The Industrial Revolution
It was used as a low-lift water pump in a few mines and numerous water works, but it was not a success since it was limited in the height it could raise water and was prone to boiler explosions. The first successful model was the atmospheric engine, a low performance steam engine invented by Thomas Newcomen in Newcomen apparently conceived his machine quite independently of Savery. His engines used a piston and cylinder, and it operated with steam just above atmospheric pressure which was used to produce a partial vacuum in the cylinder when condensed by jets of cold water. The vacuum sucked a piston into the cylinder which moved under pressure from the atmosphere.
The engine produced a succession of power strokes which could work a pump but could not drive a rotating wheel. They were successfully put to use for pumping out mines in Britain, with the engine on the surface working a pump at the bottom of the mine by a long connecting rod. These were large machines, requiring a lot of capital to build, but produced about 5 hp. They were inefficient, but when located where coal was cheap at pit heads, they were usefully employed in pumping water from mines. They opened up a great expansion in coal mining by allowing mines to go deeper.
Despite using a lot of fuel, Newcomen engines continued to be used in the coalfields until the early decades of the nineteenth century because they were reliable and easy to maintain. A total of are known to have been built by when the patent expired, of which 14 were abroad.
Significant Eras of the American Industrial Revolution
A total of 1, engines had been built by Rolt and Allen Its working was fundamentally unchanged until James Watt succeeded in making his Watt steam engine in , which incorporated a series of improvements, especially the separate steam condenser chamber. This improved engine efficiency by about a factor of five, saving 75 percent on coal costs. The Watt steam engine's ability to drive rotary machinery also meant it could be used to drive a factory or mill directly. Most of the engines generated between 5 to 10 hp. The development of machine tools, such as the lathe, planing, and shaping machines powered by these engines, enabled all the metal parts of the engines to be easily and accurately cut and in turn made it possible to build larger and more powerful engines.
Until about , the most common pattern of steam engine was the beam engine, which was built within a stone or brick engine-house, but around that time various patterns of portable readily removable engines, but not on wheels engines were developed, such as the table engine. Richard Trevithick, a Cornish blacksmith, began to use high pressure steam with improved boilers in This allowed engines to be compact enough to be used on mobile road and rail locomotives and steam boats.
In the early nineteenth century after the expiration of Watt's patent, the steam engine underwent many improvements by a host of inventors and engineers. The large scale production of chemicals was an important development during the Industrial Revolution. The first of these was the production of sulphuric acid by the lead chamber process, invented by the Englishman John Roebuck James Watt's first partner in He greatly increased the scale of the manufacture by replacing the relatively expensive glass vessels formerly used with larger, less expensive chambers made of riveted sheets of lead.
Instead of a few pounds at a time, he was able to make a hundred pounds 45 kg or so at a time in each of the chambers. The production of an alkali on a large scale became an important goal as well, and Nicolas Leblanc succeeded, in , in introducing a method for the production of sodium carbonate. The Leblanc process was a "dirty" series of reactions that produced a lot of harmful wastes along the way. The process started with the reaction of sulphuric acid with sodium chloride to yield sodium sulphate and hydrochloric acid a toxic waste.
The sodium sulphate was heated with limestone calcium carbonate and coal to give a mixture of sodium carbonate and calcium sulphide. Adding water separated the soluble sodium carbonate from the calcium sulphide a useless waste at that time. Although the process produced a large amount of pollution, its product, sodium carbonate or synthetic soda ash, proved economical to use when compared with natural soda ash from burning certain plants barilla or from kelp , the previously dominant sources of soda ash,  and also to potash potassium carbonate derived from hardwood ashes.
These two chemicals were very important because they enabled the introduction of a host of other inventions, replacing many small-scale operations with more cost-effective and controllable processes. Sodium carbonate had many uses in the glass, textile, soap, and paper industries. Early uses for sulphuric acid included pickling removing rust from iron and steel, and for bleaching cloth. The development of bleaching powder calcium hypochlorite by Scottish chemist Charles Tennant in about , based on the discoveries of French chemist Claude Louis Berthollet, revolutionized the bleaching processes in the textile industry by dramatically reducing the time required from months to days for the traditional process then in use, which required repeated exposure to the sun in bleach fields after soaking the textiles with alkali or sour milk.
Tennant's factory at St Rollox, North Glasgow, became the largest chemical plant in the world. In , Joseph Aspdin, a British brick layer turned builder, patented a chemical process for making portland cement, an important advance in the building trades. It was utilized several years later by the famous English engineer, Marc Isambard Brunel, who used it in the Thames Tunnel.
Cement was used on a large scale in the construction of the London sewerage system, a generation later. The Industrial Revolution could not have developed without machine tools, for they enabled manufacturing machines to be made. Machine tools have their origins in the tools developed in the eighteenth century by makers of clocks and watches and scientific instruments to enable them to batch-produce small mechanisms.
