Cuchillos de papel (En un rincón de la fortuna) (Spanish Edition)

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  1. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (Webster's Spanish Thesaurus Edition)
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Mark Twain, and he told the truth, mainly. There was things which he stretched, but mainly he told the truth. That is nothing. I never seen anybody but lied one time or another, without it was Aunt Polly, or the widow, or maybe Mary. Aunt Polly--Tom's Aunt Polly, she is--and Mary, and the Widow Douglas is all told about in that book, which is mostly a true book, with some stretchers, as I said before.

Now the way that the book winds up is this: Tom and me found the money that the robbers hid in the cave, and it made us rich. We got six thousand dollars apiece--all gold. It was an awful sight of money when it was piled up. Well, Judge Thatcher he took it and put it out at interest, and it fetched us a dollar a day apiece all the year round-- more than a body could tell what to do with.

The Widow Douglas she took me for her son, and allowed she would sivilize me; but it was rough living in the house all the time, considering how dismal regular and decent the widow was in all her ways; and so when I couldn't stand it no longer I lit out. I got into my old rags and my sugarhogshead again, and was free and satisfied.

But Tom Sawyer he hunted me up Spanish ain't: no soy. Mark Twain 3 and said he was going to start a band of robbers, and I might join if I would go back to the widow and be respectable. So I went back. She put me in them new clothes again, and I couldn't do nothing but sweat and sweat, and feel all cramped up. Well, then, the old thing commenced again. The widow rung a bell for supper, and you had to come to time. When you got to the table you couldn't go right to eating, but you had to wait for the widow to tuck down her head and grumble a little over the victuals, though there warn't really anything the matter with them,--that is, nothing only everything was cooked by itself.

In a barrel of odds and ends it is different; things get mixed up, and the juice kind of swaps around, and the things go better. After supper she got out her book and learned me about Moses and the Bulrushers, and I was in a sweat to find out all about him; but by and by she let it out that Moses had been dead a considerable long time; so then I didn't care no more about him, because I don't take no stock in dead people. Pretty soon I wanted to smoke, and asked the widow to let me. But she wouldn't.

She said it was a mean practice and wasn't clean, and I must try to not do it any more. That is just the way with some people. They get down on a thing when they don't know nothing about it. Here she was a-bothering about Moses, which was no kin to her, and no use to anybody, being gone, you see, yet finding a power of fault with me for doing a thing that had some good in it. And she took snuff, too; of course that was all right, because she done it herself. Her sister, Miss Watson, a tolerable slim old maid, with goggles on, had just come to live with her, and took a set at me now with a spelling- book.

She worked me middling hard for about an hour, and then the widow made her ease up. I couldn't stood it much longer. Then for an hour it was deadly dull, and I was fidgety. Miss Watson would say, "Don't put your feet up there, Huckleberry;" and "Don't scrunch up like that, Huckleberry--set up straight;" and pretty soon she would say, "Don't gap and stretch like that, Huckleberry--why don't you try to behave?

She got mad then, but I didn't mean no harm. All I wanted was to go somewheres; all I wanted was a change, I warn't particular. She said it was wicked to say what I said; said she wouldn't say it for the whole world; she was going to live so as to go to the good place. Well, I couldn't see no advantage in going where she was going, so I made up my mind I wouldn't try for it.

But I never said so, because it would only make trouble, and wouldn't do no good. She said all a body would have to do there was to go around all day long with a harp and sing, forever and ever. So I didn't think much of it. But I never said so. I asked her if she reckoned Tom Sawyer would go there, and she said not by a considerable sight. I was glad about that, because I wanted him and me to be together. Miss Watson she kept pecking at me, and it got tiresome and lonesome. By and by they fetched the niggers in and had prayers, and then everybody was off to bed.

I went up to my room with a piece of candle, and put it on the table. Then I set down in a chair by the window and tried to think of something cheerful, but it warn't no use. I felt so lonesome I most wished I was dead. The stars were shining, and the leaves rustled in the woods ever so mournful; and I heard an owl, away off, who-whooing about somebody that was dead, and a whippowill and a dog crying about somebody that was going to die; and the wind was trying to whisper something to me, and I couldn't make out what it was, and so it made the cold shivers run over me.

Then away out in the woods I heard that kind of a sound that a ghost makes when it wants to tell about something that's on its mind and can't make itself understood, and so can't rest easy in its grave, and has to go about that way every night grieving. I got so down-hearted and scared I did wish I had some company.

Pretty soon a spider went crawling up my shoulder, and I flipped it off and it lit in the candle; and before I could budge it was all shriveled up. I didn't need anybody to tell me that that was an awful bad sign and would fetch me some bad luck, so I was scared and most shook the clothes off of me. Mark Twain 5 lock of my hair with a thread to keep witches away. But I hadn't no confidence. You do that when you've lost a horseshoe that you've found, instead of nailing it up over the door, but I hadn't ever heard anybody say it was any way to keep off bad luck when you'd killed a spider.

Well, after a long time I heard the clock away off in the town go boom--boom--boom-twelve licks; and all still again--stiller than ever. Pretty soon I heard a twig snap down in the dark amongst the trees-- something was a stirring. I set still and listened. Directly I could just barely hear a "me-yow! That was good! Says I, "me-yow! Then I slipped down to the ground and crawled in among the trees, and, sure enough, there was Tom Sawyer waiting for me. Spanish amongst: entre. When we was passing by the kitchen I fell over a root and made a noise.

We scrouched down and laid still. Miss Watson's big nigger, named Jim, was setting in the kitchen door; we could see him pretty clear, because there was a light behind him. He got up and stretched his neck out about a minute, listening. Then he says: "Who dah? Well, likely it was minutes and minutes that there warn't a sound, and we all there so close together.

There was a place on my ankle that got to itching, but I dasn't scratch it; and then my ear begun to itch; and next my back, right between my shoulders. Seemed like I'd die if I couldn't scratch. Well, I've noticed that thing plenty times since. If you are with the quality, or at a funeral, or trying to go to sleep when you ain't sleepy--if you are anywheres where it won't do for you to scratch, why you will itch all over in upwards of a thousand places.

Pretty soon Jim says: Spanish ankle: tobillo, el tobillo. Mark Twain 7 "Say, who is you? Whar is you? Dog my cats ef I didn't hear sumf'n. Well, I know what I's gwyne to do: I's gwyne to set down here and listen tell I hears it agin. He leaned his back up against a tree, and stretched his legs out till one of them most touched one of mine.

My nose begun to itch. It itched till the tears come into my eyes. But I dasn't scratch. Then it begun to itch on the inside. Next I got to itching underneath. I didn't know how I was going to set still. This miserableness went on as much as six or seven minutes; but it seemed a sight longer than that.

I was itching in eleven different places now. I reckoned I couldn't stand it more'n a minute longer, but I set my teeth hard and got ready to try. Just then Jim begun to breathe heavy; next he begun to snore--and then I was pretty soon comfortable again. When we was ten foot off Tom whispered to me, and wanted to tie Jim to the tree for fun. But I said no; he might wake and make a disturbance, and then they'd find out I warn't in. Then Tom said he hadn't got candles enough, and he would slip in the kitchen and get some more.

I didn't want him to try. I said Jim might wake up and come. But Tom wanted to resk it; so we slid in there and got three candles, and Tom laid five cents on the table for pay. Then we got out, and I was in a sweat to get away; but nothing would do Tom but he must crawl to where Jim was, on his hands and knees, and play something on him. I waited, and it seemed a good while, everything was so still and lonesome. As soon as Tom was back we cut along the path, around the garden fence, and by and by fetched up on the steep top of the hill the other side of the house.

Tom said he slipped Jim's hat off of his head and hung it on a limb right over him, and Jim stirred a little, but he didn't wake. Afterwards Jim said the witches be witched him and put him in a trance, and rode him all over the State, and then set him under the trees again, and hung his hat on a limb to show who done it. And next time Jim told it he said they rode him down to New Orleans; and, Spanish betwixt: entre. Jim was monstrous proud about it, and he got so he wouldn't hardly notice the other niggers.

Niggers would come miles to hear Jim tell about it, and he was more looked up to than any nigger in that country. Strange niggers would stand with their mouths open and look him all over, same as if he was a wonder. Niggers is always talking about witches in the dark by the kitchen fire; but whenever one was talking and letting on to know all about such things, Jim would happen in and say, "Hm! What you know 'bout witches?

Jim always kept that fivecenter piece round his neck with a string, and said it was a charm the devil give to him with his own hands, and told him he could cure anybody with it and fetch witches whenever he wanted to just by saying something to it; but he never told what it was he said to it. Niggers would come from all around there and give Jim anything they had, just for a sight of that five-center piece; but they wouldn't touch it, because the devil had had his hands on it.

Jim was most ruined for a servant, because he got stuck up on account of having seen the devil and been rode by witches. Well, when Tom and me got to the edge of the hilltop we looked away down into the village and could see three or four lights twinkling, where there was sick folks, maybe; and the stars over us was sparkling ever so fine; and down by the village was the river, a whole mile broad, and awful still and grand. We went down the hill and found Jo Harper and Ben Rogers, and two or three more of the boys, hid in the old tanyard.

So we unhitched a skiff and pulled down the river two mile and a half, to the big scar on the hillside, and went ashore. We went to a clump of bushes, and Tom made everybody swear to keep the secret, and then showed them a hole in the hill, right in the thickest part of the bushes. Then we lit the candles, and crawled in on our hands and knees. We went about two hundred yards, and then the cave opened up. Tom poked about amongst the passages, and pretty soon ducked under a wall where you wouldn't Spanish ashore: en tierra. We went along a narrow place and got into a kind of room, all damp and sweaty and cold, and there we stopped.

Tom says: "Now, we'll start this band of robbers and call it Tom Sawyer's Gang. Everybody that wants to join has got to take an oath, and write his name in blood. So Tom got out a sheet of paper that he had wrote the oath on, and read it. It swore every boy to stick to the band, and never tell any of the secrets; and if anybody done anything to any boy in the band, whichever boy was ordered to kill that person and his family must do it, and he mustn't eat and he mustn't sleep till he had killed them and hacked a cross in their breasts, which was the sign of the band.

