Eutanasia de la crítica (Spanish Edition)
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"eutanasia voluntaria" in English
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- Julio Cabrera (philosopher);
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Simillis C. Euthanasia: a summary of the law in England and Wales. Julio Cabrera is an Argentine philosopher living in Brazil. He is best known for his works on "negative ethics" and cinema and philosophy. Other areas of philosophy that he deals with are philosophy of language, logic and Latin American philosophy.
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Human life, for Cabrera, is "structurally negative" insofar as there are negative components of life that are inevitable, constitutive and adverse: as prominent among them Cabrera cites loss, scarcity, pain , conflicts, fragility, illness , aging , discouragement and death. According to Cabrera they form the basic structure to human life, which he analyzes through what he calls naturalistic phenomenology , drawing freely from thinkers such as Martin Heidegger , Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche.
Cabrera has called his work an attempt to put together Schopenhauer and Heidegger, introducing a determinant judgement of the value of being into the analysis of Dasein , and putting morality above life, against Nietzsche. Cabrera develops an ethical theory, negative ethics, that is informed by this phenomenological analysis.
He argues that there has been an unwarranted prejudice in ethics against non-being, a view he calls "affirmativity". Because affirmative views take being as good, they always view things that threaten this hegemony as bad; particularly things like abstention from procreation or suicide.
Cabrera criticizes affirmative ethics for asking how people should live without asking the radical question of whether people should live tout court. He argues that, because of the structural negativity of being, there is a fundamental "moral disqualification" of human beings due to the impossibility of nonharming and nonmanipulating others. The MEA is violated by our structural "moral impediment", by the worldly discomforts — notably pain and discouragement — imposed on us that prevent us from acting ethically. Cabrera argues that an affirmative morality is a self-contradiction because it accepts the MEA and conceives a human existence that precludes the possibility of not-harming or not-manipulating others.
Thus he believes that affirmative societies, through their politics, require the common suspension of the MEA to even function. Cabrera's negative ethics is supposed to be a response to the negative structure of being, acutely aware of the morally disqualifying nature of being. Cabrera believes children are usually considered as mere aesthetic objects, are not created for their own sake but for the sake of their parents, and are thrown into a structurally negative life by the act of procreation. Procreation is, as Cabrera argues, a supreme act of manipulation, a harm and a violation of autonomy.
He argues that the consistent application of normal moral concepts — like duty, virtue or respect — present in most affirmative moralities entails antinatalism. Cabrera also believes that a human being adopting negative ethics should not only abstain from procreation, but also should have a complete willingness for an ethical death, by immediate suspension of all personal projects in benefit of a political fight  or an altruistic suicide, when it becomes the least immoral course of action.
Cabrera sustains that logopathic philosophy is of the order of meaning, and not of truth, and that it adds affective elements of judgment to these traditional intellectual view of concepts. Cabrera considers cinema one of the most fruitful means for the generation of concepts of a logopathic type, specifically denominated by him as "concept-image", as opposed to "concept-idea", the apathetic type of concept. He believes that cinema, by its powerful audiovisual means of expression, would provide a "superpotentiation" of conceptual possibilities, and therefore, of the establishment of the experience of the film, indispensable to the development of the concept-image, with the consequent increase of affective impact.
On the other hand, Cabrera believes that throughout history of European philosophy, at various moments, written philosophy — the opposite of visual philosophy — has also been logopathic, it has thought through affections, but without assuming it openly, while cinema usually has been seen only as a mere affective phenomenon, without relevant cognitive power.
His notions of logopathy and concept-image seek to eliminate this dichotomy, pointing to the affectivity of the intellect and the cognitiveness of affections.
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For Cabrera, philosophies of language are philosophies for which language does not matter in so far as it merely conveys something, but insofar as it constitutes — and implements — concepts and structures of understanding of the world. From this large sense of the term, he identifies four philosophies of language, which are: analytical , hermeneutic , phenomenological and meta-critical.
Looking through the prism of negativity, Cabrera shows how the four above types of philosophies of language fail at a common point: their incapacity to fight against the failures of meaning. Please check your email and follow the link to activate your 10 minute JoVE trial.
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Luego transferir todos los pocillos de organoides digeridos a un tubo de 50 ml. Los efectos. Utilice sevoflurano al Las manos del cirujano deben descansar sobre una superficie para reducir el temblor. Observar de cerca el estado postoperatorio de los ratones durante las siguientes 48 h. Enriquecimiento de CTC: Pre-llene los tubos de 15 mL con 5 mL de medio de gradiente de densidad y transfiera cuidadosamente la sangre al tubo de 15 mL. Centrifugar 30 min a xg sin freno y retirar cuidadosamente el sobrenadante superior.