The mechanical parts of early textile machines were sometimes called "clock work" because of the metal spindles and gears they incorporated. The manufacture of textile machines drew craftsmen from these trades and is the origin of the modern engineering industry.
A good example of how machine tools changed manufacturing took place in Birmingham, England, in The invention of a new machine by William Joseph Gillott, William Mitchell, and James Stephen Perry allowed mass manufacture of robust and cheap steel nibs points for dip writing pens. The process had previously been laborious and expensive. Machines were built by various craftsmen—carpenters made wooden framings, and smiths and turners made metal parts. Because of the difficulty of manipulating metal and the lack of machine tools, the use of metal was kept to a minimum.
Wood framing had the disadvantage of changing dimensions with temperature and humidity, and the various joints tended to rack work loose over time. As the Industrial Revolution progressed, machines with metal frames became more common, but they required machine tools to make them economically. Before the advent of machine tools, metal was worked manually using the basic hand tools of hammers, files, scrapers, saws, and chisels. Small metal parts were readily made by these means, but for large machine parts, production was very laborious and costly. Apart from workshop lathes used by craftsmen, the first large machine tool was the cylinder boring machine used for boring the large-diameter cylinders on early steam engines.
The planing machine, the slotting machine, and the shaping machine were developed in the first decades of the nineteenth century. Although the milling machine was invented at this time, it was not developed as a serious workshop tool until the Second Industrial Revolution. Military production had a hand in the development of machine tools. Henry Maudslay, who trained a school of machine tool makers early in the nineteenth century, was employed at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, as a young man where he would have seen the large horse-driven wooden machines for cannon boring.
He later worked for Joseph Bramah on the production of metal locks, and soon after he began working on his own. He was engaged to build the machinery for making ships' pulley blocks for the Royal Navy in the Portsmouth Block Mills. These were all metal and were the first machines used for mass production and the first that made components with a degree of interchangeability. Maudslay adapted the lessons he learned about the need for stability and precision for the development of machine tools, and in his workshops he trained a generation of men to build on his work, such as Richard Roberts, Joseph Clement, and Joseph Whitworth.
James Fox of Derby had a healthy export trade in machine tools for the first third of the century, as did Matthew Murray of Leeds. Roberts was a maker of high-quality machine tools and a pioneer of the use of jigs and gages for precision workshop measurement. Another major industry of the later industrial revolution was gas lighting. Though others made a similar innovation elsewhere, the large scale introduction of this was the work of William Murdoch, an employee of Boulton and Watt, the Birmingham steam engine pioneers.
The process consisted of the large scale gasification of coal in furnaces, the purification of the gas removal of sulfur , ammonium, and heavy hydrocarbons , and its storage and distribution. The first gaslighting utilities were established in London, between They soon became one of the major consumers of coal in the UK. Gaslighting had an impact on social and industrial organization because it allowed factories and stores to remain open longer than with tallow candles or oil.
Its introduction allowed night life to flourish in cities and towns as interiors and streets could be lit on a larger scale than before. At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, inland transport was by navigable rivers and roads, with coastal vessels employed to move heavy goods by sea. Railways or wagon ways were used for conveying coal to rivers for further shipment, but canals had not yet been constructed.
Animals supplied all of the motive power on land, with sails providing the motive power on the sea. The Industrial Revolution improved Britain's transport infrastructure with a turnpike road network, a canal, and waterway network, and a railway network. Raw materials and finished products could be moved more quickly and cheaply than before. Improved transportation also allowed new ideas to spread quickly. Sailing vessels had long been used for moving goods around the British coast. The trade transporting coal to London from Newcastle had begun in medieval times.
The major international seaports, such as London, Bristol, and Liverpool, were the means by which raw materials, such as cotton, might be imported and finished goods exported. Transporting goods onwards within Britain by sea was common during the whole of the Industrial Revolution and only fell away with the growth of the railways towards the end of the period. All the major rivers of the United Kingdom were navigable during the Industrial Revolution. Some were anciently navigable, notably the Severn, Thames, and Trent. Some were improved, or had navigation extended upstream, but usually in the period before the Industrial Revolution, rather than during it.
The Severn, in particular, was used for the movement of goods to the Midlands which had been imported into Bristol from abroad, and for the export of goods from centers of production in Shropshire such as iron goods from Coalbrookdale and the Black Country. Transport was by way of trows—small sailing vessels which could pass the various shallows and bridges in the river. The trows could navigate the Bristol Channel to the South Wales ports and Somerset ports, such as Bridgwater and even as far as France.