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The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (Webster's Spanish Thesaurus Edition)

And nobody that didn't belong to the band could use that mark, and if he did he must be sued; and if he done it again he must be killed. And if anybody that belonged to the band told the secrets, he must have his throat cut, and then have his carcass burnt up and the ashes scattered all around, and his name blotted off of the list with blood and never mentioned again by the gang, but have a curse put on it and be forgot forever. Everybody said it was a real beautiful oath, and asked Tom if he got it out of his own head. He said, some of it, but the rest was out of pirate-books and robber-books, and every gang that was high-toned had it.

Some thought it would be good to kill the families of boys that told the secrets. Tom said it was a good idea, so he took a pencil and wrote it in. He used to lay drunk with the hogs in the tanyard, but he hain't been seen in these parts for a year or more. Well, nobody could think of anything to do--everybody was stumped, and set still. I was most ready to cry; but all at once I thought of a way, and so I offered them Miss Watson--they could kill her. Everybody said: "Oh, she'll do.

That's all right. Huck can come in. That ain't no sort of style. We are highwaymen. We stop stages and carriages on the road, with masks on, and kill the people and take their watches and money. It's best. Some authorities think different, but mostly it's considered best to kill them--except some that you bring to the cave here, and keep them till they're ransomed. What's that? But that's what they do. I've seen it in books; and so of course that's what we've got to do.

Don't I tell you it's in the books? Do you want to go to doing different from what's in the books, and get things all muddled up? Now, what do you reckon it is? But per'aps if we keep them till they're ransomed, it means that we keep them till they're dead. That'll answer. Why couldn't you said that before? We'll keep them till they're ransomed to death; and a bothersome lot they'll be, too--eating up everything, and always trying to get loose.

How can they get loose when there's a guard over them, ready to shoot them down if they move a peg? Well, that is good. So somebody's got to set up all night and never get any sleep, just so as to watch them. I think that's foolishness. Why can't a body take a club and ransom them as soon as they get here? Now, Ben Rogers, do you want to do things regular, or don't you? Don't you reckon that the people that made the books knows what's the correct thing to do? Do you reckon you can learn 'em anything? Not by a good deal. No, sir, we'll just go on and ransom them in the regular way.

I don't mind; but I say it's a fool way, anyhow. Say, do we kill the women, too? Kill the women? No; nobody ever saw anything in the books like that. You fetch them to the cave, and you're always as polite as pie to them; and by and by they fall in love with you, and never want to go home any more. Mighty soon we'll have the cave so cluttered up with women, and fellows waiting to be ransomed, that there won't be no place for the robbers.

But go ahead, I ain't got nothing to say. So they all made fun of him, and called him cry-baby, and that made him mad, and he said he would go straight and tell all the secrets. But Tom give him five cents to keep quiet, and said we would all go home and meet next week, and rob somebody and kill some people. Spanish ahead: adelante, delante, anteriormente. They agreed to get together and fix a day as soon as they could, and then we elected Tom Sawyer first captain and Jo Harper second captain of the Gang, and so started home.

My new clothes was all greased up and clayey, and I was dog- tired. Spanish agreed: acordado, convenido, de acuerdo, vale, entendido, conforme, asentido, concordado, en orden. Then Miss Watson she took me in the closet and prayed, but nothing come of it. She told me to pray every day, and whatever I asked for I would get it. But it warn't so. I tried it. Once I got a fish-line, but no hooks. It warn't any good to me without hooks. I tried for the hooks three or four times, but somehow I couldn't make it work.

By and by, one day, I asked Miss Watson to try for me, but she said I was a fool. She never told me why, and I couldn't make it out no way. I set down one time back in the woods, and had a long think about it. I says to myself, if a body can get anything they pray for, why don't Deacon Winn get back the money he lost on pork?

Why can't the widow get back her silver snuffbox that was stole? Why can't Miss Watson fat up? No, says I to my self, there ain't nothing in it. I went and told the widow about it, and she said the thing a body could get by praying for it was "spiritual gifts. This was including Miss Watson, as I took it. I went out in the woods and turned it over in my mind a long time, but I couldn't see no advantage about it--except for the other people; so at last I reckoned I wouldn't worry about it any more, but just let it go. Sometimes the widow would take me one side and talk about Providence in a way to make a body's mouth water; but maybe next day Miss Watson would take hold and knock it all down again.

I judged I could see that there was two Providences, and a poor chap would stand considerable show with the widow's Providence, but if Miss Watson's got him there warn't no help for him any more. I thought it all out, and reckoned I would belong to the widow's if he wanted me, though I couldn't make out how he was a-going to be any better off then than what he was before, seeing I was so ignorant, and so kind of low-down and ornery.

He used to always whale me when he was sober and could get his hands on me; though I used to take to the woods most of the time when he was around. Well, about this time he was found in the river drownded, about twelve mile above town, so people said. They judged it was him, anyway; said this drownded man was just his size, and was ragged, and had uncommon long hair, which was all like pap; but they couldn't make nothing out of the face, because it had been in the water so long it warn't much like a face at all.

They said he was floating on his back in the water. They took him and buried him on the bank. But I warn't comfortable long, because I happened to think of something. I knowed mighty well that a drownded man don't float on his back, but on his face. So I knowed, then, that this warn't pap, but a woman dressed up in a man's clothes. So I was uncomfortable again. I judged the old man would turn up again by and by, though I wished he wouldn't. We played robber now and then about a month, and then I resigned. All the boys did.

We hadn't robbed nobody, hadn't killed any people, but only just pretended. We used to hop out of the woods and go charging down on hogdrivers and women in carts taking garden stuff to market, but we never hived Spanish advantage: ventaja, provecho, la ventaja. Tom Sawyer called the hogs "ingots," and he called the turnips and stuff "julery," and we would go to the cave and powwow over what we had done, and how many people we had killed and marked. But I couldn't see no profit in it. One time Tom sent a boy to run about town with a blazing stick, which he called a slogan which was the sign for the Gang to get together , and then he said he had got secret news by his spies that next day a whole parcel of Spanish merchants and rich A-rabs was going to camp in Cave Hollow with two hundred elephants, and six hundred camels, and over a thousand "sumter" mules, all loaded down with di'monds, and they didn't have only a guard of four hundred soldiers, and so we would lay in ambuscade, as he called it, and kill the lot and scoop the things.

He said we must slick up our swords and guns, and get ready. He never could go after even a turnip- cart but he must have the swords and guns all scoured up for it, though they was only lath and broomsticks, and you might scour at them till you rotted, and then they warn't worth a mouthful of ashes more than what they was before. I didn't believe we could lick such a crowd of Spaniards and A-rabs, but I wanted to see the camels and elephants, so I was on hand next day, Saturday, in the ambuscade; and when we got the word we rushed out of the woods and down the hill.

But there warn't no Spaniards and A-rabs, and there warn't no camels nor no elephants. It warn't anything but a Sunday-school picnic, and only a primer-class at that. We busted it up, and chased the children up the hollow; but we never got anything but some doughnuts and jam, though Ben Rogers got a rag doll, and Jo Harper got a hymn-book and a tract; and then the teacher charged in, and made us drop everything and cut.

I didn't see no di'monds, and I told Tom Sawyer so. He said there was loads of them there, anyway; and he said there was A-rabs there, too, and elephants and things. I said, why couldn't we see them, then? He said if I warn't so ignorant, but had read a book called Don Quixote, I would know without asking.

He said it was all done by enchantment. He said there was hundreds of soldiers there, and elephants and treasure, and so on, but we had enemies which he called magicians; and they had turned the whole thing into an infant Sunday-school, just out of spite. I said, all right; then the thing for us to do was to go for the magicians.

Tom Sawyer said I was a numskull. Spanish ambuscade: emboscada. They are as tall as a tree and as big around as a church. How do they get them? They don't think nothing of pulling a shot-tower up by the roots, and belting a Sunday-school superintendent over the head with it--or any other man. They belong to whoever rubs the lamp or the ring, and they've got to do whatever he says. If he tells them to build a palace forty miles long out of di'monds, and fill it full of chewing-gum, or whatever you want, and fetch an emperor's daughter from China for you to marry, they've got to do it--and they've got to do it before sun-up next morning, too.

And more: they've got to waltz that palace around over the country wherever you want it, you understand. And what's more--if I was one of them I would see a man in Jericho before I would drop my business and come to him for the rubbing of an old tin lamp. Why, you'd have to come when he rubbed it, whether you wanted to or not.

All right, then; I would come; but I lay I'd make that man climb the highest tree there was in the country. Mark Twain 17 "Shucks, it ain't no use to talk to you, Huck Finn. You don't seem to know anything, somehow--perfect saphead. I got an old tin lamp and an iron ring, and went out in the woods and rubbed and rubbed till I sweat like an Injun, calculating to build a palace and sell it; but it warn't no use, none of the genies come. So then I judged that all that stuff was only just one of Tom Sawyer's lies. I reckoned he believed in the A-rabs and the elephants, but as for me I think different.

It had all the marks of a Sunday-school. Spanish ain't: no soy. I had been to school most all the time and could spell and read and write just a little, and could say the multiplication table up to six times seven is thirty-five, and I don't reckon I could ever get any further than that if I was to live forever. I don't take no stock in mathematics, anyway. At first I hated the school, but by and by I got so I could stand it. Whenever I got uncommon tired I played hookey, and the hiding I got next day done me good and cheered me up.

So the longer I went to school the easier it got to be. I was getting sort of used to the widow's ways, too, and they warn't so raspy on me. Living in a house and sleeping in a bed pulled on me pretty tight mostly, but before the cold weather I used to slide out and sleep in the woods sometimes, and so that was a rest to me. I liked the old ways best, but I was getting so I liked the new ones, too, a little bit. The widow said I was coming along slow but sure, and doing very satisfactory.

She said she warn't ashamed of me.


