Elementos para una teoría de la política exterior (Spanish Edition)
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La propaganda exterior de la República durante la Guerra Civil
Wajner, D. Latin American Research Review, 54 2 , — This article suggests that transnational motives have remained key components of legitimation strategies for regional realignment in Latin America. Specifically, we assess the legitimation strategy of the late Venezuelan president Hugo Studies of Chavismo have stressed its role in the changing balance of power in early twenty-first-century Venezuela and the redrafting of global alliances, through a series of organizational moves and petrodollars.
This identity layer provided a basis for regional and international realignment and organizational creation, even if more recently it lost traction and became criticized for its unfulfilled promises and growing gap between rhetoric and implementation.
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It claims that transnational themes, grievances, and expectations have continued to play a key role in identity politics and international relations in the region. Although much has been written about the political history and structure of Chavismo Ellner , less attention has been devoted to an equally crucial aspect of its soft-balancing strategy: how the discursive strategies used to enhance legitimacy and pursue a regional and global. Luis Roniger. No es secreto que en el transcurso del presente siglo, China se ha posicionado como uno de los principales actores estatales a tomar en cuenta dentro de la arena internacional.
Enfrentando agresiones externas. This political and economic strategy has forced China to turn to different regions of the world in order to satisfy its needs, especially for raw materials, which are vital to sustaining its growing development and positioning within the system. With this in mind, China has pursued the construction of naval power, creating a Navy to projects the Chinese power beyond Asia, leaving behind a vision of a closed, self-sufficient empire. Since , China has increased its participation in the global economy.
In terms of GDP, measured at current prices, the Chinese economy has become second in the world in , after the United States. The Chinese economy is an essential contributor to the sustainment of the global rate. China plays an increasingly important role in maintaining global economic balances. China is a protagonist of the international financial market, investing a great part of its reserves abroad. The agglomeration of reserves has stimulated the central bank to make the Yuan a new reserve currency, replacing the dollar; exchange agreements have already been signed in Yuans.
In this way, the fluidity of the liquidations of commercial operations is guaranteed, in cases of international illiquidity. The objective is to grant the Chinese currency a more international role; however, this has yet to be internationalized. There is still a long way to go before the Yuan becomes an international currency. The definition of South-South Cooperation is the system among emerging countries aimed at promoting their development and industrial promotion.
Initially, this policy was implemented for investment in the African market; it was then expanded to commercial interests towards other regions such as Latin America. However, faced with a new world order, the military approach could not be overlooked. On this point, China has maintained its defense of the central characteristics of its foreign policy, based on the so-called peaceful ascent or peaceful development. Some recent events demonstrate the importance that the country places on the empowerment of the components that make it a strong State, given the realistic theory of international relations.
For the United States and its strategic partners in Asia Pacific, such as Japan or the Republic of Korea, there are hesitations about the policy deployed by China in the region, especially because of the Chinese reaction to the border disputes that it has faced with Japan, the Philippines or Vietnam Bartesaghi, n. China is a new and unfamiliar player in Latin America; in the same way, those who make political decisions in China lack a differentiated understanding of the region.
Chinese political studies and documents include the Caribbean in a cursory fashion, and diplomatic representatives in the region rotate at a considerable rate. Creutzfeldt, China sustains that this strategic alliance of the economies of China, Latin America, and the Caribbean will generate an accelerated and higher growth than that of the industrialized economies. The preceding is exposed by Henry Cancelado, taking into account that the international system is facing an international state that promotes the consolidation of new global and regional strategies of commercial and foreign investment alliances Cancelado, , p.
The appeal of this region to China is not limited to its natural and human richness but also its growth and development potential. Chinese Prime Minister, Li Keqiang, in May , during his visit to Chile, said that China could manufacture equipment and integrated technology at competitive prices, while Latin America has the demand for infrastructure expansion and industrial upgrading, making industrial cooperation between China and Latin America timely. Chinese businesses in the region have been related to the energy sectors, infrastructure construction, agriculture, manufacturing, and technological innovation.
A construction of cooperation policy between Latin America and China suggests a transition in the capitalist system towards China; it is a contention of economic competition but not a politico-military competition. China seeks a peaceful ascent; its interest is first to ensure its economic authority rather than its strategic military hegemony. The growth rates of total exports and imports between China and Latin America and the Caribbean have doubled Fig. China could eventually displace the European Union as the second trading partner in the region.
The projections for suggest that China would noticeably increase its relative position as a destination for regional exports. Given these new perspectives, the States intend to invigorate this association further. To this end, an increase in exchange is required, but above all, the diversification of the investment portfolio Peraza, Therefore, months ago, China and its Ministry of Commerce announced their intention to achieve a more substantial exchange with Latin America and the Caribbean and project cooperation in sectors such as industry, infrastructure, economic-technical cooperation, financial support, and professional training Peraza, According to both parts, the objective is to project a new strategic partnership and restructure the commercial links because, in past decades, Chinese capital investments in the Latin American continent were focused on obtaining the raw materials necessary to produce all of the goods that are sold in the world Peraza, The relationship between Latin America and China reflects a cultural, commercial, diplomatic, and political exchange, as well as cooperation on issues of mutual interest in the international arena.