Canals began to be built in the late eighteenth century to link the major manufacturing centers in the Midlands and north with seaports and with London, at that time itself the largest manufacturing center in the country. Canals were the first technology to allow bulk materials to be easily transported across country. A single canal horse could pull a load dozens of times larger than a cart and at a faster pace. By the s, a national network was in existence. Canal construction served as a model for the organization and methods later used to construct the railways.
They were eventually largely superseded by the spread of the railways from the s on. Britain's canal network, together with its surviving mill buildings, is one of the most enduring features of the early Industrial Revolution to be seen in Britain. The flying shuttle , patented in by John Kay , with a number of subsequent improvements including an important one in , doubled the output of a weaver, worsening the imbalance between spinning and weaving. It became widely used around Lancashire after when John's son, Robert , invented the drop box, which facilitated changing thread colors.
Lewis Paul patented the roller spinning frame and the flyer-and-bobbin system for drawing wool to a more even thickness. The technology was developed with the help of John Wyatt of Birmingham. Paul and Wyatt opened a mill in Birmingham which used their new rolling machine powered by a donkey. In a factory opened in Northampton with 50 spindles on each of five of Paul and Wyatt's machines. This operated until about A similar mill was built by Daniel Bourn in Leominster , but this burnt down.
Both Lewis Paul and Daniel Bourn patented carding machines in Based on two sets of rollers that travelled at different speeds, it was later used in the first cotton spinning mill. Lewis's invention was later developed and improved by Richard Arkwright in his water frame and Samuel Crompton in his spinning mule. In in the village of Stanhill, Lancashire, James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny , which he patented in It was the first practical spinning frame with multiple spindles.
The jenny produced a lightly twisted yarn only suitable for weft , not warp. The spinning frame or water frame was developed by Richard Arkwright who, along with two partners, patented it in The design was partly based on a spinning machine built for Thomas High by clockmaker John Kay, who was hired by Arkwright. The roller spacing was slightly longer than the fibre length. Too close a spacing caused the fibres to break while too distant a spacing caused uneven thread.
The top rollers were leather-covered and loading on the rollers was applied by a weight. The weights kept the twist from backing up before the rollers. The bottom rollers were wood and metal, with fluting along the length. A horse powered the first factory to use the spinning frame. Arkwright and his partners used water power at a factory in Cromford, Derbyshire in , giving the invention its name. Samuel Crompton 's Spinning Mule was introduced in Mule implies a hybrid because it was a combination of the spinning jenny and the water frame, in which the spindles were placed on a carriage, which went through an operational sequence during which the rollers stopped while the carriage moved away from the drawing roller to finish drawing out the fibres as the spindles started rotating.
Mule spun thread was of suitable strength to be used as warp, and finally allowed Britain to produce highly competitive yarn in large quantities. Realising that the expiration of the Arkwright patent would greatly increase the supply of spun cotton and led to a shortage of weavers, Edmund Cartwright developed a vertical power loom which he patented in In he patented a two-man operated loom which was more conventional. Cartwright's loom design had several flaws, the most serious being thread breakage. Samuel Horrocks patented a fairly successful loom in The demand for cotton presented an opportunity to planters in the Southern United States, who thought upland cotton would be a profitable crop if a better way could be found to remove the seed.
Eli Whitney responded to the challenge by inventing the inexpensive cotton gin. A man using a cotton gin could remove seed from as much upland cotton in one day as would previously, working at the rate of one pound of cotton per day, have taken a woman two months to process.
These advances were capitalised on by entrepreneurs , of whom the best known is Richard Arkwright. He is credited with a list of inventions, but these were actually developed by such people as Thomas Highs and John Kay ; Arkwright nurtured the inventors, patented the ideas, financed the initiatives, and protected the machines.
He created the cotton mill which brought the production processes together in a factory, and he developed the use of power—first horse power and then water power —which made cotton manufacture a mechanised industry. Other inventors increased the efficiency of the individual steps of spinning carding, twisting and spinning, and rolling so that the supply of yarn increased greatly. Before long steam power was applied to drive textile machinery. Manchester acquired the nickname Cottonopolis during the early 19th century owing to its sprawl of textile factories.
Although mechanization dramatically decreased the cost of cotton cloth, by the midth century machine-woven cloth still could not equal the quality of hand-woven Indian cloth, in part due to the fineness of thread made possible by the type of cotton used in India, which allowed high thread counts. However, the high productivity of British textile manufacturing allowed coarser grades of British cloth to undersell hand-spun and woven fabric in low-wage India, eventually destroying the industry.
The earliest European attempts at mechanized spinning were with wool; however, wool spinning proved more difficult to mechanize than cotton. Productivity improvement in wool spinning during the Industrial Revolution was significant but was far less than that of cotton. Arguably the first highly mechanised factory was John Lombe 's water-powered silk mill at Derby , operational by Lombe learned silk thread manufacturing by taking a job in Italy and acting as an industrial spy; however, because the Italian silk industry guarded its secrets closely, the state of the industry at that time is unknown.
