Widerstand und Auswärtiges Amt: Diplomaten gegen Hitler (German Edition)
Mehr zum Thema. Warum wird in dem Artikel eigentlich verschwiegen was die Aufgabe der Politoffiziere war? Die Sowjets traten aus guten Grund nicht der Haager Lanskriegsordnung bei, die den Umgang mit Kriegsgefangenen regelt. Massakrierungen und Folter bis zum Tod waren die Regel bei den Sowjets wenn sie Gefangene machten, der Kommissarbefehl war lediglich die hilflose Antwort auf einen unberechenbaren gnadenlosen Gegner.
Ist der Krieg selbst nicht schon schlimm genug und nichts in ihm kein Verbrechen?! Hans Michael Kloth, Und [ A E, Geehrter Herr Steinbeck, Sie sollten nicht versuchen die Sachen zu verdrehen. Erst auf das s. Das war eine Gegenreaktion auf eine Aktion. Frank Neubauer, Also muss auch auf allen Seiten, mit gleicher Messlatte, geurteilt [ Nicht nur geographisch. An diesem Dilemma scheiterten nahezu alle Eisenbahnprojekte des Von bis war das Land von russischen und britischen Truppen besetzt.
Davor bereits entlud sich die soziale Unzufriedenheit in der konstitutionellen Revolution von bis , die ein parlamentarisches Regierungssystem mit moderner Rechtsordnung anstrebte. Von Protesten und Streiks getragen, hatte sich massiver Widerstand gegen die repressive Politik und den verwaltungspolitischen Stillstand unter der absolutistischen Dynastie der Qadjaren formiert. Unter anderem ist dies biografisch bedingt. Ab war Hossein Daha Senator. Zudem gilt das nationale Prestigeprojekt, an dem mehr als Iraner beteiligt waren, bis heute als technische Pionierleistung, die von entsprechendem internationalen Medienecho begleitet worden ist, was Ramesch Daha in Abbildungen von Zeitungs- und Magazinartikeln wiedergibt.
Als signifikanter Auftrag fiel die Errichtung der Hochbauten des bereits angelegten Hauptbahnhofs von Teheran, eine der ersten Stahlbeton-Konstruktionen im neoklassizistischen Stil, an die Philipp Holzmann AG. Damit erweitert sie ihre Arbeitsmethode auf entscheidende Weise. Eine Grobstruktur ergibt sich etwa durch doppelseitig gesetzte Ansichten als Trennung zwischen den Abschnitten.
In keeping with her intentions, the directorial artist generally avoids the use of loud noises or eye-catching visuals, even if she can call on what are clearly extensive resources. In accord with the choice of subject matter—the re-working of private moments and their intersection with political events of far-reaching consequence—Ramesch Daha maintains a fundamental distance to media world spectacles.
Considered as a dramaturgy, she constructs her main theme from a number of motifs that are related to one another, unrolling a mammoth project—the building of the Iranian railway line between the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf between and —as the raw material of a political and military power struggle between global interests in the pre-Second World War period The cartographic work from also marks a chronological break with the preceding decades of stagnation. It was a time in which the motive forces intent on reorganising the country came together after a profound crisis had forced Iran out onto the economic and political periphery.
The eminently political meaning of this late railway project in Iran is explained by these pre-existing conditions. Plans for the construction of an Iranian railway line, as an obvious step towards providing economic and social impetus, remained unrealised in government drawers. Their implementation was hindered by a blockade consisting of an enduring conflict of interests between the imperial powers of Russia and Britain who occupied large areas of Iran and pursued inimical expansionist policies.
While the Russian Empire strove to create a corridor to the Persian Gulf, the British countered the plan in the interests of its possessions in India. Almost all railway projects of the nineteenth century foundered on this dilemma. However, this was only a symptom of the continuing recession. In addition, continuous territorial losses had shrunk the borders of this multi-ethnic state.
Due to the defensive deficiencies of an army marked by structural complexity and ethnic antagonisms relating to its brigade of Cossacks, Iran had lost regency over areas of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan in the Russian—Persian War. From — the country was occupied by Russian and British troops. This was carried forward by protests and strikes resulting from massive resistance to the repressive policies and administrative and political stagnation under the absolutist Qajar dynasty—a situation that climaxed when the Iranian Parliament removed the dynasty in This introduced a change of paradigm and it is with this phase that the developments in this book—based on varied documentary sources—are concerned.
In the endeavour to create a sovereign and secular national state commensurate with European models, Reza Shah Pahlavi was installed as new head of state and central actor of the reform policies. The story of the construction of the trans-Iranian plays a significant role in the attempt to implement this perspective. Amongst other things, this is biographically determined. That is also correct. The Jews have brought so much misfortune to our Continent that the most severe punishment which could be imposed upon them would still be too mild. Himmler is at the moment carrying on the greatest resettlement of Jews from the German cities to the Eastern ghettos.
