buzz of the fluorescent lights, thousands of products are arrayed on the shelves, clamoring for our attention and differentiated only by unnecessary if not unfathomable features.
Gratuitous efforts at styling and assertive graphics and packaging may catch our eye but do little to enhance the experience of ownership and use. A design brief that is too abstract risks leaving the project team wandering about in a fog. One that starts from too narrow a set of constraints, however, almost guarantees that the outcome will be incremental and, most likely, mediocre. In the company embarked on an initiative to use design as a source of innovation and growth. His stated goal was not to produce incremental additions to existing products and brands but to inspire innovation that would generate significant growth.
Without making the brief too concrete, he helped the team establish a realistic set of goals. Without making it too broad, he left us space to interpret the concept for ourselves, to explore and to discover. The modifications to the original brief helped Ronn to specify the level of cost and complexity that was appropriate for his business.
Simultaneously, these continual refinements of the initial plan helped guide the project team toward the right balance of feasibility, viability, and desirability. Over the course of about twelve weeks, this well-crafted brief led to a staggering product concepts, more than 60 prototypes, and 3 ideas that advanced to development. One of them—Mr.
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Clean Magic Reach, a multifunctional tool that met every one of the stated criteria—went into production eighteen months later. The message here is that design thinking needs to be practiced on both sides of the table: by the design team, obviously, but by the client as well. Even in the more traditional design fields of industrial and graphic design, not to say architecture, teams have been the norm for years.
An automobile company has dozens of designers working on each new model. A new building may involve hundreds of architects. As design begins to tackle a wider range of problems—and to move upstream in the innovation process—the lone designer, sitting alone in a studio and meditating upon the relation between form and function, has yielded to the interdisciplinary team. Although we will never, I hope, lose respect for the designer as inspired form giver, it is common now to see designers working with psychologists and ethnographers, engineers and scientists, marketing and business experts, writers and filmmakers.
All of these disciplines, and many more, have long contributed to the development of new products and services, but today we are bringing them together within the same team, in the same space, and using the same processes. We ask people not simply to offer expert advice on materials, behaviors, or software but to be active in each of the spaces of innovation: inspiration, ideation, and implementation.
Staffing a project with people from diverse backgrounds and a multiplicity of disciplines takes some patience, however. It requires us to identify individuals who are confident enough of their expertise that they are willing to go beyond it. On the vertical axis, every member of the team needs to possess a depth of skill that allows him or her to make tangible contributions to the outcome. This competence—whether in the computer lab, in the machine shop, or out in the field—is difficult to acquire but easy to spot.
But that is not enough. They may play a valuable role, but they are destined to live in the downstream world of design execution. A creative organization is constantly on the lookout for people with the capacity and—just as important—the disposition for collaboration across disciplines. In a multidisciplinary team each individual becomes an advocate for his or her own technical specialty and the project becomes a protracted negotiation among them, likely resulting in a gray compromise.
In an interdisciplinary team there is collective ownership of ideas and everybody takes responsibility for them. Design thinking, by contrast, seeks to liberate it. When a team of talented, optimistic, and collaborative design thinkers comes together, a chemical change occurs that can lead to unpredictable actions and reactions. To reach this point, however, we have learned that we must channel this energy productively, and one way to achieve this is to do away with one large team in favor of many small ones.
Though it is not uncommon to see large creative teams at work, it is nearly always in the implementation phase of the project; the inspiration phase, by contrast, requires a small, focused group whose job is to establish the overall framework. By the time the project neared completion, his team had grown to thirty or forty. The same can be said of any major architectural project, software project, or entertainment project. Look at the credits on your next movie rental, and check out the preproduction phase.
There will invariably be a small team consisting of director, writer, producer, and production designer who have developed the basic concept. As long as the objective is simple and limited, this approach works.
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Faced with more complex problems, we may be tempted to increase the size of the core team early on, but more often than not this leads to a dramatic reduction in speed and efficiency as communications within the team begin to take up more time than the creative process itself. Are there alternatives?