Although Lombe's factory was technically successful, the supply of raw silk from Italy was cut off to eliminate competition. In order to promote manufacturing the Crown paid for models of Lombe's machinery which were exhibited in the Tower of London. Bar iron was the commodity form of iron used as the raw material for making hardware goods such as nails, wire, hinges, horse shoes, wagon tires, chains, etc. A small amount of bar iron was converted into steel.
Cast iron was used for pots, stoves and other items where its brittleness was tolerable. Most cast iron was refined and converted to bar iron, with substantial losses. Bar iron was also made by the bloomery process, which was the predominant iron smelting process until the late 18th century. In the UK in there were 20, tons of cast iron produced with charcoal and tons with coke. In charcoal iron production was 24, and coke iron was 2, tons. In the production of charcoal cast iron was 14, tons while coke iron production was 54, tons. In charcoal cast iron production was 7, tons and coke cast iron was , tons.
In the UK imported 31, tons of bar iron and either refined from cast iron or directly produced 18, tons of bar iron using charcoal and tons using coke. In the UK was making , tons of bar iron with coke and 6, tons with charcoal; imports were 38, tons and exports were 24, tons. In the UK did not import bar iron but exported 31, tons.
A major change in the iron industries during the era of the Industrial Revolution was the replacement of wood and other bio-fuels with coal. For a given amount of heat, coal required much less labour to mine than cutting wood and converting it to charcoal,  and coal was much more abundant than wood, supplies of which were becoming scarce before the enormous increase in iron production that took place in the late 18th century.
In the smelting and refining of iron, coal and coke produced inferior iron to that made with charcoal because of the coal's sulfur content. Low sulfur coals were known, but they still contained harmful amounts. Conversion of coal to coke only slightly reduces the sulfur content. Another factor limiting the iron industry before the Industrial Revolution was the scarcity of water power to power blast bellows.
This limitation was overcome by the steam engine. Use of coal in iron smelting started somewhat before the Industrial Revolution, based on innovations by Sir Clement Clerke and others from , using coal reverberatory furnaces known as cupolas. These were operated by the flames playing on the ore and charcoal or coke mixture, reducing the oxide to metal. This has the advantage that impurities such as sulphur ash in the coal do not migrate into the metal.
This technology was applied to lead from and to copper from It was also applied to iron foundry work in the s, but in this case the reverberatory furnace was known as an air furnace. The foundry cupola is a different, and later, innovation. By Abraham Darby made progress using coke to fuel his blast furnaces at Coalbrookdale.
He had the advantage over his rivals in that his pots, cast by his patented process, were thinner and cheaper than theirs. Coke pig iron was hardly used to produce wrought iron until —56, when Darby's son Abraham Darby II built furnaces at Horsehay and Ketley where low sulfur coal was available and not far from Coalbrookdale. These new furnaces were equipped with water-powered bellows, the water being pumped by Newcomen steam engines. The Newcomen engines were not attached directly to the blowing cylinders because the engines alone could not produce a steady air blast.
Abraham Darby III installed similar steam-pumped, water-powered blowing cylinders at the Dale Company when he took control in The Dale Company used several Newcomen engines to drain its mines and made parts for engines which it sold throughout the country. Steam engines made the use of higher-pressure and volume blast practical; however, the leather used in bellows was expensive to replace. In , iron master John Wilkinson patented a hydraulic powered blowing engine for blast furnaces. James Watt had great difficulty trying to have a cylinder made for his first steam engine.
In John Wilkinson, who built a cast iron blowing cylinder for his iron works, invented a precision boring machine for boring cylinders. After Wilkinson bored the first successful cylinder for a Boulton and Watt steam engine in , he was given an exclusive contract for providing cylinders. The solutions to the sulfur problem were the addition of sufficient limestone to the furnace to force sulfur into the slag and the use of low sulfur coal.
Use of lime or limestone required higher furnace temperatures to form a free-flowing slag. The increased furnace temperature made possible by improved blowing also increased the capacity of blast furnaces and allowed for increased furnace height. As cast iron became cheaper and widely available, it began being a structural material for bridges and buildings.
Europe relied on the bloomery for most of its wrought iron until the large scale production of cast iron. Conversion of cast iron was done in a finery forge , as it long had been. An improved refining process known as potting and stamping was developed, but this was superseded by Henry Cort 's puddling process. Cort developed two significant iron manufacturing processes: rolling in and puddling in Puddling was a means of decarburizing molten pig iron by slow oxidation in a reverberatory furnace by manually stirring it with a long rod.
The decarburized iron, having a higher melting point than cast iron, was raked into globs by the puddler. When the glob was large enough, the puddler would remove it. Puddling was backbreaking and extremely hot work. Few puddlers lived to be The puddling process continued to be used until the late 19th century when iron was being displaced by steel. Because puddling required human skill in sensing the iron globs, it was never successfully mechanised.
