Social Neuroscience: People Thinking about Thinking People

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Contents

  1. Social Neuroscience: People Thinking about Thinking People (Social Neuroscience)
  2. Social Neuroscience: People Thinking about Thinking People
  3. Iconoclastic
  4. Social neuroscience

Social Neuroscience: People Thinking about Thinking People (Social Neuroscience)

These methods draw from behavioral techniques developed in social psychology , cognitive psychology , and neuropsychology , and are associated with a variety of neurobiological techniques including functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI , magnetoencephalography MEG , positron emission tomography PET , facial electromyography EMG , transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS , electroencephalography EEG , event-related potentials ERPs , electrocardiograms , electromyograms , endocrinology , immunology , galvanic skin response GSR , single-cell recording, and studies of focal brain lesion patients.

In addition, quantitative meta-analyses are important to move beyond idiosyncrasies of individual studies, and neurodevelopmental investigations can contribute to our understanding of brain-behavior associations. However, they are low in temporal resolution and therefore, are best to discover pathways in the brain that are used during social experiments.

Thus, the blood takes time to travel to the part of the brain being activated and in reverse provides a lower ability to test for exact timing of activation during social experiments. EEG is best used when a researcher is trying to brain map a certain area that correlates to a social construct that is being studied. EEGs provide high temporal resolution but low spatial resolution.


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In which, the timing of the activation is very accurate but it is hard to pinpoint exact areas on the brain, researchers are to narrow down locations and areas but they also create a lot of "noise". Most recently, researchers have been using TMS which is the best way to discover the exact location in the process of brain mapping. This machine can turn on and off parts of the brain which then allows researchers to test what that part of the brain is used for during social events. However, this machine is so expensive that it is rarely used.

Note: Most of these methods can only provide correlations between brain mapping and social events apart from TMS , a con of Social Neuroscience is that the research must be interpreted through correlations which can cause a decreased content validity. For example, during an experiment when a participant is doing a task to test for a social theory and a part of the brain is activated, it is impossible to form causality because anything else in the room or the thoughts of the person could have triggered that response.

It is very hard to isolate these variables during these experiments. That is why self-reports are very important. This will also help decrease the chances of VooDoo correlations correlations that are too high and over 0. Another way to avoid this con, is to use tests with hormones which can infer causality. For example, when people are given oxytocin and placebos and we can test their differences in social behavior between other people.

Using SCRs will also help isolate unconscious thoughts and conscious thoughts because it is the body's natural parasympathetic response to the outside world. All of these tests and devices will help social neuroscientists discover the connections in the brain that are used to carry out our everyday social activities. Neurobiological methods can be grouped together into ones that measure more external bodily responses, electrophysiological methods, hemodynamic measures, and lesion methods.

Hemodynamic measures, which, instead of directly measuring neural activity, measure changes in blood flow, include PET and fMRI.

The Heart-Brain Connection: The Neuroscience of Social, Emotional, and Academic Learning

Lesion methods traditionally study brains that have been damaged via natural causes, such as strokes, traumatic injuries, tumors, neurosurgery, infection, or neurodegenerative disorders. In its ability to create a type of 'virtual lesion' that is temporary, TMS may also be included in this category. More specifically, TMS methods involve stimulating one area of the brain to isolate it from the rest of the brain, imitating a brain lesion. This is particularly helpful in brain mapping, a key approach in social neuroscience designed to determine which areas of the brain are activated during certain activities.

Prolonged maternal separation of rodents correlates with elevated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical HPA axis response to stress, as well as diminished cognitive ability, relating to minimized GR mRNA in the hippocampus, minimized BDNF, heightened CRH mRNA in the hypothalamus, [17] and a diminished quantity of glucocorticoid receptor binding sites within the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Such changes in the rodent infants persist throughout life, resulting in heightened stress reactivity, and relating to diminished negative feedback to stress hormones.

Social Neuroscience: People Thinking about Thinking People

What was discovered was that infants, who received additional tactile stimulation exhibited greater motor performance and spatial learning, in addition to enhanced cerebral cortex synaptic organization, in adulthood, than infants who did not receive additional tactile stimulation. These findings reinforce the significance of tactile stimulation in early stages of postnatal development and neurogenesis for rodent models. Because non-human animal studies typically concern either, the presence and absence of parents, or the presence and absence of tactile stimulation, the findings of animal studies on gene expression are likely more comparable to human cases of neglect, as opposed to physical or sexual abuse.

A dinner to discuss the challenges and opportunities in the interdisciplinary field of social neuroscience at the Society for Neuroscience meeting Chicago , November resulted in a series of meetings led by John Cacioppo and Jean Decety with social neuroscientists, psychologists , neuroscientists , psychiatrists and neurologists in Argentina , Australia , Chile , China , Colombia , Hong Kong , Israel , Japan , the Netherlands , New Zealand , Singapore , South Korea , Taiwan , the United Kingdom and the United States.

Iconoclastic

Social neuroscience was defined broadly as the interdisciplinary study of the neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms underlying the emergent structures that define social species. Thus, among the participants in these meetings were scientists who used a wide variety of methods in studies of animals as well as humans, and patients as well as normal participants.

Other Subject Areas

The consensus also emerged that a Society for Social Neuroscience should be established to give scientists from diverse disciplines and perspectives the opportunity to meet, communicate with, and benefit from the work of each other. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the journal, see Social Neuroscience. Neuroscience portal Psychology portal Sociology portal. Cacioppo; Gary G. Berntson American Psychologist.

Social neuroscience

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