From Necessity to Infinity - Interpretation in Language and Translation
In addition, children do not produce creative utterances about past experiences and future expectations because they have not had enough exposure to their target language to do so. Thus, this indicates that the exposure to language plays more of a role in a child's linguistic competence than just their innate abilities. Aphasia refers to a family of clinically diverse disorders that affect the ability to communicate by oral or written language, or both, following brain damage.
The measurement of implicit language competence, although apparently necessary and satisfying for theoretic linguistics , is complexly interwoven with performance factors. Transience, stimulability, and variability in aphasia language use provide evidence for an access deficit model that supports performance loss.
The definition of a multilingual [nb 3] is one that has not always been very clear-cut. In defining a multilingual, the pronunciation, morphology and syntax used by the speaker in the language are key criteria used in the assessment. Sometimes the mastery of the vocabulary is also taken into consideration but it is not the most important criteria as one can acquire the lexicon in the language without knowing the proper use of it.
When discussing the linguistic competence of a multilingual, both communicative competence and grammatical competence are often taken into consideration as it is imperative for a speaker to have the knowledge to use language correctly and accurately. To test for grammatical competence in a speaker, grammaticality judgments of utterances are often used. Communicative competence on the other hand, is assessed through the use of appropriate utterances in different setting.
Language is often implicated in humor. For example, the structural ambiguity of sentences is a key source for jokes. Take Groucho Marx 's line from Animal Crackers : "One morning I shot an elephant in my pyjamas; how he got into my pyjamas I'll never know.
Propositions by linguists such as Victor Raskin and Salvatore Attardo have been made stating that there are certain linguistic mechanisms part of our linguistic competence underlying our ability to understand humor and determine if something was meant to be a joke. Raskin puts forth a formal semantic theory of humor, which is now widely known as the semantic script theory of humor SSTH.
The semantic theory of humour is designed to model the native speaker's intuition with regard to humor or, in other words, his humor competence. The theory models and thus defines the concept of funniness and is formulated for an ideal speaker-hearer community i. Raskin's semantic theory of humor consists of two components — the set of all scripts available to speakers and a set of combinatorial rules. The term "script" used by Raskin in his semantic theory is used to refer to the lexical meaning of a word.
The function of the combinatorial rules is then to combine all possible meaning of the scripts. Hence, Raskin posits that these are the two components which allows us to interpret humor. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on Linguistics Outline History Index.
Grammatical Theories. Further information: Linguistic performance. Main article: Communicative competence. Further information: Language acquisition. Further information: Aphasia. Main article: Multilingualism. See countable infinity. It also contains a set of redundancy rules which express morphological and semantic relationships among lexical items. The base component contains a context-free phrase structure grammar, consisting of a set of unordered rules which collectively expand the symbol S into phrase markers whose preterminal strings are lexical category symbols.
The base also contains a set of lexical insertion rules, which freely insert lexical items by category into the preterminal strings to form deep structure. The transformational component consists of a set of transformations which collectively map deep structures. The phonological component maps surface structures into phonetic representations, as proposed in Chomsky and Halle The semantic component consists of at least four subcomponents: functional structure, modal structure, coreference relations and focus and presupposition.
Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. The concept of communicative competence revisited. Thirty years of linguistic evolution. The competence-performance issue in second-language acquisition theory: A debate. Research methodology in second-language acquisition, 3— Alternative readings of the competence-performance relation. Performance and competence in second language acquisition, The Conscience, A Structural Theory.
The architecture of the language faculty. The generative lexicon. John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Semantic Interpretation in Generative Grammar. The Generative Lexicon. Fodor, Jerry. Prentice-Hall, Inc. In its most extreme form Hopper , , USF rejects the Saussurean dichotomies such as langue vs. For early interpretivist approaches to focus, see Chomsky and Jackendoff All adherents of this tendency feel that the Chomskyan advocacy of a sharp distinction between competence and performance is at best unproductive and obscurantist; at worst theoretically unmotivated.