Rolling was an important part of the puddling process because the grooved rollers expelled most of the molten slag and consolidated the mass of hot wrought iron. Rolling was 15 times faster at this than a trip hammer.
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A different use of rolling, which was done at lower temperatures than that for expelling slag, was in the production of iron sheets, and later structural shapes such as beams, angles and rails. The puddling process was improved in by Baldwyn Rogers, who replaced some of the sand lining on the reverberatory furnace bottom with iron oxide.
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The tap cinder also tied up some phosphorus, but this was not understood at the time. Puddling became widely used after Up to that time British iron manufacturers had used considerable amounts of iron imported from Sweden and Russia to supplement domestic supplies.
Because of the increased British production, imports began to decline in and by the s Britain eliminated imports and became a net exporter of bar iron. Hot blast , patented by James Beaumont Neilson in , was the most important development of the 19th century for saving energy in making pig iron. By using preheated combustion air, the amount of fuel to make a unit of pig iron was reduced at first by between one-third using coke or two-thirds using coal;  however, the efficiency gains continued as the technology improved.
Using less coal or coke meant introducing fewer impurities into the pig iron. This meant that lower quality coal or anthracite could be used in areas where coking coal was unavailable or too expensive;  however, by the end of the 19th century transportation costs fell considerably. Shortly before the Industrial Revolution an improvement was made in the production of steel , which was an expensive commodity and used only where iron would not do, such as for cutting edge tools and for springs.
Benjamin Huntsman developed his crucible steel technique in the s. The raw material for this was blister steel, made by the cementation process. The supply of cheaper iron and steel aided a number of industries, such as those making nails, hinges, wire and other hardware items. The development of machine tools allowed better working of iron, causing it to be increasingly used in the rapidly growing machinery and engine industries. The development of the stationary steam engine was an important element of the Industrial Revolution; however, during the early period of the Industrial Revolution, most industrial power was supplied by water and wind.
In Britain by an estimated 10, horsepower was being supplied by steam. The first commercially successful industrial use of steam power was due to Thomas Savery in He constructed and patented in London a low-lift combined vacuum and pressure water pump, that generated about one horsepower hp and was used in numerous water works and in a few mines hence its "brand name", The Miner's Friend.
Savery's pump was economical in small horsepower ranges, but was prone to boiler explosions in larger sizes.
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Savery pumps continued to be produced until the late 18th century. The first successful piston steam engine was introduced by Thomas Newcomen before They were also used to power municipal water supply pumps. They were extremely inefficient by modern standards, but when located where coal was cheap at pit heads, opened up a great expansion in coal mining by allowing mines to go deeper.
Despite their disadvantages, Newcomen engines were reliable and easy to maintain and continued to be used in the coalfields until the early decades of the 19th century. By , when Newcomen died, his engines had spread first to Hungary in , Germany, Austria, and Sweden. A total of are known to have been built by when the joint patent expired, of which 14 were abroad. In the s the engineer John Smeaton built some very large examples and introduced a number of improvements. A total of 1, engines had been built by A fundamental change in working principles was brought about by Scotsman James Watt.
With financial support from his business partner Englishman Matthew Boulton , he had succeeded by in perfecting his steam engine , which incorporated a series of radical improvements, notably the closing off of the upper part of the cylinder, thereby making the low-pressure steam drive the top of the piston instead of the atmosphere, use of a steam jacket and the celebrated separate steam condenser chamber. The separate condenser did away with the cooling water that had been injected directly into the cylinder, which cooled the cylinder and wasted steam.
Likewise, the steam jacket kept steam from condensing in the cylinder, also improving efficiency. Boulton and Watt opened the Soho Foundry for the manufacture of such engines in By the Watt steam engine had been fully developed into a double-acting rotative type, which meant that it could be used to directly drive the rotary machinery of a factory or mill.
Until about the most common pattern of steam engine was the beam engine , built as an integral part of a stone or brick engine-house, but soon various patterns of self-contained rotative engines readily removable, but not on wheels were developed, such as the table engine. Around the start of the 19th century, at which time the Boulton and Watt patent expired, the Cornish engineer Richard Trevithick and the American Oliver Evans began to construct higher-pressure non-condensing steam engines, exhausting against the atmosphere. High pressure yielded an engine and boiler compact enough to be used on mobile road and rail locomotives and steam boats.
The development of machine tools , such as the engine lathe , planing , milling and shaping machines powered by these engines, enabled all the metal parts of the engines to be easily and accurately cut and in turn made it possible to build larger and more powerful engines. Small industrial power requirements continued to be provided by animal and human muscle until widespread electrification in the early 20th century.
