Radiation Injury Prevention and Mitigation in Humans
It covers the full range of potential sources of radiation and includes an up-to-date list of helpful resources and references for the latest research and readings on the topic. Kedar N. These articles were published in highly prestigious journals such as Science , Nature , and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in the United States. Currently, he is chief scientific officer of the Premier Micronutrient Corporation. We provide complimentary e-inspection copies of primary textbooks to instructors considering our books for course adoption.
Stay on CRCPress. Exclusive web offer for individuals on all book. Preview this Book. Add to Wish List. Close Preview. Toggle navigation Additional Book Information. Description Table of Contents Author s Bio. Summary With an estimated 3. Colonies containing 50 or more cells were counted using ImageJ software version 1. Starting from 7 days before irradiation, the recipient mice were given acidified pH 2.
The mice were kept on antibiotic water for 2 weeks after irradiation. The procedure of generating bone marrow-transplanted mice was based on previously published studies, with minor modifications 44 , Peripheral blood cell counts were obtained using a veterinary hemocytometer XN Sysmex Co. Harvested intestinal tissues were trisected and the resulting segments were immediately processed as follows: fixation in neutral buffered formalin for histological analysis, immersion in RNAlater Thermo Fisher Scientific, Wilmington, DE, USA for RNA extraction, and snap freezing in liquid nitrogen for tissue lysate preparation.
For histology samples, formalin-fixed tissues were embedded in paraffin and processed for routine histological examination. Tissue sections were deparaffinized, rehydrated, and used for immunohistochemistry and hematoxylin and eosin staining. For quantitative comparison, the proliferating crypts in the circumference of jejunal transverse cross-sections were counted.
Proliferating crypts were defined as containing five or more adjacent chromophilic non-Paneth cells and a lumen. At least 10 circumferences were evaluated per mouse. To analyze morphological changes, villus height and basal lamina length of 10 enterocytes from the middle of randomly selected villi were measured.
The lengths of the 10 longest villi in each slide were used for analysis in each sample. Briefly, deparaffinized and rehydrated sections were submerged in pH 6. Aligned reads were converted to fragments per kilobase of transcript per million FPKM mapped reads values, calculated by the Cufflinks. When comparing two groups, we defined differentially expressed genes as those having a minimum of two-fold change in the expression of pooled samples.
After analysis of RNA sequencing results, genes involved in intestinal homeostasis and tissue inflammation were chosen for further validation using qRT-PCR. Differential transcriptional profiles were presented as a form of heatmap using PermuteMatrix software Briefly, duplicate serum samples or tissue lysates were added to a well filter plate preconfigured with a panel of anti-cytokine antibodies covalently linked to unique polystyrene beads.
Individual cytokines were identified and classified by their bead color using red laser excitation. Classified cytokines were quantified as a form of mean fluorescent intensity via green laser excitation. Standard curves for each cytokine were generated using the reference cytokine concentrations supplied by the manufacturer.
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Serum from mice not administered with FITC—dextran was used to determine the background. Tissue homogenates were sonicated and insoluble debris was cleared by centrifugation. Lysates were loaded on SDS-polyacrylamide gels and transferred onto polyvinylidene fluoride membranes. Mouse survival curves were analyzed using Wilcoxon test.
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Who can take KI (potassium iodide)?
Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima Drouet, M. Radiation victim management and the haematologist in the future: time to revisit therapeutic guidelines? Cytokine-based treatment of accidentally irradiated victims and new approaches.
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Williams, J. After the bomb drops: a new look at radiation-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome MODS. Deng, W. Mitigation of the hematopoietic and gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome by octadecenyl thiophosphate, a small molecule mimic of lysophosphatidic acid. Leibowitz, B. Ionizing irradiation induces acute haematopoietic syndrome and gastrointestinal syndrome independently in mice. Dainiak, N. Literature review and global consensus on management of acute radiation syndrome affecting nonhematopoietic organ systems. Disaster Med.
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Zhang, L. Mitigation effect of an FGF-2 peptide on acute gastrointestinal syndrome after high-dose ionizing radiation. Hua, G. Crypt base columnar stem cells in small intestines of mice are radioresistant. Gastroenterology , — Potten, C. The stem cells of small intestinal crypts: where are they?
Radiation, the ideal cytotoxic agent for studying the cell biology of tissues such as the small intestine. Booth, D. Protection against mucosal injury by growth factors and cytokines. Natl Cancer Inst. Paris, F. Endothelial apoptosis as the primary lesion initiating intestinal radiation damage in mice.
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Science , — Wilkins, H. Reduction of spontaneous and irradiation-induced apoptosis in small intestine of IGF-I transgenic mice. Liver Physiol. Itoh, N. Functional evolutionary history of the mouse Fgf gene family. Diecke, S.
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FGF2 signaling in mouse embryonic fibroblasts is crucial for self-renewal of embryonic stem cells. Cells Tissues Organs , 52—61 Chen, G. Thermal stability of fibroblast growth factor protein is a determinant factor in regulating self-renewal, differentiation, and reprogramming in human pluripotent stem cells.
Stem Cells 30 , — Jonker, J.
Nature , — Suh, J. Endocrinization of FGF1 produces a neomorphic and potent insulin sensitizer. Houchen, C. FGF-2 enhances intestinal stem cell survival and its expression is induced after radiation injury. Waselenko, J. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group.
Dignass, A. Fibroblast growth factors modulate intestinal epithelial cell growth and migration. Haimovitz-Friedman, A.
Autocrine effects of fibroblast growth factor in repair of radiation damage in endothelial cells. Cancer Res. Lee, Y. Qiu, W. Contacts and Locations. Information from the National Library of Medicine To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor. Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials. More Information. Decreased risk of radiation pneumonitis with incidental concurrent use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and thoracic radiation therapy.
Epub Jan Radiat Res. Epub May National Library of Medicine U. National Institutes of Health U.
Radiation Injury Prevention and Mitigation in Humans
Department of Health and Human Services. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Lung Cancer Radiation Pneumonitis. Drug: Enalapril Drug: placebo. Phase 2. Study Type :. Actual Enrollment :. Mitigation of Radiation Pneumonitis and Fibrosis. Actual Study Start Date :. Actual Primary Completion Date :. Actual Study Completion Date :. Active Comparator: enalapril Use of enalapril in subjects undergoing radiotherapy for lung cancer. Placebo Comparator: placebo Use of placebo in subjects undergoing radiotherapy for lung cancer.