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One morning I happened to turn over the salt-cellar at breakfast. I reached for some of it as quick as I could to throw over my left shoulder and keep off the bad luck, but Miss Watson was in ahead of me, and crossed me off. She says, Spanish anyway: sin embargo. Mark Twain 19 "Take your hands away, Huckleberry; what a mess you are always making!

I started out, after breakfast, feeling worried and shaky, and wondering where it was going to fall on me, and what it was going to be. There is ways to keep off some kinds of bad luck, but this wasn't one of them kind; so I never tried to do anything, but just poked along low-spirited and on the watch-out. There was an inch of new snow on the ground, and I seen somebody's tracks. They had come up from the quarry and stood around the stile a while, and then went on around the garden fence. It was funny they hadn't come in, after standing around so.

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I couldn't make it out. It was very curious, somehow. I was going to follow around, but I stooped down to look at the tracks first. I didn't notice anything at first, but next I did. There was a cross in the left boot-heel made with big nails, to keep off the devil. I was up in a second and shinning down the hill. I looked over my shoulder every now and then, but I didn't see nobody. I was at Judge Thatcher's as quick as I could get there. He said: "Why, my boy, you are all out of breath.

Did you come for your interest? Quite a fortune for you. You had better let me invest it along with your six thousand, because if you take it you'll spend it. I don't want it at all-- nor the six thousand, nuther. I want you to take it; I want to give it to you--the six thousand and all. He couldn't seem to make it out. He says: "Why, what can you mean, my boy? You'll take it --won't you? Is something the matter? I think I see. You want to sell all your property to me--not give it. That's the correct idea.

Here's a dollar for you. Now you sign it. He said there was a spirit inside of it, and it knowed everything. So I went to him that night and told him pap was here again, for I found his tracks in the snow. What I wanted to know was, what he was going to do, and was he going to stay? Jim got out his hair-ball and said something over it, and then he held it up and dropped it on the floor. It fell pretty solid, and only rolled about an inch. Jim tried it again, and then another time, and it acted just the same. Jim got down on his knees, and put his ear against it and listened.

But it warn't no use; he said it wouldn't talk. He said sometimes it wouldn't talk without money. I told him I had an old slick counterfeit quarter that warn't no good because the brass showed through the silver a little, and it wouldn't pass nohow, even if the brass didn't show, because it was so slick it felt greasy, and so that would tell on it every time. I reckoned I wouldn't say nothing about the dollar I got from the judge.

I said it was pretty bad money, but maybe the hair-ball would take it, because maybe it wouldn't know the difference. Jim smelt it and bit it and rubbed it, and said he would manage so the hair-ball would think it was good. He said he would split open a raw Irish potato and stick the quarter in between and keep it there all night, and next morning you couldn't see no brass, and it Spanish acted: Actuado. Mark Twain 21 wouldn't feel greasy no more, and so anybody in town would take it in a minute, let alone a hair-ball.

Well, I knowed a potato would do that before, but I had forgot it. This time he said the hair-ball was all right. He said it would tell my whole fortune if I wanted it to. I says, go on. So the hair-ball talked to Jim, and Jim told it to me. He says: "Yo' ole father doan' know yit what he's a-gwyne to do. Sometimes he spec he'll go 'way, en den agin he spec he'll stay. De bes' way is to res' easy en let de ole man take his own way. Dey's two angels hoverin' roun' 'bout him.

One uv 'em is white en shiny, en t'other one is black. De white one gits him to go right a little while, den de black one sail in en bust it all up. A body can't tell yit which one gwyne to fetch him at de las'. But you is all right. You gwyne to have considable trouble in yo' life, en considable joy. Sometimes you gwyne to git hurt, en sometimes you gwyne to git sick; but every time you's gwyne to git well agin.

Dey's two gals flyin' 'bout you in yo' life. One uv 'em's light en t'other one is dark. One is rich en t'other is po'. You's gwyne to marry de po' one fust en de rich one by en by. You wants to keep 'way fum de water as much as you kin, en don't run no resk, 'kase it's down in de bills dat you's gwyne to git hung. Spanish agin: contra. Then I turned around and there he was. I used to be scared of him all the time, he tanned me so much. I reckoned I was scared now, too; but in a minute I see I was mistaken--that is, after the first jolt, as you may say, when my breath sort of hitched, he being so unexpected; but right away after I see I warn't scared of him worth bothring about.

He was most fifty, and he looked it. His hair was long and tangled and greasy, and hung down, and you could see his eyes shining through like he was behind vines. It was all black, no gray; so was his long, mixed-up whiskers. There warn't no color in his face, where his face showed; it was white; not like another man's white, but a white to make a body sick, a white to make a body's flesh crawl--a tree-toad white, a fish-belly white. As for his clothes--just rags, that was all. He had one ankle resting on t'other knee; the boot on that foot was busted, and two of his toes stuck through, and he worked them now and then.

His hat was laying on the floor--an old black slouch with the top caved in, like a lid. I stood a-looking at him; he set there a-looking at me, with his chair tilted back a little. I set the candle down. I noticed the window was up; so he had clumb in by the shed. He kept a-looking me all over. By and by he says: Spanish boot: bota, maletero, arranque.

Mark Twain 23 "Starchy clothes--very. You think you're a good deal of a big-bug, don't you? I'll take you down a peg before I get done with you. You're educated, too, they say--can read and write. You think you're better'n your father, now, don't you, because he can't?

Cuchillos de papel (En un rincón de la Fortuna)

I'll take it out of you. Who told you you might meddle with such hifalut'n foolishness, hey? She told me. And looky here--you drop that school, you hear? I'll learn people to bring up a boy to put on airs over his own father and let on to be better'n what he is. You lemme catch you fooling around that school again, you hear? Your mother couldn't read, and she couldn't write, nuther, before she died. None of the family couldn't before they died. I can't; and here you're a- swelling yourself up like this. I ain't the man to stand it--you hear? Say, lemme hear you read.

When I'd read about a half a minute, he fetched the book a whack with his hand and knocked it across the house. He says: "It's so. You can do it. I had my doubts when you told me. Now looky here; you stop that putting on frills. I won't have it. I'll lay for you, my smarty; and if I catch you about that school I'll tan you good.

First you know you'll get religion, too. I never see such a son. A bed; and bedclothes; and a look'n'-glass; and a piece of carpet on the floor--and your own father got to sleep with the hogs in the tanyard. I bet I'll take some o' these frills out o' you before I'm done with you. Why, there ain't no end to your airs-they say you're rich. I've been in town two days, and I hain't heard nothing but about you bein' rich. I heard about it away down the river, too. That's why I come. You git me that money to-morrow--I want it. Judge Thatcher's got it. You git it. I want it.

You ask Judge Thatcher; he'll tell you the same.

Similar authors to follow

I'll ask him; and I'll make him pungle, too, or I'll know the reason why. Say, how much you got in your pocket? When he had got out on the shed he put his head in again, and cussed me for putting on frills and trying to be better than him; and when I reckoned he was gone he come back and put his head in again, and told me to mind about that school, because he was going to lay for me and lick me if I didn't drop that.

Spanish bedclothes: ropa de cama. Mark Twain 25 Next day he was drunk, and he went to Judge Thatcher's and bullyragged him, and tried to make him give up the money; but he couldn't, and then he swore he'd make the law force him. So Judge Thatcher and the widow had to quit on the business. That pleased the old man till he couldn't rest. He said he'd cowhide me till I was black and blue if I didn't raise some money for him. I borrowed three dollars from Judge Thatcher, and pap took it and got drunk, and went a-blowing around and cussing and whooping and carrying on; and he kept it up all over town, with a tin pan, till most midnight; then they jailed him, and next day they had him before court, and jailed him again for a week.

But he said he was satisfied; said he was boss of his son, and he'd make it warm for him. When he got out the new judge said he was a-going to make a man of him. So he took him to his own house, and dressed him up clean and nice, and had him to breakfast and dinner and supper with the family, and was just old pie to him, so to speak. And after supper he talked to him about temperance and such things till the old man cried, and said he'd been a fool, and fooled away his life; but now he was a-going to turn over a new leaf and be a man nobody wouldn't be ashamed of, and he hoped the judge would help him and not look down on him.

The judge said he could hug him for them words; so he cried, and his wife she cried again; pap said he'd been a man that had always been misunderstood before, and the judge said he believed it. The old man said that what a man wanted that was down was sympathy, and the judge said it was so; so they cried again. And when it was bedtime the old man rose up and held out his hand, and says: "Look at it, gentlemen and ladies all; take a-hold of it; shake it. There's a hand that was the hand of a hog; but it ain't so no more; it's the hand of a man Spanish bedtime: hora de acostarse. You mark them words--don't forget I said them.

It's a clean hand now; shake it--don't be afeard. The judge's wife she kissed it. Then the old man he signed a pledge--made his mark. The judge said it was the holiest time on record, or something like that. Then they tucked the old man into a beautiful room, which was the spare room, and in the night some time he got powerful thirsty and clumb out on to the porch-roof and slid down a stanchion and traded his new coat for a jug of forty-rod, and clumb back again and had a good old time; and towards daylight he crawled out again, drunk as a fiddler, and rolled off the porch and broke his left arm in two places, and was most froze to death when somebody found him after sun-up.

And when they come to look at that spare room they had to take soundings before they could navigate it. He said he reckoned a body could reform the old man with a shotgun, maybe, but he didn't know no other way. He catched me a couple of times and thrashed me, but I went to school just the same, and dodged him or outrun him most of the time.

I didn't want to go to school much before, but I reckoned I'd go now to spite pap. That law trial was a slow business--appeared like they warn't ever going to get started on it; so every now and then I'd borrow two or three dollars off of the judge for him, to keep from getting a cowhiding. Every time he got money he got drunk; and every time he got drunk he raised Cain around town; and every time he raised Cain he got jailed. He was just suited--this kind of thing was right in his line. He got to hanging around the widow's too much and so she told him at last that if he didn't quit using around there she would make trouble for him.