These included crank -powered, treadle -powered and horse-powered workshop and light industrial machinery. Pre-industrial machinery was built by various craftsmen— millwrights built water and windmills, carpenters made wooden framing, and smiths and turners made metal parts. Wooden components had the disadvantage of changing dimensions with temperature and humidity, and the various joints tended to rack work loose over time. As the Industrial Revolution progressed, machines with metal parts and frames became more common. Other important uses of metal parts were in firearms and threaded fasteners, such as machine screws, bolts and nuts.
There was also the need for precision in making parts. Precision would allow better working machinery, interchangeability of parts and standardization of threaded fasteners. The demand for metal parts led to the development of several machine tools. They have their origins in the tools developed in the 18th century by makers of clocks and watches and scientific instrument makers to enable them to batch-produce small mechanisms.
Before the advent of machine tools, metal was worked manually using the basic hand tools of hammers, files, scrapers, saws and chisels. Consequently, the use of metal machine parts was kept to a minimum. Hand methods of production were very laborious and costly and precision was difficult to achieve. The first large precision machine tool was the cylinder boring machine invented by John Wilkinson in It used for boring the large-diameter cylinders on early steam engines. Wilkinson's boring machine differed from earlier cantilevered machines used for boring cannon in that the cutting tool was mounted on a beam that ran through the cylinder being bored and was supported outside on both ends.
The planing machine , the milling machine and the shaping machine were developed in the early decades of the 19th century. Although the milling machine was invented at this time, it was not developed as a serious workshop tool until somewhat later in the 19th century. Henry Maudslay , who trained a school of machine tool makers early in the 19th century, was a mechanic with superior ability who had been employed at the Royal Arsenal , Woolwich.
In Jan Verbruggen had installed a horizontal boring machine in Woolwich which was the first industrial size Lathe in the UK. Maudslay was hired away by Joseph Bramah for the production of high-security metal locks that required precision craftsmanship. Bramah patented a lathe that had similarities to the slide rest lathe. Maudslay perfected the slide rest lathe, which could cut machine screws of different thread pitches by using changeable gears between the spindle and the lead screw.
Before its invention screws could not be cut to any precision using various earlier lathe designs, some of which copied from a template. Although it was not entirely Maudslay's idea, he was the first person to build a functional lathe using a combination of known innovations of the lead screw, slide rest and change gears. Maudslay left Bramah's employment and set up his own shop. He was engaged to build the machinery for making ships' pulley blocks for the Royal Navy in the Portsmouth Block Mills.
These machines were all-metal and were the first machines for mass production and making components with a degree of interchangeability. The lessons Maudslay learned about the need for stability and precision he adapted to the development of machine tools, and in his workshops he trained a generation of men to build on his work, such as Richard Roberts , Joseph Clement and Joseph Whitworth. James Fox of Derby had a healthy export trade in machine tools for the first third of the century, as did Matthew Murray of Leeds.
Roberts was a maker of high-quality machine tools and a pioneer of the use of jigs and gauges for precision workshop measurement. The effect of machine tools during the Industrial Revolution was not that great because other than firearms, threaded fasteners and a few other industries there were few mass-produced metal parts. The techniques to make mass-produced metal parts made with sufficient precision to be interchangeable is largely attributed to a program of the U.
Department of War which perfected interchangeable parts for firearms in the early 19th century. In the half century following the invention of the fundamental machine tools the machine industry became the largest industrial sector of the U. The large-scale production of chemicals was an important development during the Industrial Revolution. The first of these was the production of sulphuric acid by the lead chamber process invented by the Englishman John Roebuck James Watt 's first partner in He was able to greatly increase the scale of the manufacture by replacing the relatively expensive glass vessels formerly used with larger, less expensive chambers made of riveted sheets of lead.
The production of an alkali on a large scale became an important goal as well, and Nicolas Leblanc succeeded in in introducing a method for the production of sodium carbonate. The Leblanc process was a reaction of sulfuric acid with sodium chloride to give sodium sulfate and hydrochloric acid. The sodium sulfate was heated with limestone calcium carbonate and coal to give a mixture of sodium carbonate and calcium sulfide.
Adding water separated the soluble sodium carbonate from the calcium sulfide. The process produced a large amount of pollution the hydrochloric acid was initially vented to the air, and calcium sulfide was a useless waste product. Nonetheless, this synthetic soda ash proved economical compared to that from burning specific plants barilla or from kelp , which were the previously dominant sources of soda ash,  and also to potash potassium carbonate produced from hardwood ashes.
These two chemicals were very important because they enabled the introduction of a host of other inventions, replacing many small-scale operations with more cost-effective and controllable processes. Sodium carbonate had many uses in the glass, textile, soap, and paper industries. Early uses for sulfuric acid included pickling removing rust iron and steel, and for bleaching cloth.