Only in Spring and early Summer of did the realisation slowly come through that the "final solution" would take place during the war: it finally became clear which means would be chosen to achieve the "final solution". Therefore one must liquidate the Jewish danger, cost what it may [ There, under the harshest living conditions, they would undoubtedly form an element of vitality once more.
Nazi Germany and Southern Europe, –45 | SpringerLink
He would rather settle them in Central Africa. There they live in a climate that would surely not render them strong and capable of resistance. Here they will not be allowed to have any home any more. To interpret this statement as evidence for a clear intention or a plan of Hitler to deport European Jews to Africa seems rather absurd.
These eventual "alternative" considerations were clearly speculative and had nothing to do with the reality of mass murder which was unfolding at the same time. Hitler himself referred here to a wish "he would rather One can interpret his statement as an attempt to camouflage the consequences of the murderous decisions already taken. Even talking to his closest associates Hitler avoided speaking openly on mass killing. That he did not seriously consider stopping the preparations for the deportations to extermination camps is clear from his statement in the last sentence of Goebbels's note that he wanted "in any case" to make "West Europe completely Jew free".
After the end of the war, he will rigorously take the standpoint that he will smash to pieces city after city if the dirty Jews don't come out and emigrate to Madagascar or another Jewish national state. In so far as this group of people were at all active in production, it would not be difficult to replace them by foreign workers. The responsibility cannot be taken away from me in any case. Under "II.
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SD and police affairs" Himmler specified as point 4 the following key word:. This should take place, however, only once he has spoken with Laval about it. It is a matter of According to a hand-written note by Himmler, Hitler accepted this proposal. He stated: "Certainly they should work there, but under conditions whereby they remain healthy and alive. Hitler thereupon noted, in regard to the Jews in Poland:. If the Jews there don't want to work they will be shot If they cannot work, they must rot. They should be treated like tubercular bacillus which could attack healthy bodies.
That is not cruel—if one keeps in mind that even innocent natural beings like hares and deer must be killed so that no damage occurs. I ask of you that that which I say to you in this circle be really only heard and not ever discussed. We were faced with the question: what about the women and children?
The difficult decision must be made to have this people disappear from the face of this earth. For the organisation which had to execute this task, it was the most difficult which we had ever had. The Jewish question has been solved within Germany itself and in general within the countries occupied by Germany. It was solved in an uncompromising fashion in accordance with the life and death struggle of our nation in which the existence of our blood is at stake [.. In this confrontation with Asia we must get used to condemning to oblivion those rules and customs of past wars which we have got used to and prefer.
In my view, we as Germans, however deeply we may feel in our hearts, are not entitled to allow a generation of avengers filled with hatred to grow up with whom our children and grandchildren will have to deal because we, too weak and cowardly, left it to them. Another question which was decisive for the inner security of the Reich and Europe, was the Jewish question. It was uncompromisingly solved after orders and rational recognition.
I believe, Gentleman, that you know me well enough to know that I am not a bloodthirsty person; I am not a man who takes pleasure or joy when something rough must be done.
However on the other hand, I have such good nerves and such a developed sense of duty—I can say that much for myself—that when I recognise something as necessary I can implement it without compromise. I have not considered myself entitled—this concerns especially the Jewish women and children—to allow the children to grow into the avengers who will then murder our fathers and our grandchildren. That would have been cowardly. Consequently the question was uncompromisingly resolved. It was the most terrible assignment and the most terrible task which an organisation can possibly get: the task of solving the Jewish question.
I am allowed to say this once again quite openly in this circle a few sentences. It is good that we had the toughness to extirpate the Jews in our area. By removing the Jew, I abolished in Germany the possibility to build up a revolutionary core or nucleus. One could, naturally, say to me: Yes, couldn't you have solved this more simply—or not simply, since all other means would have been more complicated—but more humanely? My dear officers, we are engaged in a life and death struggle.
Nazi Germany and Southern Europe, 1933–45
If our opponents win in this struggle than the German people would be extirpated. Humanity would mean here as well as in general the worst atrocities against one's own people. If I draw the hate of the Jews upon myself than at least I don't want to miss the advantage of such hate. The advantage consists in that we will have a clean, organised body of the Volk, where no others can ever again meddle in our affairs.
But I have also never left open any doubt about the fact that if the peoples of Europe were once again to be regarded only as packages of shares of these international monetary and financial conspirators, then that people would be held responsible, which is the true culprit behind the murderous struggle: Jewry! I have also not left anybody in the dark about the fact that this time it would not only be millions of children of Europeans from the Aryan nations who will die of hunger, not only millions of grown men who will suffer death, and not only hundreds of thousands of women and children who will burn to death in the cities and be permitted to be bombarded to death, without holding the true culprit responsible for this crime, even though it may be by more humane methods.