Well, wasn't he mad? He said he would show who was Huck Finn's boss. So he watched out for me one day in the spring, and catched me, and took me up the river about three mile in a skiff, and crossed over to the Illinois shore where it was woody and there warn't no houses but an old log hut in a place where the timber was so thick you couldn't find it if you didn't know where it was. Spanish borrow: prestar, tomar prestado, pedir prestado. We lived in that old cabin, and he always locked the door and put the key under his head nights.

He had a gun which he had stole, I reckon, and we fished and hunted, and that was what we lived on. Every little while he locked me in and went down to the store, three miles, to the ferry, and traded fish and game for whisky, and fetched it home and got drunk and had a good time, and licked me.

The widow she found out where I was by and by, and she sent a man over to try to get hold of me; but pap drove him off with the gun, and it warn't long after that till I was used to being where I was, and liked it--all but the cowhide part. Two months or more run along, and my clothes got to be all rags and dirt, and I didn't see how I'd ever got to like it so well at the widow's, where you had to wash, and eat on a plate, and comb up, and go to bed and get up regular, and be forever bothering over a book, and have old Miss Watson pecking at you all the time.

I didn't want to go back no more. I had stopped cussing, because the widow didn't like it; but now I took to it again because pap hadn't no objections. It was pretty good times up in the woods there, take it all around. But by and by pap got too handy with his hick'ry, and I couldn't stand it. I was all over welts. He got to going away so much, too, and locking me in. Once he locked me in and was gone three days.

It was dreadful lonesome. I judged he had got drowned, and I wasn't ever going to get out any more. I was scared. I made up my mind I would fix up some way to leave there. I had tried to get out of that cabin many a time, but I couldn't find no way. There warn't a window to it big enough for a dog to get through. I couldn't get up the chimbly; it was too narrow. The door was thick, solid oak slabs. Pap was pretty careful not to leave a knife or anything in the cabin when he was away; I reckon I had hunted the place over as much as a hundred times; well, I was most all the time at it, because it was about the only way to put in the time.

But this time I found something at last; I found an old rusty wood-saw without any handle; it was laid in between a rafter and the clapboards of the roof. I greased it up and went to Spanish bothering: fastidioso, Molestar, molesto. Mark Twain 29 work. There was an old horse-blanket nailed against the logs at the far end of the cabin behind the table, to keep the wind from blowing through the chinks and putting the candle out. I got under the table and raised the blanket, and went to work to saw a section of the big bottom log out--big enough to let me through.

Well, it was a good long job, but I was getting towards the end of it when I heard pap's gun in the woods. I got rid of the signs of my work, and dropped the blanket and hid my saw, and pretty soon pap come in. He said he was down town, and everything was going wrong. His lawyer said he reckoned he would win his lawsuit and get the money if they ever got started on the trial; but then there was ways to put it off a long time, and Judge Thatcher knowed how to do it.

And he said people allowed there'd be another trial to get me away from him and give me to the widow for my guardian, and they guessed it would win this time. This shook me up considerable, because I didn't want to go back to the widow's any more and be so cramped up and sivilized, as they called it. Then the old man got to cussing, and cussed everything and everybody he could think of, and then cussed them all over again to make sure he hadn't skipped any, and after that he polished off with a kind of a general cuss all round, including a considerable parcel of people which he didn't know the names of, and so called them what's-his-name when he got to them, and went right along with his cussing.

He said he would like to see the widow get me. He said he would watch out, and if they tried to come any such game on him he knowed of a place six or seven mile off to stow me in, where they might hunt till they dropped and they couldn't find me. That made me pretty uneasy again, but only for a minute; I reckoned I wouldn't stay on hand till he got that chance.

The old man made me go to the skiff and fetch the things he had got. There was a fifty-pound sack of corn meal, and a side of bacon, ammunition, and a four-gallon jug of whisky, and an old book and two newspapers for wadding, besides some tow. I toted up a load, and went back and set down on the bow of the skiff to rest. I guessed I wouldn't stay in one place, but just tramp right across the country, mostly night times, and hunt and fish to keep alive, and so get so far away that the old man nor the widow couldn't ever find me any more.

I judged I would saw out and leave that night if pap got drunk enough, and I reckoned he would. I got so full of it I didn't notice how long I was staying till the old man hollered and asked me whether I was asleep or drownded. While I was cooking supper the old man took a swig or two and got sort of warmed up, and went to ripping again. He had been drunk over in town, and laid in the gutter all night, and he was a sight to look at. A body would a thought he was Adam-he was just all mud. Whenever his liquor begun to work he most always went for the govment, this time he says: "Call this a govment!

Here's the law a-standing ready to take a man's son away from him--a man's own son, which he has had all the trouble and all the anxiety and all the expense of raising. Yes, just as that man has got that son raised at last, and ready to go to work and begin to do suthin' for him and give him a rest, the law up and goes for him.

And they call that govment! That ain't all, nuther. The law backs that old Judge Thatcher up and helps him to keep me out o' my property. Here's what the law does: The law takes a man worth six thousand dollars and up'ards, and jams him into an old trap of a cabin like this, and lets him go round in clothes that ain't fitten for a hog. They call that govment! A man can't get his rights in a govment like this. Sometimes I've a mighty notion to just leave the country for good and all. Yes, and I told 'em so; I told old Thatcher so to his face.

Lots of 'em heard me, and can tell what I said. Says I, for two cents I'd leave the blamed country and never come a-near it agin. Them's the very words. I says look at my hat--if you call it a hat--but the lid raises up and the rest of it goes down till it's below my chin, and then it ain't rightly a hat at all, but more like my head was shoved up through a jint o' stove-pipe. Look at it, says I-- such a hat for me to wear--one of the wealthiest men in this town if I could git my rights. Spanish alive: vivo, viviente. Why, looky here.

There was a free nigger there from Ohio--a mulatter, most as white as a white man. He had the whitest shirt on you ever see, too, and the shiniest hat; and there ain't a man in that town that's got as fine clothes as what he had; and he had a gold watch and chain, and a silver- headed cane--the awfulest old gray-headed nabob in the State. And what do you think? They said he was a p'fessor in a college, and could talk all kinds of languages, and knowed everything. And that ain't the wust. They said he could VOTE when he was at home.

Well, that let me out. Thinks I, what is the country a-coming to? It was 'lection day, and I was just about to go and vote myself if I warn't too drunk to get there; but when they told me there was a State in this country where they'd let that nigger vote, I drawed out. I says I'll never vote agin.

KUME IMPORTACIONES S.A. DE C.V.

Them's the very words I said; they all heard me; and the country may rot for all me --I'll never vote agin as long as I live. And to see the cool way of that nigger--why, he wouldn't a give me the road if I hadn't shoved him out o' the way. I says to the people, why ain't this nigger put up at auction and sold? And what do you reckon they said? Why, they said he couldn't be sold till he'd been in the State six months, and he hadn't been there that long yet.

There, now--that's a specimen. They call that a govment that can't sell a free nigger till he's been in the State six months. Here's a govment that calls itself a govment, and lets on to be a govment, and thinks it is a govment, and yet's got to set stock-still for six whole months before it can take a hold of a prowling, thieving, infernal, white-shirted free nigger, and--" Pap was a-going on so he never noticed where his old limber legs was taking him to, so he went head over heels over the tub of salt pork and barked both shins, and the rest of his speech was all the hottest kind of language--mostly hove at the nigger and the govment, though he give the tub some, too, all along, here and there.

He hopped around the cabin considerable, first on one leg and then on the other, holding first one shin and then the other one, and at last he let out with his left foot all of a sudden and fetched the tub a rattling kick. But it warn't good judgment, because that was the boot that had a couple of his toes leaking out of the front end of it; so now he raised a howl that fairly made a Spanish auction: subasta, remate, almoneda.

He said so his own self afterwards. He had heard old Sowberry Hagan in his best days, and he said it laid over him, too; but I reckon that was sort of piling it on, maybe. That was always his word. I judged he would be blind drunk in about an hour, and then I would steal the key, or saw myself out, one or t'other. He drank and drank, and tumbled down on his blankets by and by; but luck didn't run my way. He didn't go sound asleep, but was uneasy. He groaned and moaned and thrashed around this way and that for a long time. At last I got so sleepy I couldn't keep my eyes open all I could do, and so before I knowed what I was about I was sound asleep, and the candle burning.

I don't know how long I was asleep, but all of a sudden there was an awful scream and I was up. There was pap looking wild, and skipping around every which way and yelling about snakes. He said they was crawling up his legs; and then he would give a jump and scream, and say one had bit him on the cheek-but I couldn't see no snakes. He started and run round and round the cabin, hollering "Take him off! Pretty soon he was all fagged out, and fell down panting; then he rolled over and over wonderful fast, kicking things every which way, and striking and grabbing at the air with his hands, and screaming and saying there was devils a-hold of him.

He wore out by and by, and laid still a while, moaning. Fernando Pizarro, who was as great in council as in war, with a smile replied, "I do not know, seliores, why you wish to do this, for in my mindl there is not, and there has not been, any fear. Wherefore, if you, Juan Pizarro, give such an opinion, hoW is it that you had courage to defend the city against Almnagro, when he sought to rebel; and as for you," turning to the treasurer, " it would appear a very ugly thing for you to talk in this fashion, since you have charge of the royal fifths, and are obliged to give account of them with the same obligation that he is to give account of the fortress.

For you other seoiores, who are alcaldes and regidors, to whom the execution of the laws is committed in this city, it is not for you to commit such a great folly that you should deliver it into the hands of these tyrants. Wherefore, gentlemen, in the service of God and of the king, sustaining your houses and your estates, die rather than desert them. If I am left alone, I will pay with my life the obligation which lies upon me, rather than have it said that another gained the city, and that I lost it. That being gained, the city is secure. To-morrow morning I nust go, with all the horsemen that can be mustered, and take that fortress.

