British Intelligence, Strategy and the Cold War, 1945-51
In fact, the collapse of the USSR has had serious ramifications for the study of Russia in the West, resulting in a major reassessment of Soviet studies, often bitter and acrimonious. User Account Individual sign in Create Profile.
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Origins of the Cold War
Redeem Token. Full Text PDF. Intelligence, security and the Attlee governments, —51 An uneasy relationship? Related Content. Author: Andrew Monaghan. Front matter. List of abbreviations.
British Intelligence, Strategy and the Cold War, 1945-51
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All Rights Reserved. In Stock. After , with the Cold War emerging in Europe, Washington made repeated efforts to encourage all the Latin American countries to take a Cold War anti-Communist position.
British Intelligence, Strategy and the Cold War, by Richard J. Aldrich | Waterstones
They were reluctant to do so — for example, only Colombia sent soldiers to the United Nations contingent in the Korean War. The Soviet Union was quite weak across Latin America. Not until the late s did Moscow achieve diplomatic or commercial relationships with most Latin American countries. The communist movements that had existed in Brazil and elsewhere in the s had been disbanded or outlawed. In , at the 10th Inter-American Conference in Caracas, Washington demanded a resolution that the establishment of a communist government in any American state was a threat to the peace of the hemisphere.
Guatemala cast the only negative vote. Guatemala's military, with CIA encouragement, overthrew its left-wing government later that year. The United States and the smaller Latin countries, outvoted the larger powers by the required two-thirds majority in to identify Cuba as a communist regime and suspend it from the OAS. After the war ended, Malaya was plunged into a state of emergency as British and Commonwealth forces fought a protracted counter-insurgency war against their former communist-led MPAJA ally, who had fought the Japanese and now demanded independence from Britain.
Australia's entry into the Cold War came in , when it rushed combat air and sea forces into the Korean War, two days after the Americans did. The Australian Prime Minister received a hero's welcome in Washington. Public opinion in Australia was intensely hostile to Japan after its wartime atrocities, but Japan was now an ally in the Cold War, so Australia's accepted the very generous soft peace treaty with Japan in Instead of worrying about a resurgent Japan, Australia now worried more about a possible Chinese threat.
Following decades of struggle, in the Chinese Communists under Mao Zedong defeated Chiang Kai-shek 's Nationalist armies and took control of the mainland. The Nationalist leaders and much of China's upper class fled to Taiwan where they had American protection. Stalin had long supported Chiang Kai-shek, while also giving some help to the Communists. The United States had tried in — to bring the Nationalists and Communists together in a coalition, but had no success.
The conflict was not therefore part of the Cold War until — The two set up rival communist organizations in countries across the world. France for many years had been dealing with a nationalist insurgency in Vietnam in which communists, led by Ho Chi Minh , played a prominent leadership role. In , Mao's Communists took control of the north side of the China-Vietnam border, and began supporting the insurgents, especially by providing sanctuary from French attacks.
Mark Lawrence and Frederik Logevall point out that "resurgent French colonialism became inextricably intertwined with Cold War tensions, especially in the years after The political situation in Iran was a flashpoint between the major players in —46, with the Soviet Union sponsoring two breakaway provinces in northern Iran, adjacent to the Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan.
Soviet troops were stationed in northwestern Iran during the war. They not only refused to withdraw in but backed revolts that established short-lived, pro-Soviet separatist national states called the Azerbaijan People's Government and the Republic of Kurdistan. The issue was debated at the United Nations, and in Moscow abandoned its position, and the conflict was permanently resolved peacefully, with a pro-western government resuming control.
Iran did not become a major battlefield of the Cold War, but it had its own history of confrontation with Britain and the United States. The long-standing conflict between Arabs and Jews in the Mandatory Palestine region continued after , with Britain and in an increasingly impossible situation as the mandate holder. The Balfour Declaration of calling for a homeland for the Jews was supported in by both the Soviet Union and the United States.
Both countries promptly Recognize the independent state of Israel in The Soviet Union later broke with Israel to support its Arab enemies. The region was more of an independent trouble zone rather than a playing field of the Cold War, and was not a precipitating factor in the Cold War. By , Arab nationalism based in Egypt was a neutralizing force. The Soviet Union leaned increasingly toward Egypt. While most historians trace its origins to the period immediately following World War II, others argue that it began with the October Revolution in Russia in when the Bolsheviks took power.
He began with a new Communist International "Comintern" , based in Moscow, which was designed to plan for revolutionary upheavals abroad. It was ineffective—Communist uprisings all failed in Germany, Hungary and elsewhere. The idea of long-term continuity is a minority scholarly view that has been challenged. Frank Ninkovich writes:. There is also a rationalist and institutionalist view regarding the origins of the Cold War, which posits that the confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United States needs to be regarded as a means to create a bipolar international order favourable to both superpowers.
The usage of the term "Cold War" to describe the postwar tensions between the U.
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Since the term "Cold War" was popularized in , there has been extensive disagreement in many political and scholarly discourses on what exactly were the sources of postwar tensions. Officials in the Truman administration placed responsibility for postwar tensions on the Soviets, claiming that Stalin had violated promises made at Yalta, pursued a policy of expansionism in Eastern Europe, and conspired to spread communism throughout the world.
According to Williams and later writers influenced by his work—such as LaFeber, author of the popular survey text America, Russia, and the Cold War published in ten editions between and —U. In order to ensure this goal, they pursued a policy of ensuring an " Open Door " to foreign markets for U. From this perspective, a growing economy domestically went hand-in-hand with the consolidation of U.
Williams and LaFeber also dismissed the assumption that Soviet leaders were committed to postwar "expansionism. Gaddis, however, argues that the conflict was less the lone fault of one side or the other and more the result of a plethora of conflicting interests and misperceptions between the two superpowers, propelled by domestic politics and bureaucratic inertia. While Gaddis does not hold either side as entirely responsible for the onset of the conflict, he argues that the Soviets should be held at least slightly more accountable for the problems.
According to Gaddis, Stalin was in a much better position to compromise than his Western counterparts, given his much broader power within his own regime than Truman, who had to contend with Congress and was often undermined by vociferous political opposition at home. Asking if it were possible to predict if the wartime alliance would fall apart within a matter of months, leaving in its place nearly a half century of cold war, Gaddis wrote in a essay, "Geography, demography, and tradition contributed to this outcome but did not determine it.
It took men, responding unpredictably to circumstances, to forge the chain of causation; and it took [Stalin] in particular, responding predictably to his own authoritarian, paranoid, and narcissistic predisposition, to lock it into place. Global historian Prasenjit Duara has placed the issue in a global context:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Eastern Bloc.
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Main article: X Article. Main article: Iron Curtain. Main article: Falsifiers of History. Main article: Berlin Blockade. See also: Arab Cold War.
Ministers, subversion and special operations, 1948–51
Tucker The History of American Foreign Policy from Eyewitnesses to the Russian Revolution. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved Oxford University Press. Doenecke; Mark A. Stoler Debating Franklin D.
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Roosevelt's Foreign Policies, Garraty, eds. Houghton Mifflin Company, John Whiteclay Chambers II, ed. Anthem Press.