Above all I pledge the leadership of the nation and its followers to the scrupulous observation of the racial laws and to an implacable opposition against the universal poisoner of all peoples, international Jewry. His language concerning Jews was full of hatred and threats. He was not only actively engaged in the preparations for the central anti-Jewish enterprise the "boykott" of 1 April , the Nuremberg Laws and the pogrom of November , but gave also orders and directions concerning detailed anti-Jewish legislation and other measures against Jews.
The fact that from time to time he was prepared to make tactical concessions and to postpone single anti-Jewish mesasures reveals how much he was engaged in the formulation of policy in this field. With these statements Hitler threatened to use the Jews as hostagages to prevent the Western powers from intervening on the continent. These statement clearly included the possibility of Genocide.
He avoided speaking openly about killing in his entourage. However, there is clear evidence that he was deeply involved in the anti-Jewish policy during the war, particularly when it reached a murderous stage. He was also actively engaged in setting up plans for a Jewish reservation in Poland and he backed the Madagascar plan. He was continually preoccupied with further deportations and deportation plans. He was fully aware of mass executions of Jewish civilians in the occupied Eastern territories. During Autumn and the following Winter, when preparation for the "Final Solution" in Europe were in full swing, Hitler spoke at various occasions openly about the annihilation of the Jews in Europe.
It can be ruled out that the massive preparations for the systematic murder of European Jews in extermination camps in Poland, undertaken in Spring and Summer of , were taken without his consent or his knowledge.
A CURRICULUM VITAE
My paramount obligation, as I have been advised by my Instructing Solicitors, is to assist the Court on all matters within my expertise regardless of whom my instructions are from and who is paying my fees. I confirm that this report is impartial, objective and unbiased and has been produced independently of the exigencies of this litigation. I believe that the facts I have stated in this report are true and that the opinions I have expressed are correct.
IV, GruppenKdo 4, Bd. Das Wirken des Judentums wird neimals vergehen, und die Vergiftung des Volkes nicht enden, solange nicht der Erreger, der Juden, aus unserer Mitte entfernt ist. Nein und nochmals nein. Gegen den Juden als Person und den Marxismus als seine Sache. Alle anderen Gefahren sind zeitlich bedingt. Zur Erreichung dieses Zieles, das in Wirklichkeit den Lebenskampf des Judentums zu allen Zeiten darstellte, bediente sich der Jude aller Waffen, die dem Gesamtkomplex seines Wesens entsprechen. Das Ende einer Judenherrschaft ist dabei stets der Verfall jeglicher Kultur und endlich der Wahnsinn des Juden selbst.
I, No. Similar statement ibid. Parteitag der Freiheit, pp. Although the death penalty was never pronounced, in many instances lengthy prison terms were imposed: Fischer, Schacht, pp. For this and the other two anti-Jewish legal proposals which were deferred: Adam, Judenpolitik, pp. OS, , Hagens note from 30 June on the discussion with Berndt as well as further material on this subject in the same file. OS, , Er bestimmt: Demonstrationen wieterlaufen lassen. Das is richtig.
Science, Culture and Politics
Das had er mir am 9. November auseinandergesetzt. Es geht nicht mehr anders. Er will auch den anderen Staaten sagen: 'Was redet ihr immer von den Juden? Details on the plan and the negotiations in Schacht entry, Weingarten, Hilfeleistung, ff.
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Den 9. II, p. Seraphim ed. Tagebuch, p. I, pp. Verhandlungen des Reichstages, vol. Memorandum of the Sonderbeauftragte', The documdent is published in VfZ 5 , pp. Die Judenfrage im Friedensvertrag ibid. Man denkt an Madagaskar, das zu diesem Zwecke von Frankreich abgetrennt werden soll. Juden, Kranke, Faulenzer etc. Nicht ganz mit Unrecht.
Das geht zu weit. Das kann er nicht und soll er nicht. Und jetzt soll Berlin an die Reihe kommen. Der Kommunist ist vorher kein Kamerad and nachher kein Kamerad. Es handelt sich um einen Vernichtungskampf. UdSSR No. Ermordung, p. Vogt, Selbstbespiegelungen, pp. Eingeleitet u. Das ist keine Phrase gewesen. Wir sind nicht dazu da, Mitleid mit den Juden, sondern nur Mitleid mit unserem deutschen Volk zu haben. Wenn das deutsche Volk jetzt wieder im Ostfeldzug an die Concept, quoted in: Wilhelm, Rassenpolitik, Passau , pp. Wilehlm, Rassenpolitik, pp. Witte et. II, pp. Ich habe kein Mitleid mit den Juden.
Zahllose Erkrankungen haben die Ursache in einem Bazillus, dem Juden! Wir werden gesunden, wenn wir den Juden eliminieren. Das ist auch richtig so. Die Verantwortung kann mir ohnedies niemand abnehmen.
Angelegenhetien des SD u. Es handelt sich um , Juden. Es trat an uns die Frage heran: Wie ist es mit den Frauen und Kindern? Wir sind m.