Upon this, Juan Pizarro, wounded as he was, claimed the principal part in the next day's action, saying, 1" It was my fault that the fortress was not occupied, and I said that I would take it whenever it should be necessary to do so. Ill would it therefore appear if, while I am alive, any other person should nndertake the duty for ne. This question of leadership being settled, and two subordinates having been chosen, Juan Pizarro lost no time in selecting a company of fifty men for the work of the morrow, the three captains being himself, his brother Gonzalo, and a cavalier named Fernando Ponce.

Very early in the morning, the fifty men, with their leaders, were drawn up in the great square. Fernando Pizarro addressed some parting advice to his brother Juan, namely, that when out of the town he should take the royal road from Cusco to Los Reyes, and should not turn until he had gone about a league,.

Fernando Pizarro had hardly finished giving this advice, when a body of Indians came down with the intent of taking a fort which had been made as a place of refuge from the great square, and which overlooked the whole of it. The two sentinels on guard at this fort were asleep —a thing not to be iwondered at, considering the fatigues of the last few days-and before any succor could be given, the Indians had mastered the fort.

The day, therefore, began with an ill omen for the Spaniards. Fernando Pizarro ordered in great haste some active foot-soldiers to retake this fort, which they soon succeeded in doing. When this had been accomplished, Fernando united all his forces, horse and foot, to gain possession of a very strong barricade which the Indians had thrown up, in order to prevent the Spaniards from going out of the city in the direction of the plain. A body of twenty thousand Indians from the district of Chinchasuyo kept this barricade.

It was fortunate for the Spaniards that the Indians had not delayed their attack upon the fort until a little later in the day, for by this movement toward the barricade Fernando Pizarro was obliged to leave the great square nearly undefended. But the main body of the Indians had not yet come down from their quarters to commence their usual attacks upon the city. When the Chinchasuyans who had the charge of the barricade saw the Spaniardcs advancing upon them in full force, some of them shouted out to one another, " Those Christians who have the good horses.

The rest of the Spaniards returned with all haste to the grand square; for a column of the enemy-from the same division, I conjecture, which had once captured the fort in the morning-came down again to make another attack on it, having seen or heard the skirmish at the Chinchasuyan barricade. Fernando Pizarro, whose part in the conlflict it was to make decisive charges on critical occasions, rushed out with his men, and soon put the Indians to flight; for, as the main body of the enemy was still asleep in their quarters, this one watchful division could not alone resist Pizarro's charge.

Meanwhile Juan Pizarro had conducted his men along the royal road to Los Reyes; and, after proceeding as far as had been previously agreed upon, had turned to the right, had fought his way along the ridges wherever he had encountered any enemy, had come down upon the open ground before the fortress, and so established a communication between himself and his brother in the city.

The Indians posted between the fortress and the city decamped, some throwing themselves into the fortress and others into other strong positions. At the salhe time he sent Juan word o account to make the attack upon the fortress until nightfall, for the enemy were so many, and the position so strong, that the Spaniards could gain no honor in the attack.

Fernando also begged his brother not to adventure his own person in the fight; for, on account of the wound which Juan had already received, lihe could not put on his morion, and Fernando said it 1would be absolute madness to go into battle without that. Juan Pizarro did not adopt his brother's advice; for, though lie made a show of preparation as if he were going to bivouac upon the plain for the night, it was only a feint, and when he saw that the Indians were less on their guard, he gave orders for a sudden attack upon some strong positions in front of the fortress.

Gonzalo Pizarro was intrusted with a troop to make this attack. When the Indians saw the Spaniards moving upward, they came down upon them in such a multitudcle that Gonzalo Pizarro and his men could not even succeed in approaching these fortified outposts. Indeed, the Spaniards began to give way before the weiglit of numbers, when Juan Pizarro, "not being able to endure" this check, hurried onward to support his brother. The men, animated by this sight, for Juan and Gonzalo fought in the front rank, rushed forward, and succeeded in taking these strong positions, so that they found themselves now under the walls of the principal building.

Juan Pizarro, not satisfied with this partial success, made a bold dash at the entrance into the fortress. Beneath this outwork the crafty Indians had recently dug a deep pitfall. But, unfortunately for them, as they came flying in from the pursuit of the Spaniards, they fell one upon another, heaped together in such a manner that " they filled up with their own bodies that which their own hands had made. I-Iis men recovered, and bore off the body of their commander, in which life was not extinct, though the wound was of a fatal nature, for Juan Pizarro never rose from his couch again.

After this great check, Gonzalo Pizarro, on whom the command had now devolved, did what he could to reanimate his men; but his efforts were of no avail. The numbers of the enemy brought to bear upon the points of attack continued to increase, and the Spaniards were obliged to draw off from the fortress.

Desde la puerta del muro salian de una parte y de otra unos paredones hasta hacer otra puerta adelante, y estos cubiertos por cima, y alli hicieron cava, ahondando todo lo cubierto. The whole of the day, therefore, was spent in making sealing-ladders by all who could be spared for that service. They were not many who could be spared, for the enemny gave Gonzalo Pizarro and Fernando Ponce no rest all day, endeavoring to force the strong position which these commanders occupied. The Indians in the fortress did all they could by words and signs to animate their friends, even calling by name upon particular chiefs to come to the rescue; but the Spaniards maintained their positions.

That day Fernando Pizarro was to be seen every where throughout the Spanish quarters. Here, lihe hurried with his small party of reserve, and left them; there, alone, he threw himself into some post where the effect of his personal presence was wanted. The contest grew so furious and the shouts so louLd the Indians, like all partially civilized people, were great shouters in war , that it seemed "as if the whole world was there in fiercest conflict.

Kinoswing that the fortress was besieged, and being as well aware as Pizarro how important the possession of that strong-hold was, he sent a re-enforcement of five thousand of his best soldiers. In the city itself the battle languished; for, though some encounters took place there in the course of the day, the best part of the troops were fighting round the fortress.

This was an oversight on the part of the Indian generals. The day went on without either side having gained or lost much. But the Spaniards had maintained their positions while the scaling-ladders were being made. These being finished, Fernando Pizarro and the foot-soldiers commenced their attack at the hour of vespers. This was an excellent disposition of the troops. The horsemen could fight, as they had been fighting all day, to clear the ground about the place, while the hardy foot-soldiers, fitter for the work of scaling the fortress, must have seemed almost a new enemy to the beleaguered Indians.

Fernando and his men pressed up to the walls with the utmost fury and determination. The conflict had now lasted about thirty hours, and the re-enforcements of Indians had not succeeded in rmaking their way into the fortress. The succor most wanted there was fresh ammunition. Stones and darts began to grow scarce anmong the besieged; and Villaomna, seeing the fury of his new enemies, resolved to fly.

Communicating his intentions to some of his friends, with them he made his way out of the fortress at the part which looked toward the river. The ground there was very precipitous,. From thence the recreant high-priest went to his master the Inca, mwho, when he heard the ill news, was ready to die of grief. At the time'Villaoma fled, the fortress was not altogether lost. In it there remained an Indian chief of great estimation among his people, one of those who had drunk out of the golden vases, and with whom were all the rest of the gallant men who had pledged themselves in the like simple but solemn manner.

The whole night through these devoted men maintained their position. Fernando Pizarro's efforts throughout those eventful hours were such as desperation only could inspire; and as the day dawned, he had the satisfaction of perceiving tlat the defense of the Indians began to slacken; not that their brave hearts were daunted, but that the magazine of stones and arrows was fairly exhausted. The fate of the beleaguered Indians was now clear to all beholders, to none clearer than to themselves; still this nameless captain gave no signs of surrender.

Traversing all parts of the fortress with a club in his hand, wherever he saw one of his warriors whmo was giving way, he struck him down, and hurled his body upon the besiegers. I-e himself had two arrows in him, of which he took no more accolunt. Seeing at last that it was not an Indian here and there who was giving way, but that the whole of his men were exhausted, and that the Spaniards were pressing up on the scaling-ladders at all points, he perceived that the combat was hopeless.

One weapon alone remained to him, his club. That he dashed down upon the besiegers; and then, as a last expression of despair, taking earth in his hands, he bit it, and rubbed his face with it,' " with such signs of anguish and heartsickness as can not be described. The hero of the Indians having thus perished, no pretense of farther resistance could be made.

Fernando Pizarro and his men made good their entrance, and disgraced their victory by putting the besieged to the sword, who were in number above fifteen hundred. Fernando Pizarro sallied forth the next morning, and attacked. The day after he made an onslaught with equal success upon those of Collasuyo. The succeeding day this iron man marched out against the Indians of Condesuyo. On each occasion the Spaniards, having open ground for their cavalry to act upon, were entirely triumphant, and the slaughter of the Peruvians must have been immense.

These transactions took place at the end of Mlay, It might now be imagined that the Spaniards in Cusco would be allowed to have some repose after the unwearied exertions they had made in the defense of the place, and the chastisement, as they would have called it, of the Indians. But the provident mind of Ferdinand Pizarro thought otherwise. Calling all his men together, he thus addressed them: " Since God has been pleased to give us this glorious victory by which we have gained the fortress, and saved the city from a state of siege, it seems to me, noble and valorous gentlemen, that in order that we may enjoy henceforward some rest and peace, and that we may secure.

For if we do not seize upon the maize that is there, the Indians may anticipate us, and we shall then have to obtain our supplies from afar. Pizarro, however, wisely persevered in his determination, telling his men that, as for expecting succor from Los Reyes, they must not reckon upon that; on the contrary, it was possible that they themselves were the only Spaniards left in Peru in whom, they could place confidence.

IIe meant, perhaps, darkly to insinuate that Los Reyes might have been invested at the same time as Cusco; that his brother the marqcuis might not have been able to drive back the besiegers; and that from Almagro and his men in Chili no friendly interference could be expected. WVherefore, he said, they must make up their minds to be prepared for the worst. To use his own words, "' they must make their hearts broad enough for every thing that might occur to them. Gonzalo Pizarro had hardly returned to Cusco when the Indians recommenced their siege.

It seems that these unwise warriors had desisted from their attack, not from ill success only, but from being called away by certain religious ceremonies. The Indians, having completed their sacrificial ceremonies, recommenced the siege of Cusco, but under very different auspices to those of their former enterprise. The Spaniards now not only occupied the fortress, but had extended their works beyond the city, and the Indians were not able to gain an entrance into any part of it.