Functionalism and Formalism in Linguistics: General papers. Haspelmath, Martin. Coseriu, Eugenio. The Modern Language Review, Vol. Chicago Linguistic Society 9. Cognitive Linguistics: An Introduction. Statistical learning by 8-month-old infants. Science, , — Distributed representations, simple recurrent networks, and grammatical structure. Machine Learning, 7, — Language acquisition and use: Learning and applying probabilistic constraints.
In Lyons and Wales eds. Grammar is grammar and usage is usage. While on the one hand personal responses can provide fertile ground for exploration, if treated unreflexively they can stymie interpretation as the art work is submerged beneath the poetry of personal association, reaching a discursive dead end. Thus, the process of developing interpretations was achieved through expanding on personal responses and building up new habits of looking at art through a programme of activity centred teaching in the gallery.
This activity invited teacher researchers to reflect on and extend their immediate responses to a work. The battle for power — nature or mankind? A flickering flame.
Meaning and Necessity: A Study in Semantics and Modal Logic - Rudolf Carnap - Google Книги
One person was allotted the role of interviewer, the other interviewee. This reflexive critique of an initial personal response aimed to uncover some of the biases and assumptions upon which readings of art works were made. Diagrammatically mapping the process of enquiry demonstrates how fertile a personal response to an art work can be when treated reflexively. Already this response is literally located in a specific world view — an aerial one. This prompts a layering of associations — she relates the river tributaries to cracks in concrete, which in turn become metaphorical cracks in notions of republics and nationhood.
A consideration of her emotional responses to the work records feelings of fascination about the ideas in the piece and its method of production. Thinking about the processes involved in making the work leads her to wonder what the seemingly random paths of the ants might represent — which in turn invokes thoughts of rationality and chance. In the plenary session the teacher-researcher spoke of how intrigued and surprised she was by this process of tracking her responses.
Her diagram references particular world views and knowledge brought into play by the art work, for example a political language of republics, nationhood, invasion, force and power and a philosophical language of belief systems, of free will, reason and chance. The dialectical approach provided checks and balances on personal responses, enabling the interviewee to stay focused on the art work. In the fast-moving world of contemporary visual art it can sometimes seem that the only constant is change.
This makes keeping up with subject knowledge something of a challenge. Or does it? Teaching pupils the skills of interpretation in such a precedent-defying discipline as contemporary visual art poses the question of the status of knowledge. The anti-traditional nature of contemporary visual art means that there is no accompanying stable or substantive body of knowledge, but rather a plethora of theoretical and critical texts which ebb and flow around and within the art.
Finding a way into an art work which has meaning for pupils does not necessarily tally with knowing everything there is to say about an artwork. Teacher-researchers were invited to curate a route of between three and five works through the galleries using the Looking at the Subject framework as a way of making links between the works. The selected works could demonstrate how artists had expanded or problematized the overall theme of the display.
However, it is fair to say that the resulting routes were muddled; rather than making arguments for connections based on what could be seen, links were made through referencing a priori chunks of knowledge about the artists or the art works. The routes were not a set of interpretations but instead a collective, disjunctive effort of rehearsed information which was not based on visual evidence.
This makes possible the contradictions between many viewpoints and a single viewpoint, which is where dialogue starts. A priori knowledge can limit the way we look by tripping us up into making false connections and leading to a discursive dead-end rather than coming to a place of open ended-ness. In considering the artwork within the framework for enquiry which focused on its objecthood, we commenced with a brainstorm about the variety of ways contemporary art conveys meaning through its material and formal qualities.
Activities which make it difficult to recreate the chosen work pushed the teachers to focus on one aspect of the art work, extrapolate and develop it. This led to a focus on the decisions behind formal qualities in the work. Deliberately limiting options only using collaged gummed paper, reducing a work to five lines, etc. It allows them to avoid the pressure of feeling they have to demonstrate skill once again this is about avoiding the temptation to fall back on a position of authority. The examples from the Looking Logs suggest the importance of allowing time for a purely physical response to an art work based on its objecthood.