China has substantially increased its presence in the region, both through international organizations, such as the United Nations and regional organizations, such as the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, the Inter-American Development Bank, and the Development Bank of Latin America.
The number of joint academic activities developed between Chinese and Latin American academic institutions is considerably higher than in previous decades. The Chinese government is sparing no effort to increase exchanges that allow a greater understanding of China in Latin America Bartesaghi, n. Latin American countries have been strengthening regional integration by founding the Community of Latin American States, in pursuit of becoming a coalition to become a global reference. The correlation of international forces has begun to indicate significant changes in favor of China.
The common strategic interests of emerging countries are increasingly more apparent, and cooperation is strengthened continuously. To achieve these interests, these countries mutually strengthen the coordination of a common and convergent position of forces, in safeguarding the interests of the developing nations. Seeking a mutual understanding and support in matters related to their respective interests, they find their particular difficulties and reinforce their cooperation and mutual support to overcome them Xiaoping, , p.
During the meeting of the member countries of the BRIC, President Hu Jintao explained that the four countries face new opportunities for development and a series of challenges. Therefore, they should take advantage of opportunities, strengthen unity and cooperation, and jointly safeguard the essential interests of developing countries.
The political, economic, and social development of China is globally alluring. The common interest in diversifying bilateral trade responds to a new environment of Sino-Latin American ties, following a golden period of development based on reciprocal demand and great economic complementarity. To ensure the prompt implementation of these new initiatives, China set in motion the Chinese Development Bank and the Export and Import Bank. These mechanisms enable the financing of their investment projects in Latin America.
China places pressure on Latin American economies, creating the dependence of Latin America on the Chinese economy. Center-periphery focuses on trade and the promotion of infrastructure; therefore, it does not affect the development of the country itself. Foreign investment and cooperation generate dependency. Refocusing is presented in how the primary sector surpasses the manufacturing industry and service sector; this has occurred in Latin America for the last ten years.
However, the occurrence of this is not driven by China but from the Latin American countries, on the one hand, because of the political and investment issues that have been unwilling to change, which beg the question, is Latin America settling for competitive commodities trading? While Europe and the United States are the primary destinations for Chinese exports of technology products, Latin America is one of the regions with the lowest import of Chinese products -mainly high technology-; this due to the low per capita income of Latin American regions. Therefore, it can be stated that the only way to change the economic situation of Latin America is to generate value through a productive transformation.
Given that Chinese imports also include crude oil and iron ore, the distribution of imports changes, as Latin America is the primary export source of these products, evidencing the existence of a trade deficit with China. The tendency of Latin American trade of settling for competitiveness in commodities and unwillingness to wager on investments and productions of other types of goods create tension between competitiveness and development; what the region needs is a market economy in which revenue can be increased. China cooperates with countries that are under the control of corruption like Venezuela; that is, that the aid is focused on the economic without taking into account the destination of these funds.
On the other hand, the maritime expansion of the United States is compared concerning the economic control of the Caribbean as to the interests that China currently has in Latin America. The Chinese strategic and geopolitical plan on Latin American resources and trade establish new perspectives on commercial power and new ways of reaching the Caribbean. However, the scenarios of influence that are presented in the region by Chinese interests, as mentioned previously, may bring forth tensions between different actors. The relationships between these regions are not precisely South-South cooperation but center-periphery relationships in which the interests of China have prevailed over the parity between the economic gains that the parties, partaking in the commercial exchange, receive.
Therefore, China aims to ensure strategic relations in the region. Initially, a balance of cooperation between actors was proposed; however, the presence of a program of relationships based on economic interests has been more widespread and has spilled over into the larger part of Latin American Prieto, The debate centers on whether relations with China are based on helping to promote the future of the emerging countries and help resolve their internal conflicts or if these relations are directed towards the net economic benefit that the commercial exchange can bring.
At first, the discussion is directed toward the creation of a more multipolar world, which distances entirely from the economic, commercial scenario. The previous has dramatically benefited the domestic interests of the Asian country and promoted trade relations of the primary sectors of Latin American economies, but it has not promoted the development of the industrial structure of Latin America and the Caribbean Prieto, It is important to highlight the cycle change experienced by the region in economic, political, and social matters.
Another association point between China and Latin America is military cooperation. This cooperation, which is more strategic than logistic has focused on updating the budget in Latin American countries where military investment has increased.
However, in terms of security and to generate global stability, it would behoove the United States to establish a dialogue with China Chavez, China has set its commercial interests in Latin America and Africa, driven mainly by the natural resources present in these regions. Unlike other States, China buys at a price agreed upon by the countries of each region.
As with Latin America, China acknowledges that its African policy hinges on its strategic interests in this continent Fig. Countering the former colonial rulers, Chinese politics focus on the promotion of cooperation pursuing the invigoration of Asia and Africa and providing the latter with new opportunities for development Ardila, The cooperation between China and Africa is an unwavering policy of the new Chinese Government, which aims to strengthen solidarity and cooperation with African countries Garcia, , p.