This second and futile siege lasted twenty days, when it was time again for the Indians to withdraw in order to make their imperative sacrifices. No sooner was the siege raised than Fernando Pizarro resolved to act upon the offensive and to attack the Indians in their encampments, in which he was, as usual, successful, and great slaughter of the enemy again took place.

Still they were not daunted in their main purpose of investing Cusco; and when the Spaniards withdrew into their quarters, the Indians recommenced the siege. Fernando Pizarro now took a terrible resolve. He was not a cruel man, and, indeed, was noted for his kindness to the Indians.

In one of these skirmishes, at no great distance from Cusco, he put to flight some Indians, who left on the ground two blndles, which were secured and carried back to the city, and which, when opened, caused the greatest distress and grief throughout the garrison, for in one of them were found six heads of Spaniards, and in the other a great number of torn letters. Among these letters there was one, nearly uninjured, from the Empress, in which she informed the colony of the victory which the Emperor had obtained over the galleys of Tunis, fighting against 3Barbarossa and the Turks who were with him.

Fernando Pizarro, seeking truth in a way but too familiar in that age, put some of his captives to the torture, and extracted from them the information that large succor had been sent from Los Reyes, but that the various parties of Spaniards who had thus been sent to their assistance had all been intercepted and slain on their way to Cusco, and that the Inca had as trophies two hundred heads of Christians, and one hundred and fifty skins of horses. These tortured Indians also said that the governor, with all his people, had embarked from Los Reyes and deserted the country.

This last information was not true, but it was very possible that the Indians believed it to be so, for Los Reyes, as well as Cusco, had been invests ed, and in great peril. On hearing this bad news, a deep despondency fell upon the Spanish garrison at Cusco. Fernando Pizarro, whom nothing daunted, thus sought to reanimate his men. Calling them together, he said," 1 Noble and very valorous gentlemen, I am exceedingly astonished, and with great reason, that where there are persons who so much esteem honor, they should in any way show weakness at a time when they have need for the greatest hardihood.

If the bad news were true to its fullest extent, their companions had died in the service of God and in the defense of these kingdoms. Then, in the spirit of an exalted chivalry, he added that they ought to be glad. M[uche, he said, as he was indebted to his brother, he was not sorry that he should not participate in the victory which he himself still intended to achieve in keeping these provinces. They had provisions for a year and a half; they must take care to sow more grain; " and then," lihe said, " I think we can hold this city for six years, and I shall be glad if in all that time e we receive no succor.

Considering what had taken place at Los Reyes, which has now to be narrated, the report armong the Indians of the flight of the marquis was not an unreasonable one. Fernando Pizarro, at the beginning of the Indian revolt, had taken care to inform his brother at Los Reyes of the peril which threatened him at COsco. The marquis had sent a body of men under Gonzalo de Tapia, who had been cut off; and the loss sustained by the Spaniards, in this and other attempts of the same kind, amounted to four principal captains, two hundred men, and a great number of horses.

When the bad news of these troops having been cut off reached Pizarro at Los Reyes, and when he received no news whatever from his brothers at Cusco, he concluded that they were in great straits. The marquis felt his position to be most critical. HIe summoned back one of his principal captains, Alonzo de Alvarado, whom lie had sent to conquer the province of Chachapoyas.

In the letter which he wrote to Alvarado at Guatemnala he said that if that governor. Meanwhile the Indians in great numbers began to invest Los Reyes. Pedro de Lerma, another of Pizarro's principal captains, being sent out with twenty horsemen to reconnoitre, found that fifty thousand Indians were coming down upon the town. These Indians, who were under the command of a great chief named Teyyupangui, took up their position on some heights near the town. Here they remained for five or six days; and it may serve to show the wonderful temerity of the Spaniards, that it was seriously debated among them whether they should not become the besiegers and invest the Indians in their rocky citadel.

They resolved to prepare shields of a peculiar construction, to protect themselves from the stones that would be thrown by the Indians; but these shields, when made, were found to be too heavy for the purpose, and so the Indians were suffered to coinmence the attack. Their general, Teyyupangui, resolved to take the city, or to perish in the attempt. Calling together his nen, lie said, "I intend to force my way into that town to-day, and to kill all the Spaniards who are in it.

Then we will take their wives, with whom we will marry and have children fitted for war. Those who go with me are to go upon this condition, that if I die they shall all die, and if I fly they shall all fly. Pizarro made his preparations. The Indians advanced toward the town, and forced their way over the walls and into the. But, as the ground was level, the Spanish cavaliers were enabled to act with all the tremendous superiority which their arms, their horses, and their armor gave them. Their success was instantaneous. Unfortunately for the Indians, Teyyupangui, and the principal men who surrounded him, were slain in this first encounter, The loss of their general entirely dispirited the Indian forces.

The Spaniards, following up their advantage, drove the enemy back to the foot of the sierra from whence they came; and when the governor, on the succeedinmg night, would have pursued his original plan of storming the heights where the Indians had taken refuge, he received intelligence that they had broken up their camp and fled.


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This was the end of the siege of Los Reyes. That town being now free from its besiegers, and Alonzo de Alvarado having obeyed the summons which had been sent to him, and having arrived at Los Reyes, the governor began to take immediate steps for the relief of his brother at Cusco. The forces, however, which he had at his command were very inadequate for that purpose. The number that he could spare amounted only to a hundred horsemen and one hundred and fifty foot-soldiers.

With these, however, Alonzo de Alvarado was ordered to march to the province of Xauxa, and there to chastise the Indians who had cut off the forces that had been previously sent to Cusco; but the Spanish commander was not to move on to Cusco until he should receive re-enforcements. This captain left Los Reyes about the month of October, HIe had soon a hostile body of Indians to encounter, whom he put to flight, and made his way without farther opposition to C 2.

Some of the captives said that the Christians were alive, but were in a state of siege; others, that the Christians had made their way into the open country, and were maintaining themselves there; but the reports were so variable that Alonzo de Alvarado did not know what to believe, and he remained at Xauxa for four months, awaiting farther orders from the governor. Occasionally he was in greater peril than ever, but his bravery and his address always preserved him. In one of these expeditions, the Spaniards having captured some Indians and brought them within the town, they resorted to the cruel expedient of cutting off the right hands of no less than four hundred of them, and sending these poor maimed creatures to the Inca.

Fue tanto el temor que desto los demas cobraron que todas las guarniciones que estavan en esta Comarca se deshicieron. A more formidable enemy was soon to enter on the scene. Rlumors began to arise about this time that Almagro was returning from Chili. This was first communicated by the Indian captives, and some credit was given to their intelligence, because, whenever the revolted Indians fell in with the Spaniards, they threatened them, saying that the Adelantado was coming; that he was their friend, and intended to kill all the Spaniards of Cusco.

These sayings and reports were current for two months, and at last there arrived certain intelligence of the fact that the Adelantado, with five hundred Spaniards, was within seven leagues' distance of the city of Cusco. The reason of his coming, the mode of his coming, his intention with regard to the Pizarros, and the consequences of his return, form a narrative that was of the utmost significance for the whole of Spanish America. In the history of England, the battle of Hastings was by no means conclusive as regards the Norman Conquest; and the conquered Anglo-Saxons, under the gallant Hereward, maintained a most obstinate and dangerous resistance to the Norman troops.

The internal dissensions of the Peruvians, which were at their height when Pizarro first arrived in the country, must be considered as having furnished no slight aid to the Spaniards; and, in the absence of such dissensions, the conquest might have been deferred for many years. Each year the Peruvians would have attained more skill in resisting horsemen; and, as it has been observed before, horses were the chief means of conquest which the Spaniards possessed.

The transport of these animals in the small vessels of those days must always have been difficult and expensive, and many years might have elapsed before a body of two thousand Spanish horse could have entered Peru, especially if the invasion had not at first been brilliantly successful.

How completely the Peruvians were dismayed by horses may be inferred from the fact that, when they had these animals in their power, they put them to death instead of attempting to make use of them. Herrera's words are:'" Vieronse en aquella ocasion muchos Indios con Espadas, i Rodelas, f Alabardas, f. Almagro himself was in a position not above his ambition, but far above his capacity. In such a case it is always well to look to the counselors by whom a man is surrounded. The two counselors who had most influence over Almagro's mind were men whose dispositions presented a strange and violent contrast.

One was Diego de Alvarado, a person of the utmost nobility of nature, and, at the same time, delicacy of character. The conduct of the governor varied according to the advice which he listened to from one or other of these widely-different counselors. They seem also, which makes the career more strangely fluctuating, to have prevailed with the governor at very short intervals of time.

The mild counsels of Alvarado were listened to in the morning; and some unscrupulous deed, prompted probably by Orgohez, was transacted in the evening. The return of Almagro from Chili was not much to be wondered at. From the first landing of Pizarro to the taking of Cusco, the advance of the Spaniards had been little other than a trimuphant march. Conquerors had been borne along in hammocks on the shoulders of obsequious Indians to rifle temples plated with gold; but the advance into Chili was an enterprise of a different kind.

Almagro and his men went by the sierras and returned by the plains. In both journeys they had great hardships to suffer. In the "snowy passes"9 men and horses had been frozen to death, and on their return by the plain they had been obliged to traverse a horrible region, called the desert of Ataeama, which could only be passed with the greatest difficulty.

On what pretext did they return, as there were no new circumstances to justify such a course The dispatches from Spain, appointing Almagro governor of New Toledo, only reached him after he had commenced his journey into Chili; but he had been informed of their contents before, and he had taken that solemn oath, when the Host was broken by the two governors, in perfect cognizance of his rights. The revolt of the Indians was made known to him,. It is very likely that the question of the limits of his government was often renewed and discussed by his men and his officers in the course of their march and over their watch-fires, and, being discussed with all the passion and prejudice of eager partisans, it is very probable that there was not a man in Almagro's little army who did not think that Cusco fell within the limits of his commander's government.