The development of bleaching powder calcium hypochlorite by Scottish chemist Charles Tennant in about , based on the discoveries of French chemist Claude Louis Berthollet , revolutionised the bleaching processes in the textile industry by dramatically reducing the time required from months to days for the traditional process then in use, which required repeated exposure to the sun in bleach fields after soaking the textiles with alkali or sour milk. Tennant's factory at St Rollox, North Glasgow , became the largest chemical plant in the world.
After the focus on chemical innovation was in dyestuffs , and Germany took world leadership, building a strong chemical industry. British scientists by contrast, lacked research universities and did not train advanced students; instead, the practice was to hire German-trained chemists. In Joseph Aspdin , a British bricklayer turned builder, patented a chemical process for making portland cement which was an important advance in the building trades. Portland cement was used by the famous English engineer Marc Isambard Brunel several years later when constructing the Thames Tunnel.
Another major industry of the later Industrial Revolution was gas lighting. The process consisted of the large-scale gasification of coal in furnaces, the purification of the gas removal of sulphur, ammonia, and heavy hydrocarbons , and its storage and distribution. The first gas lighting utilities were established in London between and They soon became one of the major consumers of coal in the UK.
Gas lighting affected social and industrial organisation because it allowed factories and stores to remain open longer than with tallow candles or oil. Its introduction allowed nightlife to flourish in cities and towns as interiors and streets could be lighted on a larger scale than before. A new method of producing glass, known as the cylinder process , was developed in Europe during the early 19th century. In this process was used by the Chance Brothers to create sheet glass. They became the leading producers of window and plate glass. This advancement allowed for larger panes of glass to be created without interruption, thus freeing up the space planning in interiors as well as the fenestration of buildings.
The Crystal Palace is the supreme example of the use of sheet glass in a new and innovative structure. The paper machine is known as a Fourdrinier after the financiers, brothers Sealy and Henry Fourdrinier , who were stationers in London. Although greatly improved and with many variations, the Fourdriner machine is the predominant means of paper production today. The method of continuous production demonstrated by the paper machine influenced the development of continuous rolling of iron and later steel and other continuous production processes.
The British Agricultural Revolution is considered one of the causes of the Industrial Revolution because improved agricultural productivity freed up workers to work in other sectors of the economy. Industrial technologies that affected farming included the seed drill , the Dutch plough , which contained iron parts, and the threshing machine. Jethro Tull invented an improved seed drill in It was a mechanical seeder which distributed seeds evenly across a plot of land and planted them at the correct depth.
This was important because the yield of seeds harvested to seeds planted at that time was around four or five. Tull's seed drill was very expensive and not very reliable and therefore did not have much of an effect. Good quality seed drills were not produced until the mid 18th century. Joseph Foljambe's Rotherham plough of was the first commercially successful iron plough.
Machine tools and metalworking techniques developed during the Industrial Revolution eventually resulted in precision manufacturing techniques in the late 19th century for mass-producing agricultural equipment, such as reapers, binders and combine harvesters. Coal mining in Britain, particularly in South Wales , started early. Before the steam engine, pits were often shallow bell pits following a seam of coal along the surface, which were abandoned as the coal was extracted. In other cases, if the geology was favourable, the coal was mined by means of an adit or drift mine driven into the side of a hill.
Shaft mining was done in some areas, but the limiting factor was the problem of removing water. It could be done by hauling buckets of water up the shaft or to a sough a tunnel driven into a hill to drain a mine. In either case, the water had to be discharged into a stream or ditch at a level where it could flow away by gravity. The introduction of the steam pump by Thomas Savery in and the Newcomen steam engine in greatly facilitated the removal of water and enabled shafts to be made deeper, enabling more coal to be extracted. These were developments that had begun before the Industrial Revolution, but the adoption of John Smeaton 's improvements to the Newcomen engine followed by James Watt's more efficient steam engines from the s reduced the fuel costs of engines, making mines more profitable.
The Cornish engine , developed in the s, was much more efficient than the Watt steam engine. Coal mining was very dangerous owing to the presence of firedamp in many coal seams. Some degree of safety was provided by the safety lamp which was invented in by Sir Humphry Davy and independently by George Stephenson. However, the lamps proved a false dawn because they became unsafe very quickly and provided a weak light.
Firedamp explosions continued, often setting off coal dust explosions , so casualties grew during the entire 19th century. Conditions of work were very poor, with a high casualty rate from rock falls. At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, inland transport was by navigable rivers and roads, with coastal vessels employed to move heavy goods by sea. Wagonways were used for conveying coal to rivers for further shipment, but canals had not yet been widely constructed. Animals supplied all of the motive power on land, with sails providing the motive power on the sea.
