Bio-MEMS: Technologies and Applications
Attention then shifts to microfluidic components and sensing technologies for sample preparation, delivery, and analysis. The final section outlines various applications and systems at the leading edge of BioMEMS technology in a variety of areas such as genomics, drug delivery, and proteomics.
Bio-MEMS: Technologies and Applications, 1st Edition (Hardback) - Routledge
Laying a cross-disciplinary foundation for further development, BioMEMS: Technologies and Applications provides engineers with an understanding of the biological challenges and biological scientists with an understanding of the engineering challenges of this burgeoning technology. Zahn Micromixers; D. Nikitopoulos and A. Kelly and Adam T. Mecomber, Wendy D. Dominick, Lianji Jin, and Patrick A. Witek, Mateusz L. Hupert, and Steven A. Request an e-inspection copy. Share this Title. Recommend to Librarian.
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Offline Computer — Download Bookshelf software to your desktop so you can view your eBooks with or without Internet access. The country you have selected will result in the following: Product pricing will be adjusted to match the corresponding currency. The primary mechanism of cell lysis by sonication is intense local heating and shear forces. In a passive mixing element, mixing is achieved by temporal and spatial redistribution of incoming laminar flow through the use of parallel conduits of variable path length and or diameter.
Biosensors are devices that consist of a biological recognition system, called the bioreceptor, and a transducer. Mechanical detection in bio-MEMS is achieved through micro- and nano-scale cantilevers for stress sensing and mass sensing,  or micro- and nano-scale plates or membranes. This technology is in its infancy, however, and it is still not able to be used beyond a few, limited applications. Electrical and electrochemical detection are easily adapted for portability and miniaturization , especially in comparison to optical detection.
A challenge in optical detection is the need for integrating detectors and photodiodes in a miniaturized portable format on the bio-MEMS. The goals of genomic and proteomic microarrays are to make high-throughput genome analysis faster and cheaper, as well as identify activated genes and their sequences.
Oligonucleotide chips are microarrays of oligonucleotides. Conversely, green dots mean that the corresponding gene was expressed at a higher level in the untreated sample. Yellow dots, as a result of the overlap between red and green dots, mean that the corresponding gene was expressed at relatively the same level in both samples, whereas dark spots indicate no or negligible expression in either sample. The motivation for using peptide and protein microarrays is firstly because mRNA transcripts often correlate poorly with the actual amount of protein synthesized.
Protein microarrays have stringent production, storage, and experimental conditions due to the low stability and necessity of considering the native folding on the immobilized proteins. Protein microarrays usually use Escherichia coli to produce proteins of interest; whereas peptide microarrays use the SPOT technique stepwise synthesis of peptides on cellulose or photolithography to make peptides.
The polymerase chain reaction PCR is a fundamental molecular biology technique that enables the selective amplification of DNA sequences, which is useful for expanded use of rare samples e. Heating up and cooling down in conventional PCR devices are time-consuming and typical PCR reactions can take hours to complete.
Bio-MEMS Technologies and Applications
The ability to perform medical diagnosis at the bedside or at the point-of-care is important in health care, especially in developing countries where access to centralized hospitals is limited and prohibitively expensive. To this end, point-of-care diagnostic bio-MEMS have been developed to take saliva, blood, or urine samples and in an integrated approach perform sample preconditioning, sample fractionation, signal amplification, analyte detection, data analysis, and result display.
In blood analysis, white blood cells , platelets , bacteria , and plasma must be separated. These microscopic beads are functionalized with target molecules and moved through microfluidic channels using a varying magnetic field. After this process is complete, a strong, stationary magnetic field is applied to immobilize the target-bound beads and wash away unbound beads.
Microfluidic sample separation can be achieved by capillary electrophoresis or continuous-flow separation. Conventional cell culture technology is unable to efficiently allow combinatorial testing of drug candidates, growth factors , neuropeptides , genes, and retroviruses in cell culture medium.
Microfluidic cell cultures are potentially a vast improvement because they can be automated, as well as yield lower overall cost, higher throughput, and more quantitative descriptions of single-cell behaviour variability. Flow control is important when seeding cells into microchannels because flow needs to be stopped after the initial injection of cell suspension for cells to attach or become trapped in microwells, dielectrophoretic traps, micromagnetic traps, or hydrodynamic traps.
Micropatterned co-cultures have also contributed to bio-MEMS for tissue engineering to recapitulate in vivo conditions and 3D natural structure. Specifically, hepatocytes have been patterned to co-culture at specific cell densities with fibroblasts to maintain liver -specific functions such as albumin secretion, urea synthesis, and p detoxification.
The goal of stem cell engineering is to be able to control the differentiation and self-renewal of pluripotency stem cells for cell therapy. Differentiation in stem cells is dependent on many factors, including soluble and biochemical factors, fluid shear stress , cell- ECM interactions, cell-cell interactions, as well as embryoid body formation and organization. Microfluidics can leverage its microscopic volume and laminar flow characteristics for spatiotemporal control of biochemical factors delivered to stem cells. Fluid shear stress is relevant in the stem cell differentiation of cardiovascular lineages as well as late embryogenesis and organogenesis such as left-right asymmetry during development.
Cell- ECM interactions induce changes in differentiation and self-renewal by the stiffness of the substrate via mechanotransduction , and different integrins interacting with ECM molecules.
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Cell fate is regulated by both interactions between stem cells and interactions between stem cells and membrane proteins. Embryoid bodies are a common in vitro pluripotency test for stem cells and their size needs to be controlled to induce directed differentiation to specific lineages. Assisted reproductive technologies help to treat infertility and genetically improve livestock. Bio-MEMS devices have been developed to evaluate sperm motility ,  perform sperm selection,  as well as prevent polyspermy  in in-vitro fertilization.
Bio-MEMS for surgical applications can improve existing functionality, add new capabilities for surgeons to develop new techniques and procedures, and improve surgical outcomes by lowering risk and providing real-time feedback during the operation. Microneedles, formulation systems, and implantable systems are bio-MEMS applicable to drug delivery.
Some drugs, such as diazepam , are poorly soluble and need to be aerosolized immediately prior to intranasal administration. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Electrokinetic phenomena. Main article: Microfluidics. Main article: Biosensor. Lab on a Chip. Saliterman Fundamentals of bio-MEMS and medical microdevices.
Bellingham, Wash. Introduction to bio-MEMS. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. Figdor, Wilhelm T. Huck, Probing cellular heterogeneity in cytokine-secreting immune cells using droplet-based microfluidics, Lab on a Chip, 13, , , DOI: Biomedical Microdevices. Nature Materials.
Analytical Chemistry. Sakthi; Maekawa, Toru Scientific Reports. Elizabeth; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S.
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International Journal of Molecular Sciences. Biomed Microdevices.