Their misery doubtless sharpened their prejudices, and Almagro's weary, frostbitten men must have sighed for the palatial splendors and luxuries of Cusco, which they had foolishly given up, as they would have said, to these Pizarros. Even the mines of Potosi, had they been aware of their existence, would hardly have proved a sufficient inducement to detain Almagro's men in Chili. But Potosi was as yet undiscovered, and Cusco was well known to every individual in the army.. Under such circumstances the mariscal's return may be set down as faithless, treacherous, or unwise, but it can not be considered otherwise than as most natural.

A greater man than Almagro might have carried his companions onward, but Almagro was chiefly great in bestowing largesses, and Chili afforded no scope for such a commander. It must not be supposed that the question of the limits to Pizarro's government was an easy one, and that it was merely passion and prejudice which decided in the minds of Almagro's followers that Cusco fell within the province of New Toledo.

There were several ways of reckoning the two hundred and seventy-five leagues which had been assigned to Pizarro. They might be measured along the royal road. This would not have suited Pizarro's followers, who con. In short, it was a question quite sufficiently dubious in itself to admit of prejudice coming in on both sides with all the appearance of judicial impartiality.

However that may be, Almagro and his men took the fatal step of returning to maintain their supposed rights, which step a nicer sense of honor would have told them that they had, whether wisely or not, abandoned when they quitted Cusco. What effect their approach must have had upon Fernando Pizarro and his immediate adherents may be easily imagined. For many months he and his men had scarcely known what it was to have two days of rest. The efforts of the Indians were now slackening; and just at this moment there arrived an enemy who was to replace the softly-clad and poorlyarmed Indians by men with arms, spirit, and accoutrements equal to those of the Spaniards of Cusco, and in numbers greatly superior.

The first movement, however, of the mariscal was not directed against the Spaniards in Cusco. Previously to attacking them he strove to come to terms with their enemy, the Inca 3M]anco. I-ad he succeeded in this politic design, he would then have been able to combine the Inca's forces with his own, and would also have had the appearance of having intervened to settle the war between the Indians and the Spaniards. This plan, however, failed. Meanwhile Fernando Pizarro had made several attempts to nego. Iie endeavored, by messengers, to lay before the mariscal some of the motives which should regulate his conduct at this crisis, saying how much it would be for the service of God that peace should be maintained between them: if it were not, they would.

I-e offered Almagro to receive him in the city with all honor, saying that Almagro's own quarters were prepared for him; but, before all things, Fernando Pizarro urged that a messenger might be sent to the marquis in order that he might come and settle matters amicably, and that meanwhile the mariscal should enter the town with all his attendants. To this message an evasive reply was sent by Almagro, who, on a Mlonday, the 18th of April, , made his appearance, with all his people, and pitched his camp at a league's distance from Cusco.

Fernando Pizarro invited him again to enter the city as a friend. To this Ahlmagro haughtily replied, "Tell Fernando Pizarro that I am not going to enter the city except as mine, or to lodge in any lodgings but those where he is,' meaning that he would occupy the governor's apartments.

Fernando Pizarro sent another message, pointing out to Almagro the danger to be apprehended from the revolted Indians, and begging that there might be amity between them until the marquis should arrive. To this Almagro replied that he had authority from the king as governor, and that he was determined to enter Cusco. HIaving said this, Almagro advanced nearer, encamping within a crossbow shot of the city. As Fernando Pizarro had procured the powers and brought them from Spain, he knew very well what they contained; but it was a reasonable request that the grounds upon which Almagro sought to enter the town should be laid before the governing body.

Almagro, especially if he listened at all to Diego de Alvarado, could not well refuse his assent to this proposition. Accordingly a truce was made for that day, and until the next at noon. Early on the ensuing morning Almagro sent his powers to be laid before the Town Council, but he demanded that before they should be produced, Fernando Pizarro, as an interested party, should absent himself from the council. Fernando Pizarro conceded this point. The powers were formally laid before the alcaldes and the regidors, who, taking into council a graduate,:' perhaps Valverde himself, gave the following answer.

Almagro should not give room for such a great scandal as forcing an entrance into the cit5, which they declared would be the ruin of all parties. Fernando Pizarro gave similar orders for the defense of the city. At this last moment, however, the royal treasurer and a licentiate named Prado went out of the town to Almagro's camp to endeavor to bring the disputants to terms, and they succeeded in prevailing upon Almagro to extend the time of truce to the hour of vespers on the Wednesday in that same week, Almagro saying that he wished to prove how Cusco fell within his limits.

That evening, Almagro, to his great dishonor, must have listened favorably to his less scrupulous coiLnselor; and, indeed, there were not wanting arguments which such a counselor could urge. He would say that at this point of time Almagro was the strongest; that there was no use in waiting for any negotiation with the marquis; that nothing would come from him but men and ammunition to assist his brother; that this was an affair which arms or stratagem must decide; that many men in Cusco were adverse to Fernando Pizarro; and that much good Spanish blood might be saved if an attack were to be made this very night upon the city.

The evil counsel prevailed, and it was resolved by Almagro to surprise the city. Fernando Pizarro, who was a perfect cavalier, was completely at his ease that night, expecting now that he and Almagro would be able to come to terms until he should have time to let the marquis know what was passing.

As a man of honor, he made up his mind that he could not deliver up the fortress without his brother's permission. At midnight there was a disturbance in Almagro's camp, it being given out that the bridges which led to the city were broken down. Imlmediately the soldiers shouted " Almagro, Almagro! Let the traitors die! Thence they spread themselves into the streets, Orgoiez, with a large body of troops, makling his way to the governor's apartments, still shouting " Almagro, Almagro! Hie had time, however, to put on his armor. The greater part of his men fled, but fifteen remained with him and his brother Gonzalo.

Fernando placed himself at one door, Gonzalo at another. The palace was " as large as a church," and the doorways were proportionately large, without doors to them. Still the brothers defended themselves with the utmost valor. The building was set on fire. Of their fifteen comrades, several were cut down fighting by their side, and it was not until the roof began to fall in upon these brave Pizarros, and until they were quite overpowered by numbers, that they were overcome and made prisoners.

The brothers were taken to the Temple of the Sun, where they were confined, and. Alhnagro took formal possession of Cusco as its governor, and began to persecute those who held with the Pizarros. Mleanwhile Alonzo de Alvaraclo was waiting at Xauxa for orders to proceed to the relief of Cusco. The forces under Alonzo de Alvarado were considerable, namely, two hundred horsemen and five hundred foot, all well armed; but, unfortunately, he carried with him a very discontented man high in command.

This was Pedro de Lerma, who had expected to have the conduct of this expedition himself. On their way to Cusco, Alonzo de Alvarado learned what had happened there, and how the mariscal was now in possession of the city. Almagro, on his side, learned from Alvarado's letters to Fernando Pizarro that he was coming, and, not supposing that Alvarado knew of what had happened, he sent a forged letter in Fernando Pizarro's name, in which Fernando was made to say that he had been able to maintain his position against Almagro, and suggested that Alvarado should take a certain route which lie mentioned.

This route Almagro knew would lead into a defile, where the horsemen could only go one or two abreast, and where Almagro hoped to place his men in such a position that they could disarm the others easily. Almagro, finding that his artifices had failed, now sent an embassage, consisting of Diego de Alvarado, Gomez de Alvarado, and other persons, to treat with Alonzo de Alvarado. After the gross treachery practiced in the surprise of Cusco, Almagro could hardly expect the usual terms of courtesy and good faith to be kept with him.

It was represented by the friends of the Pizarros to Alonzo de Alvarado that, being a relation of those Alvarados who had come to the camp, if he did not seize them, it would appear like a confederation on his part with the enemies of the marquis. This seemed a just view of the case to Alonzo, and accordingly, though he showed much courtesy to these friends of Almagro, and begged them to excuse him, he took away their arms and placed them in confinelment.

Alinagro had not omitted, since his occupation of Cusco, to attempt to come to terms with the Peruvians. Ile had failed, however, in negotiating with MIanco Inca, and had, in consequence, given the borla to AIanco's brother Paullo, who now proved very serviceable to him; for Paullo's Indians were able to communicate with Alvarado's camp, and, being less observed than Spaniards would have been, to convey letters to the discontented there.

At this juncture, Alonzo de Alvarado sent fourteen horsemen to inform the marquis of all that had happened; and had these messengers waited, they would soon have had to convey worse intelligence. Pedro de Lerma wrote to Almagro or Orgotiez, telling them. The military position, however, of Al-varado was strong. There was much negotiation between the hostile parties, but as it proved fruitless it need not be recounted here. Alonzo de Alvaraio, in the first instance, had demanded that the brothers Pizarro should be set at liberty.

This was a demand not likely to be listened to by the Almagristas; and, in fact, the state of affairs was such that there was nothing left but an appeal to arms. Accordingly, an attack on Alvarado's position was made at nightfall, when Almagro's artillery began to play upon it. The Indians under Paullo also did good service on that side, for they made such use of their slings that Alvarado's men could not act except when protected by the bulwark. Mloreover, the shouting of the Indians lasted all night, so that they kept Alvarado's men in constant alarm.

HIalf an hour before daybreak the real attack comamenced on the part of the Almagristas, when three hundred horsemen threw themselves into the river and began to attempt the passage. They had no difficulty in passing, for the treachery on the other side was flagrant. An historian, whose father was one of Alvaraclo's principal captains, and who was, therefore, likely to have heard a true account of this battle, says, "And because those men of Almagro, by reason of its being night, and their not knowing the ford, did not dare to enter into the river, those on the other side entered to g'uide them.

Alonzo de Alvarado, having learned that the bulwark was taken, found himself with about fifty men in a narrow pathway which lay between the river and the sierra, where he defended himself with vigor, and drove the enemy back. Almagro's men shouted to one another, 1 Up, up, let us gain the heights.

But the enremy reached this position as soon as he did, and as he found himself entirely outnumbered, the enemy being at least ten to one, he was obliged to surrenders and was carried by his captors down to the river, which A1magro had already passed by the bridge, over which he had forced his way. The victory was complete. Diego and Gomez de Alvarado were instantly set at liberty, Alvarado's.