The Chinese government has strengthened its relations with Africa. In the s, the exchange grew with greater vigor, and a strategy was launched that revolved around granting soft loans to African governments, thus seeking Chinese investors to export goods using African countries to do so. China has always prioritized the development of relations with African countries, a relationship that forecasted great promise for the future.
Having set the course, forums for dialogue were created. In , China devised a collective dialogue mechanism called the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation in which ministerial consultations and meetings with high-level officials are held. Currently, 45 African States and 17 international organizations participate in this forum. The intention of these meetings is the development of South-South cooperation, a concept that Western powers have neglected or scorned. In recent years, China has launched initiatives aimed at securing sources of raw materials to meet their interests throughout the world, especially in Africa.
China has developed its foreign policy mainly in sub-Saharan Africa, shifting from confrontation to cooperation and from exporting revolution to exporting development, and in contention with the isolationism of the Mao era, striving towards total integration of the system. China has achieved these endeavors by employing a foreign policy that favors pragmatism and flexibility over ideological issues, with which it has been able to gain the spaces left unattended by the great powers, especially the United States Chavez, The economic benefits of this China-Africa commercial and economic collaboration have been evident.
Statistics have confirmed that trade between both parts has skyrocketed since Key to both parties is the diversification of their imports of resources and energy; not unlike any world power, China has energy interests outside its borders. The economic collaboration between China and Africa provides the experience necessary for companies to obtain a better acquaintance with the globalized world, which is part of the reason why Chinese companies go to Africa. Through research, trade, and projects in Africa, Chinese companies can gain valuable experience on foreign market development, business management, capital operations, risk control, and understanding how to deal with local governments, as well as with the different communities Wei, China and Africa have agreed to continue developing infrastructures as priority areas for cooperation; these infrastructures include transport, telecommunications, radio and television, water conservation, electric power, and energy.
In the commercial field, China will continue to offer favored conditions to African countries, at the same time helping to raise the added value of primary products through technical assistance Wei, Regarding cooperation in energy and natural resources, the countries have been agreed upon shared exploitation by joint ventures and the optimal use of natural resources. Together they have committed to an Energy Sub Forum under the framework of the existing Forum Xiaoping, The Chinese companies already in African territory have faced criticism and pressure regarding their environmental policies and the employment-capital conflict; this has encouraged Chinese companies to improve their social responsibility and expand their understanding of the rules of international economy.
Chinese-African cooperation is of high strategic importance. The African countries have provided China a series of diplomatic advantages. African support for China allowed it to regain its place in the United Nations, with this, China was able to rescind its unfavorable political situation, regaining its place within the international community and global respect.
Cuatro momentos de la doctrina en política exterior estadounidense: ¿Entre la teoría y la practica?
After the political turmoil, the African countries helped China to cease the Western embargo. These standard policies coincide with the demands of the international community Yungo, Since the third conference of the Forum on Cooperation China-Africa, discussions have been active regarding an increase in aid to African countries that would improve the living conditions of the people by generating agricultural, health, and education benefits. President Hu Jintao stated that the most important objective is to build the capacity of African peoples towards independent development.
He also pointed out that Chinese aid favors African elites, which generates an increase in social divisions and differences and contributes to corruption, disregarding the living conditions of African citizens Askouri, In this regard, the author advises that China should be cognizant of the consequences for its trade and investments that its negative involvement in Africa would entail.
On the one hand, the economic and commercial power of countries such as the United States and Japan, as well as the European States has been weakened, in comparison with the development of emergent countries, especially the BRICs. On the other, the world has entered a new era of peaceful development.
In the framework of economic globalization and in the pursuit of seeking rapid growth, all countries follow the peaceful rhythm of cooperation; therefore, it develops at an unprecedented speed. As a result of technological development and economic globalization, countries are increasingly communicated; this implies a stronger interdependence between the actors of the international scenario. Therefore, stating that no country can survive and develop independently without international cooperation is a valid affirmation.
Although countries are more attentive to the peaceful settlement of disputes through negotiations, the hegemonic policy persists, and the democracy of international relations remains unrealized. However, the consensus of mutual respect and equal treatment among the States has been reached through communication, dialogue, and harmonious coexistence. The international system has experienced the rise of States seeking to increase their power through trade; however, their success depends on their ability to reach other territories that can generate benefits.
Since colonial times, Latin America has increasingly become a region desired for its wealth of natural resources. Mahan, in his hypothesis of expansion, states that the strategic rearguard must be obtained through maritime power, which produces a center-periphery relationship that promotes dependency. Politically, China strives to attain its role in the international order; in this sense, Latin America and Africa play a crucial role for the Chinese interests. The high number of developing countries in Africa and Latin America makes these regions a critical platform for China, allowing the country to protect its domestic affairs -human rights being the most remarkable aspect.
The 21 st century is marked by a structural change of the powers of the international system because of the emergence of new powers such as China.