The first horse railways were introduced toward the end of the 18th century, with steam locomotives being introduced in the early decades of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution improved Britain's transport infrastructure with a turnpike road network, a canal and waterway network, and a railway network. Raw materials and finished products could be moved more quickly and cheaply than before. Improved transportation also allowed new ideas to spread quickly.
Before and during the Industrial Revolution navigation on several British rivers was improved by removing obstructions, straightening curves, widening and deepening and building navigation locks. Britain had over 1, miles of navigable rivers and streams by Canals and waterways allowed bulk materials to be economically transported long distances inland. This was because a horse could pull a barge with a load dozens of times larger than the load that could be drawn in a cart. In the UK, canals began to be built in the late 18th century to link the major manufacturing centres across the country.
Known for its huge commercial success, the Bridgewater Canal in North West England , which opened in and was mostly funded by The 3rd Duke of Bridgewater. By the s a national network was in existence. Canal construction served as a model for the organisation and methods later used to construct the railways. They were eventually largely superseded as profitable commercial enterprises by the spread of the railways from the s on. The last major canal to be built in the United Kingdom was the Manchester Ship Canal , which upon opening in was the largest ship canal in the world,  and opened Manchester as a port.
However it never achieved the commercial success its sponsors had hoped for and signalled canals as a dying mode of transport in an age dominated by railways, which were quicker and often cheaper. Britain's canal network, together with its surviving mill buildings, is one of the most enduring features of the early Industrial Revolution to be seen in Britain. France was known for having an excellent system of roads at the time of the Industrial Revolution; however, most of the roads on the European Continent and in the U.
Much of the original British road system was poorly maintained by thousands of local parishes, but from the s and occasionally earlier turnpike trusts were set up to charge tolls and maintain some roads. Increasing numbers of main roads were turnpiked from the s to the extent that almost every main road in England and Wales was the responsibility of a turnpike trust. Heavy goods transport on these roads was by means of slow, broad wheeled, carts hauled by teams of horses.
Lighter goods were conveyed by smaller carts or by teams of pack horse. Stagecoaches carried the rich, and the less wealthy could pay to ride on carriers carts. Reducing friction was one of the major reasons for the success of railroads compared to wagons. This was demonstrated on an iron plate covered wooden tramway in at Croydon, England.
A party of gentlemen were invited to witness the experiment, that the superiority of the new road might be established by ocular demonstration. Twelve wagons were loaded with stones, till each wagon weighed three tons, and the wagons were fastened together. A horse was then attached, which drew the wagons with ease, six miles in two hours, having stopped four times, in order to show he had the power of starting, as well as drawing his great load.
Railways were made practical by the widespread introduction of inexpensive puddled iron after , the rolling mill for making rails, and the development of the high-pressure steam engine also around Wagonways for moving coal in the mining areas had started in the 17th century and were often associated with canal or river systems for the further movement of coal. These were all horse drawn or relied on gravity, with a stationary steam engine to haul the wagons back to the top of the incline.
The first applications of the steam locomotive were on wagon or plate ways as they were then often called from the cast-iron plates used. Horse-drawn public railways did not begin until the early years of the 19th century when improvements to pig and wrought iron production were lowering costs. See: Metallurgy.
Steam locomotives began being built after the introduction of high-pressure steam engines after the expiration of the Boulton and Watt patent in High-pressure engines exhausted used steam to the atmosphere, doing away with the condenser and cooling water. They were also much lighter weight and smaller in size for a given horsepower than the stationary condensing engines. A few of these early locomotives were used in mines.
Steam-hauled public railways began with the Stockton and Darlington Railway in The rapid introduction of railways followed the Rainhill Trials , which demonstrated Robert Stephenson 's successful locomotive design and the development of Hot blast , which dramatically reduced the fuel consumption of making iron and increased the capacity the blast furnace.
On 15 September , the Liverpool and Manchester Railway was opened, the first inter-city railway in the world and was attended by Prime Minister, the Duke of Wellington. The opening was marred by problems, due to the primitive nature of the technology being employed, however problems were gradually ironed out and the railway became highly successful, transporting passengers and freight.
It was named after Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater who commissioned it in order to transport the coal from his mines in Worsley. The idea consisted of a metal frame with eight wooden spindles. The invention allowed the workers to produce cloth much quicker thus increasing productivity and paving the way for further mechanisation. He came up with the idea of a separate condensation chamber called a condenser. This involved making bar iron with a reverberating furnace stirred with rods.
His invention proved successful for iron refining techniques. His ideas would be shaped and developed throughout the years in order to create an automatic loom for the textile industry. He patented the invention which arranged the fibres of wool. In the same year, on the 9th October a group of English textile workers in Manchester rebelled against the introduction of machinery which threatened their skilled craft.
Industrial Revolution - Wikipedia
This was one of the initial riots that would occur under the Luddite movement. The Trevithick locomotive. He was a pioneer of steam-powered transport and built the first working railway locomotive.