Is it possible to preserve the effectiveness of small teams while tackling more complex, system-level problems? It is increasingly clear that new technology—properly designed and wisely deployed—can help leverage the power of small teams. The promise of electronic collaboration should not be to create dispersed but ever-bigger teams; this tendency merely compounds the political and bureaucratic problems we are trying to solve.
Rather, our goal should be to create interdependent networks of small teams as has been done by the online innovation exchange Innocentive. The Internet, in other words, characterized by dispersed, decentralized, mutually reinforcing networks, is not so much the means as the model of the new forms of organization taking shape. Because it is open-sourced and open-ended, it allows the energy of many small teams to be brought to bear on the same problem.
Progressive companies are now grappling with a second, related problem. This challenge is difficult enough when a group is physically in the same place, but it becomes far more challenging when critical input is required from partners dispersed around the globe. Much effort has gone into the problem of remote collaboration. Videoconferencing, although invented in the s, became widespread once digital telephony networks became technically feasible in the s.
Only recently has it begun to show signs of taking hold as an effective medium of remote collaboration. E-mail has done little to support collective teamwork. The Internet helps move information around but has done little to bring people together. Creative teams need to be able to share their thoughts not only verbally but visually and physically as well.
I am not at my best writing memos. Instead, put me in a room where somebody is sketching on a whiteboard, a couple of others are writing notes on Post-its or sticking Polaroid photos on the wall, and somebody is sitting on the floor putting together a quick prototype.
So far, efforts to innovate around the topic of remote groups have suffered from a lack of understanding about what motivates creative teams and supports group collaboration. Too much has been focused on mechanical tasks such as storing and sharing data or running a structured meeting and not enough on the far messier tasks of generating ideas and building a consensus around them.
Recently, however, there have been promising signs of change. No economic model could have predicted the success of MySpace and Facebook. Numerous smaller-scale tools are already available. This capability is important because good ideas rarely come on schedule and may wither and die in the interludes between weekly meetings. Instant messaging, blogs, and wikis all allow teams to publish and share insights and ideas in new ways—with the advantage that an expensive IT support team is not necessary as long as someone on the team has a family member in junior high school.
After all, none of these tools existed a decade ago the Internet itself, as the technovisionary Kevin Kelly has remarked, is fewer than five thousand days old! All are leading to new experiments in collaboration and hence to new insights into the interactions of teams. Anyone who is serious about design thinking across an organization will encourage them. Pixar has beach huts. To be creative, a place does not have to be crazy, kooky, and located in northern California. It does little good to identify the brightest T-shaped people around, assemble them in interdisciplinary teams, and network them to other teams if they are forced to work in an environment that dooms their efforts from the start.
The physical and psychological spaces of an organization work in tandem to define the effectiveness of the people within it. A culture that believes that it is better to ask forgiveness afterward rather than permission before, that rewards people for success but gives them permission to fail, has removed one of the main obstacles to the formation of new ideas. Relaxing the rules is not about letting people be silly so much as letting them be whole people—a step many companies seem reluctant to take.
Indeed, the fragmentation of individual employees is often just a reflection of the fragmentation of the organization itself. Although they may have a merry time off in their studios, this isolation quarantines them and undermines the creative efforts of the organization from opposite angles: the designers are cut off from other sources of knowledge and expertise, while everyone else is given the demoralizing message that theirs is the nine-to-five world of business attire and a sober business ethic.
Would the U. To address this she created Platypus, the code name for a twelve-week experiment in which participants from across the organization were invited to relocate to an alternative space with the objective of creating new and out-of-the-box product ideas. The only requirement was that they commit themselves full-time to Platypus for three months.
By the end they were ready to pitch their ideas to management. Ross regularly brought new teams together and put them into an environment designed to let people experiment in ways they had never been able to in their normal jobs.