Questions are posed and thus the discussion opens out. Having first noted what could be seen, these responses were then extended by discussion of the associations arising from the material properties of the object. Despite the inaccessibility of the Russian poster text, meaning could still be construed through reading the formal qualities of the works — design decisions about point of view, font size and choice of graphics, the formal relationship between word and image.
Responding to the works in collage, the group used newspaper print to create new interpretations of a poster of their choice. We also talked about which kind of art the group preferred — the art they felt communicated simple positions clearly or the more ambiguous approach offered by for example the Kiefer and Horn work — dealing with similar themes but with completely different intentions.
The Looking Log examples demonstrate the investment of time and thought the group brought to developing new and personalised ways of recording information. We experimented with diagrammatic forms of recording responses for example, exploring the hang in a particular room or more linear, flow-chart approaches when we were thinking about the stages of individual looking looking deeper, looking again.
Throughout, we asked the teacher-researchers to draw on areas of their own expertise to create a personal shorthand for recording their experiences. Untitled is an old-fashioned wardrobe which has been filled with concrete, into which a domestic wooden chair has been buried. The group engaged initially with the work through stream of consciousness writings in which its material properties were uppermost, evidenced through a parity of responses and moments of coalescence.
Boarded up Lion, Witch, Wardrobe — dream shut off, cold, frustrated household object.
An abject object. Wood looking out of cement — stuck, lodged, uncomfortable, tight. Responses to this piece were striking in their sense of mutuality. They were both generic notions of the domestic sphere being violated or made mute, resonances of past lives and generations and culturally located multiple references to C.
Both the Soviet Graphics and the Salcedo works were interpreted as having a particular meaning arising from a particular political context, of which the artists would want the viewer to be aware. In exploring context as a way of looking at an art work, the question arose of where to introduce contextual information.
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The group decided that this depends on how clearly information is communicated by the work. Even if we do not know the specific language or political context of an art work, what can we get from it purely by looking? In looking at all the art works discussion constantly shifted between different frameworks for looking: the personal, the subject, the object and contexts for the work. A process of dialectical enquiry took place, based on deep and broad looking which afforded new insights into the work.
In contrast to the beginning of the week, where the method of interpretation was to impose a single, authoritative voice on a work, and claim this as the truth of the piece, strategies for developing meanings were now multi-faceted and the group was comfortable with the concept of multiple, open-ended interpretation. Artistic intention was still considered as one of several factors that contributed to interpretation, but was not the ultimate arbiter of authority. Instead, meaning arose through a collective, discursive process of enquiry, in which personal responses were continually mediated by other frameworks for looking.
Interpretation took place through an attitude of questioning in which the art work was approached from a range of perspectives which inflected with and informed each other. Understanding interpretation as a dialectical critique of the art work through discussion seems to be fundamental to the process of teaching interpretation skills.
Within the context of the art curriculum, redressing the balance between teaching the skills of making art and teaching the skills of interpreting art is a risky business. At its heart is a destablising of traditional responses to art works and an ability to be comfortable with uncertainty. There is also the fear of exposing oneself, be it teacher or pupil, through making explicit a personal response to an art work in open discussion.
It was not the purpose of the action-research project in the Summer Institute to offer any conclusions about ways forward for integrating interpretation and contemporary visual art within the curriculum. Rather, through critical reflection on the course we hoped to demonstrate the usefulness of a structured approach in teaching the skills of interpretation with particular reference to contemporary visual art. But this is predicated on an acceptance in the classroom of the value of shifting contexts for interpretation in which there is no final point of stasis, and an understanding that meanings shift depending on the nature of the viewer, location, time and circumstances.
Within an outcome-focused, formalist art curriculum this instability can either be viewed as a difficult concept to take on board, or as a liberating and explosive force for teaching and learning. Download the print version. Tate Papers ISSN is a peer-reviewed research journal that publishes articles on British and modern international art, and on museum practice today.