It was not without difficulty that they obtained what they asked, for the fierce Orgogez, whose maxim was " that the dead dog neither barks nor bites," was desirous to put Alonzo de Alvarado to death, and was very much dissatisfied at being prevented from ordering his instant execution. Almagro's troops, flushed with success, declared that they would not leave one "'Pizarrwac " a slate to stumble over.

The plan of marching upon Los Reyes was so far adopted that it was proclaimed by sound of trumpet that all should prepare themselves for the march. There were, however, persons in Almagro's camp who had wives and families at Los RIeyes, and they did not approve of this proposal. After the matter had remained two days in doubt, it was resolved to return to Cusco. When they arrived there, Almagro issued a proclamation that no inhabitants of that city should make use of his Indians; for he, the governor, suspended the repartimientos, as the Bishop of Cusco remarks, not wishing that any one should have any thing for certain until lie himself should make the general erpartiimiento.

Thus, in every way, Almagro's faction was triumphant. Fernando and Gonzalo must have heard in their prison the joyous return of those who had conquered their friends; and the mlarquis, who did not even yet know the worst, when he received the news brought him by Alvarado's fourteen horsemen, broke out into loud complaints of his ill fortune.

Hte sent orders at once to Alvarado not to move on to Cusco; but, before his messengers had left Los Reyes, the fatal battle of Abanqay had taken place. When Pizarro heard of this, he resolved to send an embassage to treat with Almagro. When these important personages had arrived at Cusco, they found that they could make no way in their mission. Almagro said that he would not give np a hand-breadth of the land which his majesty had conferred upon him, and that lhe was determined to go to Los Reyes and take possession of that city.

Diego de Fuenmayor produced an ordinance from. But Almagro made light of this authority. The exhortations of Gaspar de Espinosa met with no better fate; and yet, if there were any one to whom Almagro might be expected to listen, it was this Iicentiate. He had been a partner in the original enterprise of Pizarro and Almagro.

HIe was a Ian of great experience in colonial affairs. HIe had been judge in Vasco NuFiez's case, and was not likely to underrate the evils arising from the infraction of authority. There is this to be said in defense of Almagro's conduct, that it was impossible for him now to do any thing which was not full of danger and difficulty.

Finally, he resolved to move forward to Los Reyes, carrying Fernando Pizarro with him, and leaving Gonzalo Pizarro and Alonzo de Alvarado, with many other prisoners, at Cusco, in the charge of a numerous body of guards. Fernando Pizarro was watched by twenty horsemen on the march, whose sole duty it was to have charge of his person; and he was not allowed to wear spurs. Never was the life of Fernando Pizarro in greater danger. Orgoilez might now add to his proverb " that the dead need no guards;" but Diego de Alvarado's milder council prevailed, and Fernando Pizarro was borne in the cavalcade of Almagro to Chincha.

There Almagro halted, and founded a new town, which was called after his own name. Meanwhile a favorable turn had taken place in the fortunes of the Marquis Pizarro, who was at Los Reyes, surrounded by auxiliaries, who had come to him from the different quarters to which he had appealed for assistance. The fugitives from Cusco had also arrived; and when he reviewed his forces, he found that he had one thousand men-at-arms, and among them one hundred and fifty arquebusiers. Almagro, having been informed of the nature and the number of Pizarro's forces, abandoned at once his plan of attacking Los Reyes.

Indeed, he sought to strengthen his own position in the valley of Chincha by digging pitfalls and raising bulwarks; and, in order to prevent any surprise, he stationed parties of the friendly Indians under Paullo at the several entrances to the valley, in order that no Spaniards might come into or go out of that district without his knowledge. Pizarro's moderation and prudence were not abated by his growing strength in men and arms. Finally, therefore, it was agreed on both sides that the. Provincial Bobadilla, of the Order of Mfercy, should be appointed as judge in the case, who, with the assistance of "' pilots," should fix the limits of the respective governments of New Castile and New Toledo.

The fiery Oragoiez did not at all approve of this arbitration, and his reason for disapproving of the person to whom the arbitration was intrusted is very singular. Thither he summnoned both governors to appear before him, each to be attended by twelve horsemen only. Both governors prepared to come; but, as might be expected, the gravest suspicions occupied the minds of their respective partisans. After the marquis had set out, his brother Gonzalo was induced by Pizarro's followers to advance with the army in the direction of Mlala.

The treachery of Almnagro, by which he had gained an entrance into Culsco, and his sending forged letters to Alonzo de Alvaradlo, had put him, as it were, beyond the pale of confidence. Mfeanwhile, however, Almagro's troops had become aware of the movement of Gonzalo Pizarro toward Miala; and one of Almnagro's captains, named Juan de Guzman, brought a horse to the door of the house where the governors were conferring, entered the apartment where they were, and contrived to give notice to Almagro of the supposed stratagem, upon which the mariscal went down stairs without taking leave, got upon his horse, and went off with his friends at full gallop.

It was said that Francisco de Godoy, one of Pizarro's captains, had given notice to Almagro of some intended treachery by singing the first words of a rontanGtcillo, which ran thus"'Tiempo es, caballero, Tiempo es ya de andar de aqui," and that the mariscal was therefore ready to leave the room when Juan de Guzman entered to give hiMm information.

The minds of both factions were in a morbid state of suspiciousness. It was, therefore, of no avail for the marquis to send, as he did next day, to tell the mariscal that the army had moved without his leave, and that Anllagro should return to comnplete the agreement which they had commenced on the previous day, for the mariscal would not resume the interview. The arbiter, however, ordered certain persons who had been appointed by Almagro to appear before him; and he gave sentence entirely in Pizarro's favor, declaring that Cusco was within the two hundred and seventy-five leagues which the Emperor had assigned as the extent of Pizarro's governD2.

When this sentence was communicated to the mariscal, he declared that he would not abide by it, and his men maintained that it was a most unrighteous judgment. It was so much, however, for the interest of both parties that some amicable conclusion should be arrived at, that negotiations were again commenced. The good Diego de Alvarado was consulted, and his voice was, as it always had been, for measures of peace. Finally, a treaty was concluded, of which the principal stipulations were, that Fernando Pizarro should be liberated, and that Chinclha should be evacuated; that Cusco should be put in deposit until the king should decide upon the disputed question, that city remaining in the same state in which it was when Almagro entered it, having the same alcaldes and regidors, and the repartimientos which had then been in existence continuing to belong to their owners; also, that Almagro and his people should conquer the country in one direction, Pizarro and his in the other.

LastlyS that Pizarro should give Almagro a ship, which ship, notwithstanding the above, should be allowed to enter the port of Zangala or Chincha, wherever the vessel might happen to touch. Almagro's messengers, having settled these terms on behalf of their master, returned to his camp. There the mariscal, and those of his friends who were for peace, having met and determined to ratify these conditions, they sent for IRodrigo Orgornez, whom the mariscal begged not to disturb himself because a thing had been agreed upon which he had always opposed, for.

To prevent this, he had determined to set Ferdinand Pizarro at liberty, that he might go to Spain to present himself before the Emperor. Rodrigo Orgoiiez was furious on hearing this intelligence. HIe declared that he had no faith whatever in the contract being kept. But Alnmagro and the friends of peace were not to be deterred from their resolve. Accordingly the mariscal, proceeding to the place of Fernando Pizarro's confinement, ordered him to be released.

Immediately they embraced; and, after an interchange of courtesies, the mariscal said that, forgetting the past, he should hold it for good that henceforward there should be peace and quietness among them all. Fernando Pizarro replied very graciously, declaring that it would not be his fault if it were not so, for it was what he most desired, and immediately he took a solemn oath pledging himself to fulfill what had been agreed upon.

When he had given these securities, the ma. All the chief men of the army then visited him. Afterward they accompanied him about half a league from the camp, and then, with great demonstrations of amity, took their leave. There must now have been thorough trust for the time on the part of Almagro, for lie sent, in company with Fernando Pizarro, his son Dion de Almagro, commonuly called el mzoco, " the youth," together with the Alvarados, and other cavaliers of his party. These were all very well received by the marquis, who lavislhed courtesies and gifts upon them, paying particular attention to Almagro's son.

After these principal persons had returned to the camp of Almagro, it was broken up, and his army marched to the valley of Zangala, where he began to found a town, instead of the one which he had founded at Chincha, and which he was bound-by the treaty to evacuate. At this point of time, when, to all appearances, there was some hope of peace, at least for the Spanish colonists in Peru, if not for the Indians, there suddenly arrived a messenger from the court of Spain.

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The messenger's name was Pedro de An9urez, and the day on which he arrived was the very day on which Fernando Pizarro had been set at liberty. The main provision of his dispatches was, that each of the governors should retain whatever they had conquered and peopled until any other arrangement should be made by his majesty. Este dia lleg6 el capitan Pedro Anzures con una provision de V. Meanwhile the mariscal had, according to agreement, retired from Chincha, and the marquis went there to seek provisions and to recomlnence the arrangements with Almagro which would be necessary in consequence of the new ordinance from the court of Spain.

On the road to Chincha the marquis's troops found the wells filled up, which they attributed to the mariscal's men. When Pizarro had arrived at Chincha, he sent to Alhnagro to notify the royal orders to him, to which the mlariscal replied that these orders were in his favor, for from where he was to Chincha he had conquered and peopled the country, and, accordingly, lie it was who was within the limits of his own government, and lie begged that Pizarro would move out of it.

There is no doubt that both sides now believed themselves to be wronged and affronted. Orgonez and his party, no doubt, clamored loudly about the perfidy of the Pizarros. No sooner had a treaty been settled than these Pizarros hastened to recommence hostilities. This came of injudicious clemency. On the other side, the conduct of the Anlmagristas was stigmatized by Pizarro's partisans in the harshest terms. The word they used was "tyranny," taken in the old Greek sense of the unlawful seizure of sovereignty; and, to punish such tyranny, the whole of Pizarro's army moved forward.